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Mol Biol Rep ; 49(7): 5863-5874, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772970


BACKGROUND: Acetaminophen (APAP) is a worldwide antipyretic as well as an analgesic medication. It has been extensively utilized during the outbreak of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). APAP misuse would lead to liver injury. Diacerein (DIA), an anthraquinone derivative, has antioxidant and inflammatory properties. Hence, this study attempted to evaluate the impact of DIA treatment on liver injury induced by APAP and its influence on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) /toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/high mobility group box-1(HMGB-1) signaling as well as the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) expression. METHODS: Male albino rats received 25 as well as 50 mg/kg/day DIA orally for seven days. One hour after the last administration, rats received APAP (1gm/kg, orally). For histopathological analysis, liver tissues and blood were collected, immunohistochemical (IHC) assay, biochemical assay, as well as quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RESULTS: DIA markedly reduced liver injury markers and ameliorated histopathological changes. Moreover, DIA dose-dependently alleviated oxidative stress status caused by APAP administration along with inflammatory markers, including the level of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Furthermore, DIA downregulated protein levels as well as mRNA of HMGB-1, TLR4, NF-κB p65 expression, and enhanced PPAR-γ expression. Moreover, DIA ameliorated apoptotic (Bax) and caspase-3 expressions and increased the anti-apoptotic (Bcl2) expression. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that DIA exerts anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties against liver injury induced by APAP that is attributed to inhibition of the HMGB1/TLR4/NF-κB pathway, besides upregulation of the expression of PPAR-γ.

COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , HMGB1 Protein , Acetaminophen , Animals , Anthraquinones/metabolism , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Anthraquinones/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/metabolism , HMGB1 Protein/metabolism , Humans , Liver/metabolism , Male , NF-kappa B/metabolism , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Rats , Toll-Like Receptor 4/genetics
J Adv Res ; 39: 257-273, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525838


BACKGROUND: Despite, a large number of bioactive anthraquinones (AQs) isolated from host-living fungi, only plant-derived AQs were introduced in the global consumer markets. Host-living fungi represents renewable and extendible resources of diversified metabolites to be exploited for bioactives production. Unique classes of AQs from fungi include halogenated and steroidal AQs, and absent from planta are of potential to explore for biological activity against urging diseases such as cancer and multidrug-resistant pathogens. The structural diversity of fungal AQs, monomers, dimers, trimers, halogenated, etc… results in a vast range of pharmacological activities. AIM OF REVIEW: The current study capitalizes on uncovering the diversity and distribution of host-living fungal systems producing AQs in different terrestrial ecosystems ranging from plant endophytes, lichens, animals and insects. Furthermore, the potential bioactivities of fungal derived AQs i.e., antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral (anti-HIV), anticancer, antioxidant, diuretic and laxative activities are assembled in relation to their structure activity relationship (SAR). Analyzing for structure-activity relationship among fungal AQs may facilitate bioengineering of more potential analogues. Withal, elucidation of AQs biosynthetic pathways in fungi is discussed from different fungal hosts to open up new possibilities for potential biotechnological applications. Such comprehensive review unravels terrestrial host-living fungal systems as a treasure trove in drug discovery, in addition to future perspectives and trends for their exploitation in pharmaceutical industries. KEY SCIENTIFIC CONCEPTS OF REVIEW: Such comprehensive review unravels terrestrialhost-living fungal systems as a treasure trove in drug discovery, in addition to future perspectives and trends for their exploitation in pharmaceutical industries.

Anthraquinones , Fungi , Allergens/metabolism , Animals , Anthraquinones/metabolism , Drug Discovery , Ecosystem , Endophytes/metabolism , Fungi/chemistry , Fungi/metabolism , Plants
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17699, 2020 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-880703


Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) (EC: is a transmembrane protein which is considered as a receptor for spike protein binding of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). Since no specific medication is available to treat COVID-19, designing of new drug is important and essential. In this regard, in silico method plays an important role, as it is rapid and cost effective compared to the trial and error methods using experimental studies. Natural products are safe and easily available to treat coronavirus affected patients, in the present alarming situation. In this paper five phytochemicals, which belong to flavonoid and anthraquinone subclass, have been selected as small molecules in molecular docking study of spike protein of SARS-CoV2 with its human receptor ACE2 molecule. Their molecular binding sites on spike protein bound structure with its receptor have been analyzed. From this analysis, hesperidin, emodin and chrysin are selected as competent natural products from both Indian and Chinese medicinal plants, to treat COVID-19. Among them, the phytochemical hesperidin can bind with ACE2 protein and bound structure of ACE2 protein and spike protein of SARS-CoV2 noncompetitively. The binding sites of ACE2 protein for spike protein and hesperidin, are located in different parts of ACE2 protein. Ligand spike protein causes conformational change in three-dimensional structure of protein ACE2, which is confirmed by molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies. This compound modulates the binding energy of bound structure of ACE2 and spike protein. This result indicates that due to presence of hesperidin, the bound structure of ACE2 and spike protein fragment becomes unstable. As a result, this natural product can impart antiviral activity in SARS CoV2 infection. The antiviral activity of these five natural compounds are further experimentally validated with QSAR study.

Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Allosteric Regulation , Amino Acid Sequence , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anthraquinones/chemistry , Anthraquinones/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Emodin/chemistry , Emodin/metabolism , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Secondary , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry