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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(3): 237-242, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713068

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the olfactory recovery rates and patterns in a cohort of coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients, and to investigate the clinical predictors of poor long-term olfactory restoration. METHODS: An observational retrospective study was conducted on 146 patients between September 2020 and January 2021 at a tertiary referral hospital. Coronavirus disease 2019 positive patients with olfactory dysfunction were sent a modified version of the COVID-19 Anosmia Reporting Tool for Clinicians via e-mail. RESULTS: The difference in median recovery time between complete recovery and incomplete or no recovery was statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, the only significant factor associated with incomplete or no recovery was anosmia duration. CONCLUSION: After a mean time of 5.6 months from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection, persistent olfactory disorders were self-reported in 36.7 per cent of patients. Complete recovery was more likely to occur within 15 days. Given the high prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019, a large number of patients are expected to suffer from long-term olfactory morbidity.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Recovery of Function/physiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Self Report , Time Factors
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(3): 1042-1048, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708605

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Alterations of the olfactory function in patients affected by COVID-19 often have an early onset and a variable duration ranging from a few weeks to months. The aim of this study was to evaluate olfactory dysfunction persistence after recovery from COVID-19, and potential related clinical-demographic conditions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 76 patients recovered from COVID-19 from at least 20 days with olfactory dysfunction during the infection were included in the study. For the subjective evaluation of olfactory function, a visual analogic scale (VAS) was used. The objective evaluation was performed with the use of the Sniffin' Sticks test. RESULTS: Objective assessment of olfactory function revealed that 48 (63.16%) patients were found to be normosmic (TDI ≥ 30.5), 26 (34.21%) were hyposmic (TDI from 30.5 to 16.5) and two (2.63%) were anosmic (TDI ≤ 16.5) at the time of the evaluation. These results did not show a significant difference between subjective and objective tests (p = 0.45). Most patients recovered their sense of smell within the first two months after recovery while a portion (22.2%) still experienced olfactory alterations 4-6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients who had not recovered their sense of smell had a significantly longer period of SARS-CoV-2 positivity compared to patients that fully recovered (36.07 ± 7.78 days vs. 29 ± 7.89 days; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the duration of the infection negatively correlates with the recovery of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Prospective Studies , Recovery of Function , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Young Adult
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(3)2022 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624939

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in a worldwide pandemic of a highly infectious disease. The difficulty of dealing with COVID-19 is the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations that involves various pathophysiological mechanisms, severities, duration, and complications. This study aims to help emphasize the factors related to the persistence and duration of anosmia (loss of smell) and ageusia (loss of taste) as part of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome in Saudi COVID-19 patients via a retrospective cross-sectional design. Eight hundred and eighty-one participants were recruited between March and April 2021. Those participants were 18 years or older, recovered from the COVID-19 infection, and completed 14 days after the onset of the acute phase of the disease. Among the 881 recruited participants, 808 have submitted eligible responses and were included in data analyses. The most common persistent symptoms in post-acute COVID-19 syndrome were anosmia (33.8%) and ageusia (26.4%). The data also showed a significant association between female sex and the incidence and the persistence of anosmia and ageusia. In multivariable analysis, anosmia during the acute phase was associated with BMI, asthma and shortness of breath, while anosmia during the post-acute phase was associated with sex. Ageusia during the acute phase was associated with sex, myalgia and arthralgia, while ageusia in the post-acute phase was associated with sex.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , Anosmia , COVID-19 , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 628, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621274

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide. Apart from the extreme global economic impact, the pandemic will likely have a lasting impact through long-term sequelae not yet fully understood. Fully understanding the mechanisms driving the various symptoms and sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection will allow for the eventual development of therapeutics to prevent or treat such life-altering symptoms. In this study, we developed a behavioral test of anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters. We find a moderately strong correlation between the level of anosmia and the score of histological damage within the olfactory epithelium. We also find a moderately strong correlation between the level of anosmia and the thickness of the olfactory epithelium, previously demonstrated to be severely damaged upon infection. Thus, this food-searching behavioral test can act as a simple and effective screening method in a hamster model for various therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2-related anosmia.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Olfactory Mucosa/pathology , Animals , Anosmia/pathology , Behavior, Animal , COVID-19/complications , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Mesocricetus , Recovery of Function , Vero Cells
6.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 245-250, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604118

