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1.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(4): 341-354, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776389

ABSTRACT

As the first targeted biotherapy for asthma, Omalizumab, was officially approved in China in August 2017, and was applied in clinical practice since March, 2018. Dozens of experts in Respirology and Allergy from China fully discussed the important clinical issues on the use of Omalizumab in allergic asthma by referring to the relevant publications over the world and the first version of consensus published in March 2018. Until now, over 30, 000 allergic asthma patients have received the treatment of Omalizumab. Therefore, with the latest evidence of clinical and basic research around the world, we updated the consensus with the following issues: (1) The mechanisms and available evidence on anti-IgE treatment; (2) Selection and exclusion criteria for patients using Omalizumab; (3) Cautions on the administration of Omalizumab and highlights of the use of Omalizumab with various vaccines, including novel Coronavirus vaccines, and key points to note during a Novel Coronavirus pandemic; (4) Long-term use and safety; (5) The use of Omalizumab in specific populations; (6) Clinical applications of omalizumab with other targeted therapies and allergen-specific immunotherapy. Omalizumab, combining to the Cε3 area of IgE, reduces the free IgE level, and downregulates the expression of FcεRⅠ, which inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators of mast cell sources, and leads to reduced asthma exacerbation, decreased rate of emergency visit and hospitalization, improved symptoms and quality of life, as well as less concomitant moderate to severe asthma, poorly controlled after at least 3 months treatment of ICS/LABA, and confirmed with allergic status through skin prick test or serum total IgE or specific IgE. Conditions that exclude the use of Omalizumab include patients who are suspected to be allergic to drug ingredients. Omalizumab is administered based on dosing tables by subcutaneous injection. Omalizumab should be administered by a health care professional (doctor or nurse) in a medical institution equipped with facilities for post-injection observation and rescue treatment for anaphylactic shock. After the injection, the patient should be closely monitored whether there is an anaphylactic reaction. The duration of Omalizumab treatment should be at least 16 weeks to judge its effectiveness, after 16 weeks, Omalizumab treatment will be continued or withdrawn based on the overall asthma control evaluation. Patients should be followed every 3 months to assess the disease control and dosing adjustment. The common adverse reactions were injection sites reactions. Based on the latest evidence around the word, we focused on updating the relevant treatment course, administration method and use of specific populations, in order to guide clinicians in the use of Omalizumab. The use of Omalizumab in China still requires long-term observation and further research. With the increase of clinical evidence, this consensus will be continuously improved and supplemented.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Consensus , Humans , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Quality of Life
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(1S): S1-S18, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597351

ABSTRACT

The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) Strategy Report provides clinicians with an annually updated evidence-based strategy for asthma management and prevention, which can be adapted for local circumstances (e.g., medication availability). This article summarizes key recommendations from GINA 2021, and the evidence underpinning recent changes. GINA recommends that asthma in adults and adolescents should not be treated solely with short-acting ß2-agonist (SABA), because of the risks of SABA-only treatment and SABA overuse, and evidence for benefit of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Large trials show that as-needed combination ICS-formoterol reduces severe exacerbations by ≥60% in mild asthma compared with SABA alone, with similar exacerbation, symptom, lung function, and inflammatory outcomes as daily ICS plus as-needed SABA. Key changes in GINA 2021 include division of the treatment figure for adults and adolescents into two tracks. Track 1 (preferred) has low-dose ICS-formoterol as the reliever at all steps: as needed only in Steps 1-2 (mild asthma), and with daily maintenance ICS-formoterol (maintenance-and-reliever therapy, "MART") in Steps 3-5. Track 2 (alternative) has as-needed SABA across all steps, plus regular ICS (Step 2) or ICS-long-acting ß2-agonist (Steps 3-5). For adults with moderate-to-severe asthma, GINA makes additional recommendations in Step 5 for add-on long-acting muscarinic antagonists and azithromycin, with add-on biologic therapies for severe asthma. For children 6-11 years, new treatment options are added at Steps 3-4. Across all age groups and levels of severity, regular personalized assessment, treatment of modifiable risk factors, self-management education, skills training, appropriate medication adjustment, and review remain essential to optimize asthma outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Administration, Inhalation , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Formoterol Fumarate/therapeutic use , Humans
4.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(1S): S19-S30, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592348

