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2.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(10): 2013-2021, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391844

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a novel worldwide pandemic caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). During Covid-19 pandemic, socioeconomic deprivation, social isolation, and reduced physical activities may induce heart failure (HF), destabilization, and cause more complications. HF appears as a potential hazard due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, chiefly in elderly patients with underlying comorbidities. In reality, the expression of cardiac ACE2 is implicated as a target point for SARS-CoV-2-induced acute cardiac injury. In SARS-CoV-2 infection, like other febrile illnesses, high blood viscosity, exaggerated pro-inflammatory response, multisystem inflammatory syndrome, and endothelial dysfunction-induced coagulation disorders may increase risk of HF development. Hypoxic respiratory failure, as in pulmonary edema, severe acute lung injury (ALI), and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may affect heart hemodynamic stability due to the development of pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, Covid-19-induced HF could be through the development of cytokine storm, characterized by high proliferation pro-inflammatory cytokines. In cytokine storm-mediated cardiac dysfunction, there is a positive correlation between levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine and myocarditis-induced acute cardiac injury biomarkers. Therefore, Covid-19-induced HF is more complex and related from a molecular background in releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines to the neuro-metabolic derangements that together affect cardiomyocyte functions and development of HF. Anti-heart failure medications, mainly digoxin and carvedilol, have potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-inflammatory properties that may mitigate Covid-19 severity and development of HF. In conclusion, SARS-CoV-2 infection may lead to the development of HF due to direct acute cardiac injury or through the development of cytokine storms, which depress cardiomyocyte function and cardiac contractility. Anti-heart failure drugs, mainly digoxin and carvedilol, may attenuate severity of HF by reducing the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 and prevent the development of cytokine storms in severely affected Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Carvedilol/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Digoxin/therapeutic use , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans
5.
Cardiol Young ; 31(3): 344-351, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101608

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a huge influence in almost all areas of life, affecting societies, economics, and health care systems worldwide. The paediatric cardiology community is no exception. As the challenging battle with COVID-19 continues, professionals from the Association for the European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology receive many questions regarding COVID-19 in a Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology setting. The aim of this paper is to present the AEPC position on frequently asked questions based on the most recent scientific data, as well as to frame a discussion on how to take care of our patients during this unprecedented crisis. As the times are changing quickly and information regarding COVID-19 is very dynamic, continuous collection of evidence will help guide constructive decision-making.


Subject(s)
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heart Defects, Congenital/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Brugada Syndrome/drug therapy , Brugada Syndrome/epidemiology , Brugada Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Cardiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/epidemiology , Heart Defects, Congenital/physiopathology , Heart Transplantation , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Long QT Syndrome/drug therapy , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Long QT Syndrome/physiopathology , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocardium , Pediatrics , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/drug therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/drug therapy , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/physiopathology
6.
Med Hypotheses ; 149: 110545, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087149

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has become a burden to the global healthcare community. Despite the severity of the complications associated with COVID-19, no antiviral agent is yet available for the treatment of this disease. Several studies have reported arrhythmias as one of the numerous manifestations associated with COVID-19 infection. Clinicians use different therapeutic agents in the management of COVID-19 patients with arrhythmias, apart from ranolazine; however, some of these drugs are administered with caution because of their significant side effects. In this study, we reviewed the potential antiarrhythmic effects of ranolazine in the management of cardiac arrhythmias associated with COVID-19. Ranolazine is a second-line drug approved for the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris. Previous studies have shown that ranolazine produces its beneficial cardiac effects without any significant impact on the body's hemodynamics; hence, blood pressure is not altered. Due to its reduced side effects, ranolazine may be more effective than other drugs in producing the desired relief from COVID-19 related arrhythmias, since it produces its antiarrhythmic effect by modulating sodium, potassium and calcium channels, and suppressing cytokine expression.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Ranolazine/therapeutic use , Action Potentials , Angina, Stable/complications , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/prevention & control , Cytokines/metabolism , Hemodynamics , Humans , Inflammation , Potassium Channels/metabolism , Sodium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use
7.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066836