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In patients with COVID-19, olfactory dysfunction and anosmia have been reported, which in pregnant women occur in up to 24.2 %. OBJECTIVE: To know the frequency at which pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have olfactory dysfunction. METHODS: Age, gestational age, temperature, presence of nasal constipation or rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, cough or chest pain were asked. Whether patients perceived and identified the scent of grape juice, coffee powder and menthol was evaluated. Central tendency and dispersion measures, frequencies and percentages were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. Mann-Whitney's U-test and contrast of proportions were used for comparisons between groups. RESULTS: There was a higher proportion of women with cough, headache, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-positive women. In patients without COVID-19, 88.9 % detected each one of the scents; only 31.8 % of the positive group detected grapes scent, 47.7 % coffee and 59.1 % menthol, which had the highest percentages of sensitivity (40 %), specificity (21 %), positive predictive value (59 %) and negative predictive value (11 %). CONCLUSION: Olfactory dysfunction occurs in a significant percentage of pregnant women with COVID-19.


INTRODUCCIÓN: En pacientes con COVID-19 se ha reportado disfunción olfatoria y anosmia; en la mujer embarazada se presenta hasta en 24.2 %. OBJETIVO: Conocer la frecuencia con la que las mujeres embarazadas e infección por SARS-CoV-2 tienen disfunción olfatoria. MÉTODOS: Se preguntó edad, edad gestacional, temperatura, presencia de constipación nasal o rinorrea, mialgias, cefalea, tos o dolor torácico, además de evaluar si las mujeres percibían e identificaban el aroma de jugo de uva, café en polvo y mentol. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, frecuencias y porcentajes. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo. La U de Mann-Whitney y el contraste de proporciones sirvieron para las comparaciones entre los grupos. RESULTADOS: Hubo mayor proporción de mujeres con tos, cefalea, disnea, mialgias, odinofagia, rinorrea, dolor torácico y anosmia en mujeres positivas a SARS-CoV-2. De las pacientes sin COVID-19, 88.9 % detectó cada uno de los aromas; solo 31.8 % del grupo positivo detectó el aroma a uva, 47.7 % el de café y 59.1 % el de mentol, el cual tuvo los porcentajes más altos en sensibilidad (40 %), especificidad (21 %), valores predictivos positivo (59 %) y negativo (11 %). CONCLUSIÓN: la disfunción olfatoria se presenta en un porcentaje importante de las mujeres embarazadas con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
7.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 255-260, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1552053

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: En pacientes con COVID-19 se ha reportado disfunción olfatoria y anosmia; en la mujer embarazada se presenta hasta en 24.2 %. Objetivo: Conocer la frecuencia con la que las mujeres embarazadas e infección por SARS-CoV-2 tienen disfunción olfatoria. Métodos: Se preguntó edad, edad gestacional, temperatura, presencia de constipación nasal o rinorrea, mialgias, cefalea, tos o dolor torácico, además de evaluar si las mujeres percibían e identificaban el aroma de jugo de uva, café en polvo y mentol. Se utilizaron medidas de tendencia central y dispersión, frecuencias y porcentajes. Se calculó sensibilidad, especificidad, valor predictivo positivo y negativo. La U de Mann-Whitney y el contraste de proporciones sirvieron para las comparaciones entre los grupos. Resultados: Hubo mayor proporción de mujeres con tos, cefalea, disnea, mialgias, odinofagia, rinorrea, dolor torácico y anosmia en mujeres positivas a SARS-CoV-2. De las pacientes sin COVID-19, 88.9 % detectó cada uno de los aromas; solo 31.8 % del grupo positivo detectó el aroma a uva, 47.7 % el de café y 59.1 % el de mentol, el cual tuvo los porcentajes más altos en sensibilidad (40 %), especificidad (21 %), valores predictivos positivo (59 %) y negativo (11 %). Conclusión: la disfunción olfatoria se presenta en un porcentaje importante de las mujeres embarazadas con COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: In patients with COVID-19, olfactory dysfunction and anosmia have been reported, which in pregnant women occur in up to 24.2 %. Objective: To know the frequency in which pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection have olfactory dysfunction. Methods: Age, gestational age, temperature, presence of nasal constipation or rhinorrhea, myalgia, headache, cough or chest pain were asked. Whether patients perceived and identified the scent of grape juice, coffee powder and menthol was evaluated. Central tendency and dispersion measures, frequencies and percentages were used. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value were calculated. Mann-Whitney's U-test and contrast of proportions were used for comparisons between groups. Results: There was a higher proportion of women with cough, headache, dyspnea, myalgia, odynophagia, rhinorrhea, chest pain, and anosmia in SARS-CoV-2-positive women. In patients without COVID-19, 88.9 % detected each one of the scents; only 31.8 % of the positive group detected grapes scent, 47.7 % coffee and 59.1 % menthol, which had the highest percentages of sensitivity (40 %), specificity (21 %), positive predictive value (59 %) and negative predictive value (11 %). Conclusion: Olfactory dysfunction occurs in a significant percentage of pregnant women with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology
8.
Laryngoscope ; 132(2): 419-421, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527451

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical profile of patients who developed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after full vaccination. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical data were collected through medical records and online patient-reported outcome questionnaire from patients who developed symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, confirmed by nasopharyngeal swab, at least 2 weeks after completion of vaccination. A total of 153 subjects were included. The most frequent symptoms were: asthenia (82.4%), chemosensory dysfunction (63.4%), headache (59.5%), runny nose (58.2%), muscle pain (54.9%), loss of appetite (54.3%), and nasal obstruction (51.6%). Particularly, 62.3% and 53.6% of subjects reported olfactory and gustatory dysfunction, respectively. Symptom severity was mild or moderate in almost all cases. Chemosensory dysfunctions have been observed to be a frequent symptom even in subjects who contracted the infection after full vaccination. For this reason, the sudden loss of smell and taste could continue to represent a useful and specific diagnostic marker to raise the suspicion of COVID-19 even in vaccinated subjects. In the future, it will be necessary to establish what the recovery rate is in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 132:419-421, 2022.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/epidemiology , Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Smell/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste/drug effects , Vaccination
9.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(8): 67-70, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1464108

ABSTRACT

The neurological symptoms of COVID-19 in children (in Dyurtyuli area, Republic of Bashkortostan) are analyzed and brief review of the literature is undertaken in the paper. 137 children underwent swab test for COVID-19. The disease was diagnosed in 9 of them. Only respiratory symptoms were observed in 3 children, a combination of respiratory with anosmia or/and headache - in 3, asymptomatic form - in another 3. A case of a 7-years old girl suffering from COVID-19 with respiratory symptoms as well as anosmia and headache is presented. According to the review of the literature, COVID - 19 in children is usually milder than in adults, but in some cases may lead to neurological consequences. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome may lead to the development symptoms of encephalopathy (altered mental status, headache) and stroke. Autoimmune complications such as Gillian-Barre syndrome develop simultaneously or after resolving of the infectious process. The development of viral meningoencephalitis in COVID-19 is questionable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Female , Headache/diagnosis , Headache/virology , Humans
10.
Trop Biomed ; 38(3): 435-445, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451066