ABSTRACT

The 2020 National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee Expert Panel Working Group (NAEPP [2020 Focused Asthma Update]) guidelines and the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) 2021 strategy report are compared in this Rostrum article. The methodologies of each publication are described. Subsequently, 4 different selected pharmacological recommendations are compared in the 2 documents: step 1 for children 0 to 4 years of age with viral-induced wheezing, step 2 in ages 12 years and older with the intermittent use of inhaled corticosteroid, steps 3 and 4 with single-inhaler maintenance and reliever therapy with inhaled corticosteroids-formoterol (SMART), and steps 3, 4, and 5 with add-on long-acting muscarinic antagonist therapy. Nonpharmacological recommendations are also considered and contrasted, including for exhaled nitric oxide, environmental control, immunotherapy, and bronchial thermoplasty. Similarities and differences in these 2 documents are highlighted, and recommendations are made about harmonizing the approaches where possible.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Child , Formoterol Fumarate/therapeutic use , Humans , Nebulizers and Vaporizers
6.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(1): 56-64, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is conflicting evidence regarding the effect of asthma and its different therapeutic options on COVID-19 severity and the clinical outcomes. AIM: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between using inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) by asthmatic patients and the severity of COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted from March 15 to October 23, 2020 and included data of all COVID-19 asthmatic patients (n = 287) at King Abdulaziz Medical City. Twelve patients were excluded due to poor medication history documentation or using ICS for non-asthma indication. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the clinical variables that affect COVID-19 severity. The clinical outcomes of ICS and non-ICS users were compared. RESULTS: Of the sample (n = 275), 198 (72%) were using ICS therapy. No significant difference was found between ICS and non-ICS users in disease severity (P = 0.12), mortality (P = 0.45), ICU admission (P = 0.78), and the occurrence of complications. However, the number of days on ventilation were significantly increased in ICS users (P = 0.006). Being prescribed the ICS/LABA combination (adj OR: 0.72 [0.15,1.2]; P = 0.021), being hypertensive (adj OR: 0.98 [0.28,1.6]; P = 0.006), having cancer (adj OR: 1.49 [0.12, 2.8]; P = 0.033), or having diabetes (adj OR: 0.75 [0.09, 1.4]; P = 0.024) could not increase the risk for more severe disease. CONCLUSION: Overall, ICS therapy did not alter the COVID-19 severity or mortality in asthmatic patients. The continued use of ICS during the pandemic should be encouraged to prevent asthma exacerbations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids
8.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 10(1): 100-107.e2, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has witnessed a reduction in asthma exacerbations across the United Kingdom. Several factors may underpin this, including reduced transmission of seasonal viruses and improved adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). However, little is known about how ICS use has changed during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To identify prescribing patterns for asthmatics during the pandemic. METHODS: Using the OpenPrescribing database, we retrospectively analyzed prescribing patterns of ICS, salbutamol and peak flow meters from January 2019 to January 2021 across England. In addition, using a sample asthma cohort at 3 primary care practices in London, we assessed individual prescription patterns. RESULTS: A sharp increase in national ICS prescriptions occurred in March 2020 representing a 49.9% increase compared with February 2020. The sample cohort included 1132 patients (762 ICS treated across both years). Overall ICS adherence improved in 2020 (P < .001), with the proportion of patients meeting "good adherence" (≥75%) increasing from 33.9% to 42.0% (P < .001). The March 2020 spike predominantly reflected improved adherence rather than a hoarding effect of multiple inhalers. Female gender and increasing age were associated with the most significant improvements in adherence. A similar spike in salbutamol occurred in March 2020; however, an overall reduction in salbutamol prescriptions occurred in 2020 (P = .039). National figures highlighted a progressive increase in prescription of peak flow meters over 2020. CONCLUSION: ICS adherence rates remain low; however, a modest improvement in adherence was observed during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Salbutamol prescription rates reduced over the same time period, whereas prescriptions for peak flow meters have steadily increased.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Adherence and Compliance
10.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(3): 433-436, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441345