ABSTRACT

This case represents a rare fulminant course of fried-rice associated food poisoning in an immunocompetent person due to pre-formed exotoxin produced by Bacillus cereus, with severe manifestations of sepsis, including multi-organ (hepatic, renal, cardiac, respiratory and neurological) failure, shock, metabolic acidosis, rhabdomyolysis and coagulopathy. Despite maximal supportive measures (continuous renal replacement therapy, plasmapheresis, N-acetylcysteine infusion and blood products, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials) and input from a multidisciplinary team (consisting of infectious diseases, intensive care, gastroenterology, surgery, toxicology, immunology and haematology), mortality resulted. This case is the first to use whole genome sequencing techniques to confirm the toxigenic potential of B. cereus It has important implications for food preparation and storage, particularly given its occurrence in home isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Bacillus cereus/genetics , Exotoxins/genetics , Foodborne Diseases/diagnosis , Acetylcysteine/therapeutic use , Acidosis/physiopathology , Acidosis/therapy , Adult , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Bacillus cereus/isolation & purification , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/therapy , Blood Transfusion , Brain Diseases , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy , Fatal Outcome , Female , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Foodborne Diseases/physiopathology , Foodborne Diseases/therapy , Free Radical Scavengers/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunocompetence , Liver Failure/physiopathology , Liver Failure/therapy , Multiple Organ Failure/physiopathology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Plasmapheresis , Renal Insufficiency/physiopathology , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Rhabdomyolysis/physiopathology , Rhabdomyolysis/therapy , Sepsis/physiopathology , Sepsis/therapy , Shock/physiopathology , Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Whole Genome Sequencing
8.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 2(2): 100113, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064728

ABSTRACT

At our institution, 2 of the initial 7 pregnant patients with confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 severe infection (28.6%; 95% CI, 8.2%-64.1%) developed cardiac dysfunction with moderately reduced left ventricular ejection fractions of 40%-45% and hypokinesis. Viral myocarditis and cardiomyopathy have also been reported in nonpregnant coronavirus disease 2019 patients. A case series of nonpregnant patients with coronavirus disease 2019 found that 33% of those in intensive care developed cardiomyopathy. More data are needed to ascertain the incidence of cardiomyopathy from coronavirus disease 2019 in pregnancy, in all pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019, and those with severe disease (eg, pneumonia). We suggest an echocardiogram in pregnant women with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, in particular those necessitating oxygen, or those who are critically ill, and we recommend the use of handheld, point-of-care devices where possible to minimize contamination of staff and traditional large echocardiogram machines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomyopathies/therapy , Cesarean Section , Heart Failure/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Adult , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/etiology , Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Diabetes, Gestational , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Echocardiography , Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Female , Fever , Furosemide/therapeutic use , Heart Arrest/etiology , Heart Arrest/therapy , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/etiology , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hypoxia/etiology , Hypoxia/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal , Magnesium Sulfate/therapeutic use , Metoprolol/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Obesity, Maternal/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Point-of-Care Systems , Pre-Eclampsia/drug therapy , Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Return of Spontaneous Circulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume , Tachycardia/drug therapy , Tachycardia/physiopathology , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/drug therapy , Tachycardia, Supraventricular/etiology
9.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol ; 63(1): 21-28, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1043151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At peak COVID-19 lockdown, patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) were faced with an equipoise between a palliative rate-control versus cautious rhythm-control strategy, including hospitalization for initiation of antiarrhythmic drug/s (AADs) and cardiac procedures which was impossible due to hospitalization restrictions. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of outpatient initiation of dofetilide in patients with AF using cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) for rhythm and QTc interval monitoring. METHODS: Adult patients with symptomatic AF with prior failure or intolerance to other AADs were enrolled if they were willing to in-office insertion of implantable loop recorders or already implanted with pacemakers or defibrillators capable of remote monitoring. Exclusion criteria were known medical contraindications of dofetilide and unable to provide consent. After making a shared management decision, dofetilide was initiated in a physician office, and rhythm and QTc intervals were monitored by ECGs and CIEDs. Patients were followed to assess the efficacy and safety of the treatment. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised of 30 patients, age 76 ± 7 years (mean ± standard deviation), 10 female (33%), CHA2DS2-VASc score 3.25 ± 1.3, ejection fraction 63.45% ± 8.52, and QTc interval 431.68 ± 45.09 ms. From 22 (73%) patients in AF at presentation, SR was restored in 14 (64%) patients after 4 doses of dofetilide. At 46 ± 59 days of follow-up, maintenance of SR in total 22 (73%) patients without cardiac adverse effects was accomplished. CONCLUSION: Effective and safe outpatient initiation of dofetilide during the extenuating circumstance of COVID-19 lockdown was possible in patients with AF who had CIEDs.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Outpatients , Phenethylamines , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides
10.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(3): 1092-1100, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1010763

ABSTRACT

The risk of fatal arrhythmias is the major concern for using chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the reported number of life-threatening arrhythmic events or deaths is relatively small. The objective of this study was to assess the arrhythmogenic risk of these two drugs using a multiscale heart simulation, which allows testing even at high concentrations, including those that cause fatal arrhythmias. We measured the inhibitory action of CQ, HCQ, and HCQ with 30 µM azithromycin (AZ) on six ion currents (fast [INa] and late [INa,L] components of the sodium current, L-type calcium current [ICa,L], rapid [IKr/hERG], and slow [IKs] components of delayed rectifier potassium, and inward rectifier potassium [IK1]) over a wide range of concentrations using the automated patch-clamp system. Using the concentration-inhibition relationship that was thus obtained, we simulated the drug effects while increasing the concentration until the life-threatening arrhythmia, torsade de pointes (TdP), was observed. The obtained threshold concentrations for TdP were 12.5, 35, and 22.5 µM for CQ, HCQ, and HCQ with AZ, respectively. Adding therapeutic concentrations of mexiletine or verapamil successfully prevented the occurrence of TdP, and verapamil was more effective. CQ, HCQ, and HCQ with AZ thresholds for TdP were larger than both antiviral concentrations that were reported by in vitro experiments and free plasma concentrations that were attained by the clinically used dosage. The current simulation data provided a safety margin to the currently used clinical dose for CQ and HCQ/AZ. Study Highlights WHAT IS THE CURRENT KNOWLEDGE ON THE TOPIC? Despite the potent in vitro antiviral effect, clinical trials have failed to show the therapeutic effects of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ)/azithromycin (AZ) to treat coronavirus disease 2019. Torsadogenic potentials may limit the dosage of these drugs, but the reported incidence of fatal arrhythmias is rare. WHAT QUESTION DID THIS STUDY ADDRESS? Our objective was to assess the arrhythmogenicity of CQ and HCQ/AZ over a wide range of drug concentrations using a multiscale heart simulation. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY ADD TO OUR KNOWLEDGE? Our study showed that CQ and HCQ/AZ do not induce fatal arrhythmias even at concentrations much higher than in vitro antiviral half-maximal effective concentration (EC50 ) values at which QT prolongation exceeds 150 ms. We also found that estimated free plasma concentrations of CQ and HCQ/AZ achieved by currently used dosing protocols are lower than the antiviral EC50 for these drugs. HOW MIGHT THIS CHANGE CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY OR TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE? Our simulation data provided a safety margin to the currently used clinical dose for CQ and HCQ/AZ.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Computer Simulation , Electrocardiography/drug effects , Humans
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(14): e017529, 2020 07 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981044

ABSTRACT

Atrial fibrillation is a common clinical manifestation in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Medications used to treat atrial fibrillation, such as antiarrhythmic drugs and anticoagulants, may have significant drug interactions with emerging COVID-19 treatments. Common unintended nontherapeutic target effects of COVID-19 treatment include potassium channel blockade, cytochrome P 450 isoenzyme inhibition or activation, and P-glycoprotein inhibition. Drug-drug interactions with antiarrhythmic drugs and anticoagulants in these patients may lead to significant bradycardia, ventricular arrhythmias, or severe bleeding. It is important for clinicians to be aware of these interactions, drug metabolism changes, and clinical consequences when choosing antiarrhythmic drugs and anticoagulants for COVID-19 patients with atrial fibrillation. The objective of this review is to provide a practical guide for clinicians who are managing COVID-19 patients with concomitant atrial fibrillation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/pharmacokinetics , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Interactions , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(2): e13428, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-845033

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people worldwide resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Arrhythmias are prevalent and reportedly, the second most common complication. Several mechanistic pathways are proposed to explain the pro-arrhythmic effects of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. A number of treatment approaches have been trialled, each with its inherent unique challenges. This rapid systematic review aimed to examine the current incidence and available treatment of arrhythmias in COVID-19, as well as barriers to implementation. METHODS: Our search of scientific databases identified relevant published studies from 1 January 2000 until 1 June 2020. We also searched Google Scholar for grey literature. We identified 1729 publications of which 1704 were excluded. RESULTS: The incidence and nature of arrhythmias in the setting of COVID-19 were poorly documented across studies. The cumulative incidence of arrhythmia across studies of hospitalised patients was 6.9%. Drug-induced long QT syndrome secondary to antimalarial and antimicrobial therapy was a significant contributor to arrhythmia formation, with an incidence of 14.15%. Torsades de pointes (TdP) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) were reported. Treatment strategies aim to minimise this through risk stratification and regular monitoring of corrected QT interval (QTc). CONCLUSION: Patients with SARS-CoV-2 are at an increased risk of arrhythmias. Drug therapy is pro-arrhythmogenic and may result in TdP and SCD in these patients. Risk assessment and regular QTc monitoring are imperative for safety during the treatment course. Further studies are needed to guide future decision-making.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Atrial Flutter/epidemiology , Atrial Flutter/etiology , Atrial Flutter/therapy , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Bradycardia/epidemiology , Bradycardia/etiology , Bradycardia/therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiac Pacing, Artificial/methods , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Electric Countershock/methods , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Incidence , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Long QT Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachycardia, Ventricular/epidemiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology , Tachycardia, Ventricular/therapy , Torsades de Pointes/epidemiology , Torsades de Pointes/etiology , Torsades de Pointes/therapy , Ventricular Fibrillation/epidemiology , Ventricular Fibrillation/etiology , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy
13.
Kardiologiia ; 60(6): 1180, 2020 May 25.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840293

ABSTRACT

This article discusses relevant aspects in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Up-to-date information about principles for administration of statins, antithrombotics, and antiarrhythmics is presented. The authors addressed in detail specific features of reversing heart rhythm disorders in patients with coronavirus infection and the interaction of antiarrhythmic and antiviral drugs. Recommendations are provided for outpatient and inpatient antithrombotic therapy for patients with COVID-19. Issues of antithrombotic and antiviral drug interaction are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Cardiology , Coronavirus Infections , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Russia , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
14.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 290-296, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-833791

ABSTRACT

Since the first case was reported at the end of 2019, COVID-19 has spread throughout the world and has become a pandemic. The high transmission rate of the virus has made it a threat to public health globally. Viral infections may trigger acute coronary syndromes, arrhythmias, and exacerbation of heart failure, due to a combination of effects including significant systemic inflammatory responses and localized vascular inflammation at the arterial plaque level. Indonesian clinical practice guideline stated that (hydroxy)chloroquine alone or in combination with azithromycin may be used to treat for COVID-19. However, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin all prolong the QT interval, raising concerns about the risk of arrhythmic death from individual or concurrent use of these medications. To date, there is still no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19. Therefore, prevention of infection in people with cardiovascular risk and mitigation of the adverse effects of treatment is necessary.


Subject(s)
Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Tachycardia, Ventricular/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Death, Sudden, Cardiac/etiology , Electrocardiography , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tachycardia, Ventricular/etiology
16.
Circ J ; 84(10): 1679-1685, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751078

ABSTRACT

The health crisis due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has shocked the world, with more than 1 million infections and casualties. COVID-19 can present from mild illness to multi-organ involvement, but especially acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cardiac injury and arrhythmias, including atrial fibrillation (AF), are not uncommon in COVID-19. COVID-19 is highly contagious, and therapy against the virus remains premature and largely unknown, which makes the management of AF patients during the pandemic particularly challenging. We describe a possible pathophysiological link between COVID-19 and AF, and therapeutic considerations for AF patients during this pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Catheter Ablation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/blood , Drug Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Cardiol ; 135: 177-180, 2020 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733989

ABSTRACT

Cardiac arrhythmia is a known manifestation of novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Herein, we describe the clinical course of an otherwise healthy patient who experienced persistent ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation which is believed to be directly related to inflammation, as opposed to acute myocardial injury or medications that can prolong the QT interval.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Electric Countershock/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Fibrillation/complications , Ventricular Fibrillation/therapy , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Recovery of Function , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Fibrillation/diagnosis , Ventricular Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging
19.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 48(4): 410-424, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of plants used in the formulations of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which were also used in clinical trials to treat patients with the novel coronavirus COVID-19, and to assess their effects on the cardiovascular system. METHODS: A literature review of PubMed, ResearchGate, ScienceDirect, the Cochrane Library, and TCM monographs was conducted and the effects of the plants on the cardiovascular system and the mechanisms of action in COVID-19 treatment were evaluated. RESULTS: The mechanism of action, cardiovascular effects, and possible toxicity of 10 plants frequently found in TCM formulations that were used in the clinical treatment of COVID-19 were examined. CONCLUSION: TCM formulations that had been originally developed for earlier viral diseases have been used in COVID-19 treatment. Despite the effectiveness seen in laboratory and animal studies with the most commonly used plants in these formulations, the clinical studies are currently insufficient according to standard operating procedures. More clinical studies are needed to understand the safe clinical use of traditional plants.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/toxicity , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/toxicity , Anticholesteremic Agents/pharmacology , Anticholesteremic Agents/therapeutic use , Anticholesteremic Agents/toxicity , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/toxicity , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19 , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Calcium Channel Blockers/toxicity , Drug Interactions , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/toxicity , Humans , Pandemics , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/toxicity , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Vasodilator Agents/therapeutic use , Vasodilator Agents/toxicity
20.
CMAJ ; 192(28): E791-E798, 2020 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-615109

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury is common in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to study predictors of in-hospital death, characteristics of arrhythmias and the effects of QT-prolonging therapy in patients with cardiac injury. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving patients with severe COVID-19 who were admitted to Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between Jan. 29 and Mar. 8, 2020. Among patients who had cardiac injury, which we defined as an elevated level of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), we identified demographic and clinical characteristics associated with mortality and need for invasive ventilation. RESULTS: Among 1284 patients with severe COVID-19, 1159 had a cTnI level measured on admission to hospital, of whom 170 (14.7%) had results that showed cardiac injury. We found that mortality was markedly higher in patients with cardiac injury (71.2% v. 6.6%, p < 0.001). We determined that initial cTnI (per 10-fold increase, hazard ratio [HR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.66) and peak cTnI level during illness (per 10-fold increase, HR 1.70, 95% CI 1.38-2.10) were associated with poor survival. Peak cTnI was also associated with the need for invasive ventilation (odds ratio 3.02, 95% CI 1.92-4.98). We found arrhythmias in 44 of the 170 patients with cardiac injury (25.9%), including 6 patients with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation, all of whom died. We determined that patients who received QT-prolonging drugs had longer QTc intervals than those who did not receive them (difference in medians, 45 ms, p = 0.01), but such treatment was not independently associated with mortality (HR 1.04, 95% CI 0.69-1.57). INTERPRETATION: We found that in patients with COVID-19 and cardiac injury, initial and peak cTnI levels were associated with poor survival, and peak cTnI was a predictor of need for invasive ventilation. Patients with COVID-19 warrant assessment for cardiac injury and monitoring, especially if therapy that can prolong repolarization is started. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, No. ChiCTR2000031301.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/mortality , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Heart Injuries/mortality , Heart Injuries/virology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Anti-Arrhythmia Agents/therapeutic use , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/blood , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Critical Illness , Heart Injuries/blood , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin I/blood
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