ABSTRACT

Ever since the first reported case series on SARS-CoV-2-induced neurological manifestation in Wuhan, China in April 2020, various studies reporting similar as well as diverse symptoms of COVID-19 infection relating to the nervous system were published. Since then, scientists started to uncover the mechanism as well as pathophysiological impacts it has on the current understanding of the disease. SARS-CoV-2 binds to the ACE2 receptor which is present in certain parts of the body which are responsible for regulating blood pressure and inflammation in a healthy system. Presence of the receptor in the nasal and oral cavity, brain, and blood allows entry of the virus into the body and cause neurological complications. The peripheral and central nervous system could also be invaded directly in the neurogenic or hematogenous pathways, or indirectly through overstimulation of the immune system by cytokines which may lead to autoimmune diseases. Other neurological implications such as hypoxia, anosmia, dysgeusia, meningitis, encephalitis, and seizures are important symptoms presented clinically in COVID-19 patients with or without the common symptoms of the disease. Further, patients with higher severity of the SARS-CoV-2 infection are also at risk of retaining some neurological complications in the long-run. Treatment of such severe hyperinflammatory conditions will also be discussed, as well as the risks they may pose to the progression of the disease. For this review, articles pertaining information on the neurological manifestation of SARS-CoV-2 infection were gathered from PubMed and Google Scholar using the search keywords "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", and "neurological dysfunction". The findings of the search were filtered, and relevant information were included.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Anosmia/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , Dysgeusia/virology , Encephalitis, Viral/virology , Humans , Meningitis, Viral/virology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/virology
11.
PLoS Med ; 18(9): e1003777, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rapid detection, isolation, and contact tracing of community COVID-19 cases are essential measures to limit the community spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We aimed to identify a parsimonious set of symptoms that jointly predict COVID-19 and investigated whether predictive symptoms differ between the B.1.1.7 (Alpha) lineage (predominating as of April 2021 in the US, UK, and elsewhere) and wild type. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We obtained throat and nose swabs with valid SARS-CoV-2 PCR test results from 1,147,370 volunteers aged 5 years and above (6,450 positive cases) in the REal-time Assessment of Community Transmission-1 (REACT-1) study. This study involved repeated community-based random surveys of prevalence in England (study rounds 2 to 8, June 2020 to January 2021, response rates 22%-27%). Participants were asked about symptoms occurring in the week prior to testing. Viral genome sequencing was carried out for PCR-positive samples with N-gene cycle threshold value < 34 (N = 1,079) in round 8 (January 2021). In univariate analysis, all 26 surveyed symptoms were associated with PCR positivity compared with non-symptomatic people. Stability selection (1,000 penalized logistic regression models with 50% subsampling) among people reporting at least 1 symptom identified 7 symptoms as jointly and positively predictive of PCR positivity in rounds 2-7 (June to December 2020): loss or change of sense of smell, loss or change of sense of taste, fever, new persistent cough, chills, appetite loss, and muscle aches. The resulting model (rounds 2-7) predicted PCR positivity in round 8 with area under the curve (AUC) of 0.77. The same 7 symptoms were selected as jointly predictive of B.1.1.7 infection in round 8, although when comparing B.1.1.7 with wild type, new persistent cough and sore throat were more predictive of B.1.1.7 infection while loss or change of sense of smell was more predictive of the wild type. The main limitations of our study are (i) potential participation bias despite random sampling of named individuals from the National Health Service register and weighting designed to achieve a representative sample of the population of England and (ii) the necessary reliance on self-reported symptoms, which may be prone to recall bias and may therefore lead to biased estimates of symptom prevalence in England. CONCLUSIONS: Where testing capacity is limited, it is important to use tests in the most efficient way possible. We identified a set of 7 symptoms that, when considered together, maximize detection of COVID-19 in the community, including infection with the B.1.1.7 lineage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Models, Biological , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/virology , Appetite , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Chills/diagnosis , Chills/etiology , Chills/virology , Communicable Disease Control , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Cough/virology , England , False Positive Reactions , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Myalgia/diagnosis , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/virology , Pharyngitis/diagnosis , Pharyngitis/etiology , Pharyngitis/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , State Medicine
12.
Physiol Rep ; 9(18): e14992, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431180

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a public health emergency with cases increasing globally. Its clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic and acute respiratory disease to multiple organ dysfunction syndromes and effects of COVID-19 in the long term. Interestingly, regardless of variant, all COVID-19 share impairment of the sense of smell and taste. We would like to report, as far as we know, the first comprehensive neurophysiological evaluation of the long-term effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the olfactory system with potential-related neurological damage. The case report concerns a military doctor, with a monitored health history, infected in April 2020 by the first wave of the epidemic expansion while on military duty in Codogno (Milan). In this subject, we find the electrophysiological signal in the periphery, while its correlate is absent in the olfactory bulb region than in whole brain recordings. In agreement with this result is the lack of metabolic signs of brain activation under olfactory stimulation. Consequently, quantitative and qualitative diagnoses of anosmia were made by means of olfactometric tests. We strongly suggest a comprehensive series of olfactometric tests from the first sign of COVID-19 and subsequent patient assessments. In conclusion, electrophysiological and metabolic tests of olfactory function have made it possible to study the long-term effects and the establishment of neurological consequences.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/physiopathology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electrophysiology/methods , Evoked Potentials/physiology , Humans , Male , Olfactory Bulb/physiopathology , Olfactory Nerve/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensory Thresholds/physiology
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360776

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 became the year of the outbreak of coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, which escalated into a worldwide pandemic and continued into 2021. One of the unique symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2 disease, COVID-19, is the loss of chemical senses, i.e., smell and taste. Smell training is one of the methods used in facilitating recovery of the olfactory sense, and it uses essential oils of lemon, rose, clove, and eucalyptus. These essential oils were not selected based on their chemical constituents. Although scientific studies have shown that they improve recovery, there may be better combinations for facilitating recovery. Many phytochemicals have bioactive properties with anti-inflammatory and anti-viral effects. In this review, we describe the chemical compounds with anti- inflammatory and anti-viral effects, and we list the plants that contain these chemical compounds. We expand the review from terpenes to the less volatile flavonoids in order to propose a combination of essential oils and diets that can be used to develop a new taste training method, as there has been no taste training so far. Finally, we discuss the possible use of these in clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/drug therapy , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/drug therapy , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Ageusia/metabolism , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Immunol Res ; 69(6): 553-557, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345196

ABSTRACT

The persistence of neurological symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the presence of late axonal damage, is still unknown. We performed extensive systemic and neurological follow-up evaluations in 107 out of 193 consecutive patients admitted to the COVID-19 medical unit, University Hospital of Verona, Italy between March and June 2020. We analysed serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in all cases including a subgroup (n = 29) of patients with available onset samples. Comparisons between clinical and biomarker data were then performed. Neurological symptoms were still present in a significant number (n = 49) of patients over the follow-up. The most common reported symptoms were hyposmia (n = 11), fatigue (n = 28), myalgia (n = 14), and impaired memory (n = 11) and were more common in cases with severe acute COVID-19. Follow-up serum NfL values (15.2 pg/mL, range 2.4-62.4) were within normal range in all except 5 patients and did not differentiate patients with vs without persistent neurological symptoms. In patients with available onset and follow-up samples, a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of NfL levels was observed and was more evident in patients with a severe acute disease. Despite the common persistence of neurological symptoms, COVID-19 survivors do not show active axonal damage, which seems a peculiar feature of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Axons/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/pathology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/virology , Axons/virology , Disease Progression , Fatigue/pathology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Memory Disorders/pathology , Memory Disorders/virology , Middle Aged , Myalgia/pathology , Myalgia/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neurofilament Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Laryngoscope ; 131(10): 2312-2318, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318729

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlations between the severity and duration of olfactory dysfunctions (OD), assessed with psychophysical tests, and the viral load on the rhino-pharyngeal swab determined with a direct method, in patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Patients underwent psychophysical olfactory assessment with Connecticut Chemosensory Clinical Research Center test and determination of the normalized viral load on nasopharyngeal swab within 10 days of the clinical onset of COVID-19. RESULTS: Sixty COVID-19 patients were included in this study. On psychophysical testing, 12 patients (20% of the cohort) presented with anosmia, 11 (18.3%) severe hyposmia, 13 (18.3%) moderate hyposmia, and 10 (16.7%) mild hyposmia with an overall prevalence of OD of 76.7%. The overall median olfactory score was 50 (interquartile range [IQR] 30-72.5) with no significant differences between clinical severity subgroups. The median normalized viral load detected in the series was 2.56E+06 viral copies/106 copies of human beta-2microglobulin mRNA present in the sample (IQR 3.17E+04-1.58E+07) without any significant correlations with COVID-19 severity. The correlation between viral load and olfactory scores at baseline (R2  = 0.0007; P = .844) and 60-day follow-up (R2  = 0.0077; P = .519) was weak and not significant. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of OD does not seem to be useful in identifying subjects at risk for being super-spreaders or who is at risk of developing long-term OD. Similarly, the pathogenesis of OD is probably related to individual factors rather than to viral load and activity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 131:2312-2318, 2021.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prospective Studies
18.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 880, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315615

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has given rise to a collective scientific effort to study its viral causing agent SARS-CoV-2. Research is focusing in particular on its infection mechanisms and on the associated-disease symptoms. Interestingly, this environmental pathogen directly affects the human chemosensory systems leading to anosmia and ageusia. Evidence for the presence of the cellular entry sites of the virus, the ACE2/TMPRSS2 proteins, has been reported in non-chemosensory cells in the rodent's nose and mouth, missing a direct correlation between the symptoms reported in patients and the observed direct viral infection in human sensory cells. Here, mapping the gene and protein expression of ACE2/TMPRSS2 in the mouse olfactory and gustatory cells, we precisely identify the virus target cells to be of basal and sensory origin and reveal the age-dependent appearance of viral entry-sites. Our results propose an alternative interpretation of the human viral-induced sensory symptoms and give investigative perspectives on animal models.


Subject(s)
Ageusia/physiopathology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Age Factors , Ageusia/virology , Animals , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Male , Mice , Olfactory Perception , Taste Perception
19.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1607-1613, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290003

ABSTRACT

Long-term complications after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are common in hospitalized patients, but the spectrum of symptoms in milder cases needs further investigation. We conducted a long-term follow-up in a prospective cohort study of 312 patients-247 home-isolated and 65 hospitalized-comprising 82% of total cases in Bergen during the first pandemic wave in Norway. At 6 months, 61% (189/312) of all patients had persistent symptoms, which were independently associated with severity of initial illness, increased convalescent antibody titers and pre-existing chronic lung disease. We found that 52% (32/61) of home-isolated young adults, aged 16-30 years, had symptoms at 6 months, including loss of taste and/or smell (28%, 17/61), fatigue (21%, 13/61), dyspnea (13%, 8/61), impaired concentration (13%, 8/61) and memory problems (11%, 7/61). Our findings that young, home-isolated adults with mild COVID-19 are at risk of long-lasting dyspnea and cognitive symptoms highlight the importance of infection control measures, such as vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/virology , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Norway , Patient Isolation , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3664, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275911

ABSTRACT

A central problem in the COVID-19 pandemic is that there is not enough testing to prevent infectious spread of SARS-CoV-2, causing surges and lockdowns with human and economic toll. Molecular tests that detect viral RNAs or antigens will be unable to rise to this challenge unless testing capacity increases by at least an order of magnitude while decreasing turnaround times. Here, we evaluate an alternative strategy based on the monitoring of olfactory dysfunction, a symptom identified in 76-83% of SARS-CoV-2 infections-including those with no other symptoms-when a standardized olfaction test is used. We model how screening for olfactory dysfunction, with reflexive molecular tests, could be beneficial in reducing community spread of SARS-CoV-2 by varying testing frequency and the prevalence, duration, and onset time of olfactory dysfunction. We find that monitoring olfactory dysfunction could reduce spread via regular screening, and could reduce risk when used at point-of-entry for single-day events. In light of these estimated impacts, and because olfactory tests can be mass produced at low cost and self-administered, we suggest that screening for olfactory dysfunction could be a high impact and cost-effective method for broad COVID-19 screening and surveillance.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/transmission , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans , Mass Screening/economics , Mass Screening/methods , Models, Theoretical , Prevalence , Time Factors , Viral Load
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