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, case reports have been published where patients with severe asthma using biological agents survived with a mild course of illness and encouraged the continuation of biological therapies in patients with severe asthma. However, contrary to previous information, a more severe course of COVID-19 has recently been reported in severe asthmatics using biological therapy compared to the general population. To evaluate the COVID-19 rate and disease severity in severe asthmatics using biological agents. A retrospective study was conducted in patients with severe asthma treated with biological agents. Data concerning whether the subjects had contracted COVID-19 and the severity of the disease were evaluated. Eihgty-four severe asthmatics using biological agents (omalizumab or mepolizumab) aged 48.3 ± 10.6 years (mean ± standard deviation) with female/male ratio: 53 (63.1%)/31 (36.9%) were included in the study. Among participants 13 (15.5%) had contracted COVID-19. The course of COVID-19 was mild in five (38.5%) and moderate in eight patients (61.5%), while none of the patients had a severe course of COVID-19. Mechanical ventilation or intensive care follow-up was not required in any of the six patients (46.2%) who were treated as inpatients. All participants survived COVID-19 in full recovery and no deaths occurred in the cases. A higher rate of COVID-19 was found in patients with severe asthma using biologics compared to those reported in previous reports. However, all patients with COVID-19 have a mild to moderate disease course.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents , Asthma , COVID-19 , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Biological Factors/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 282: 114574, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373117

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gekko gecko is used as a traditional medicine for various diseases including respiratory disorders in northeast Asian countries, mainly Korea, Japan, and China. AIM OF THE STUDY: Allergic asthma is a chronic respiratory disease caused by an inappropriate immune response. Due to the recent spread of coronavirus disease 2019, interest in the treatment of pulmonary disorders has rapidly increased. In this study, we investigated the anti-asthmatic effects of G. gecko extract (GGE) using an established mouse model of ovalbumin-induced asthma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To evaluate the anti-asthmatic effects of GGE, we evaluated histological changes and the responses of inflammatory mediators related to allergic airway inflammation. Furthermore, we investigated the regulatory effects of GGE on type 2 helper T (Th2) cell activation. RESULTS: Administration of GGE attenuated asthmatic phenotypes, including inflammatory cell infiltration, mucus production, and expression of Th2 cytokines. Furthermore, GGE treatment reduced Th2 cell activation and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that GGE alleviates allergic airway inflammation by regulating Th2 cell activation and differentiation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Medicine, East Asian Traditional , Mucus/metabolism , Ovalbumin , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Animals , Asthma/chemically induced , Asthma/pathology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19 , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Flow Cytometry , Immunoglobulin E/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Th2 Cells/drug effects , Th2 Cells/immunology , Tryptamines/pharmacology
14.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(2): 361-367.e13, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Managing severe asthma during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is challenging, particularly due to safety concerns regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids and biologics. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the association between biologics or systemic corticosteroids use and PCR positivity for SARS-CoV-2 and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes among asthmatic patients. METHODS: We used the computerized database of Clalit Health Services, the largest health care provider in Israel, to identify all asthmatic adult patients who underwent PCR testing for SARS-CoV-2, between March 1, 2020, and December 7, 2020. A cohort approach was used to assess the association between biologics use and steroids treatment and COVID-19 severity and 90-day mortality. RESULTS: Overall, 8,242 of 80,602 tested asthmatic patients had positive PCR testing result for SARS-CoV-2. Both biologics and systemic corticosteroids were not associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multivariate analyses revealed that biologics were not associated with a significantly increased risk of moderate to severe COVID-19, nor with the composite end point of moderate to severe COVID-19 or all-cause mortality within 90 days. Chronic systemic corticosteroid use was associated with significantly increased risk of all tested outcome. Recent (within the previous 120 days) systemic corticosteroid use, but not former use, was significantly associated with increased risk of both moderate to severe COVID-19 and the composite of moderate to severe COVID-19 or all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Biologics approved for asthma and systemic corticosteroids are not associated with increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. In contrast, systemic corticosteroids are an independent risk factor for worst COVID-19 severity and all-cause mortality. Our findings underscore the risk of recent or current exposure to systemic corticosteroids in asthmatic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Israel/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(10): 989-996, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282178

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are a limited number of studies about the clinical findings of coronavirus infection in pediatric patients with asthma. We aimed to evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics of pediatric patients with asthma and healthy children without chronic disease who infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: This is a retrospective, case-control study comparing the asthma diagnosed and healthy children who were diagnosed as COVID-19 in our hospital between March 11 and November 10, 2020. RESULTS: During the study period, 6,205 children were diagnosed with CO-VID-19 in our hospital. Only 54 (0.87%) patients had a diagnosis of asthma. The mean of the age was 10.5 years and 53.7% (n:29) of the patients with asthma were male. Cough, shortness of breath, emesis, and diarrhea were found to be significantly higher in asthma group than in the control group (respectively p = 0.002, 0.000, 0.002, 0.019, 0.015). Patients who were given SABA was significantly higher in asthma diagnosed patients (p = 0.000). Hospitalization was significantly higher in asthma group (p = 0.025), and the duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in control group (p = 0.034). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of requiring oxygen treatment and in laboratory findings between groups. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that pediatric patients diagnosed with asthma were in a mild clinic. According to these findings, asthma may not affect the course of the COVID-19 in children.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adrenergic beta-Agonists/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/therapy , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/therapy , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Retrospective Studies , Vomiting/diagnosis , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/therapy
19.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 59(1): 78-88, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139385

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and abnormal, overactivated innate immunity and "cytokine storms" have been proposed as potential pathological mechanisms for rapid COVID-19 progression. Theoretically, asthmatic patients should have increased susceptibility and severity for SARS-CoV-2 infection due to a deficient antiviral immune response and the tendency for exacerbation elicited by common respiratory viruses. However, existing studies have not shown an expected prevalence of asthmatic individuals among COVID-19 patients. Certain aspects of type 2 immune response, including type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-13, etc.) and accumulation of eosinophils, might provide potential protective effects against COVID-19. Furthermore, conventional therapeutics for asthma, including inhaled corticosteroids, allergen immunotherapy (AIT), and anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, might also reduce the risks of asthmatics suffering infection of the virus through alleviating inflammation or enhancing antiviral defense. The interactions between COVID-19 and asthma deserve further attention and clarification.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Administration, Inhalation , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/therapy , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Desensitization, Immunologic , Disease Progression , Eosinophils/immunology , Humans , Interleukin-13/immunology , Interleukin-4/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocytes/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Protective Factors , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Th2 Cells/immunology
20.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 9(2): 561-568, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The lockdown imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a completely different style of life with possible effects on the attitude toward their disease in patients with chronic lung disease, such as asthma. The aim of our study was to investigate in asthmatic children the level of asthma control and the maintenance therapy used during the lockdown. METHODS: Among asthmatic children attending our clinic, we identified those who had been prescribed the same therapy in March-April 2019 and March-April 2020. The level of asthma control (GINA-score) and the maintenance therapy used during the lockdown (March-April 2020) were compared with those of March-April 2019. We separately analyzed a small group of children with severe asthma treated with Omalizumab during the lockdown. RESULTS: We enrolled 92 asthmatic children (67 males). Compared to 2019, in 2020 a higher proportion of children modified their maintenance therapy (38% vs. 15.2%, p < .001), with a significant increase in both the proportion of children who increased (p = .033) and in that of children who decreased their therapy (p = .026). The level of control resulted as significantly higher in 2020 (March p = .023; April p = .007). Also, the 13 children treated with Omalizumab showed a good level of control in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: In asthmatic children, the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown had a significant impact on their asthma control and on their attitude toward maintenance therapy.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/psychology , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Maintenance Chemotherapy , Male , Retrospective Studies , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , Self Report , Severity of Illness Index , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires
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