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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(4)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788579

ABSTRACT

Introduction. Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is the primary pathogen causing hospital-acquired infections. The spread of CRAB is mainly driven by the dissemination of resistant clones, and in Latin America, International Clones IC-1 (also known as clonal complex CC1), IC-4 (CC15) and IC-5 (CC79) are the most prevalent.Gap Statement. There are no documented outbreaks of CRAB International Clone 2 (IC-2) reported in Brazil.Aim. To describe a large outbreak of CRAB caused by the uncommon IC-2 in a Brazilian COVID-19 hospital.Methodology. From May 2020 to May 2021, 224 patients infected or colonized with CRAB were identified in a single hospital; 92 % of them were also infected with SARS-CoV-2. From these patients, 137 isolates were recovered and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, PCR analysis and molecular typing. Whole-genome sequencing and downstream analysis were carried out on a representative isolate (the first available isolate).Results. In 76 % of the patients, a single OXA-23-producing CRAB IC-2 was identified. All the isolates were susceptible to polymyxin B, but highly resistant (>95 %) to aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and beta-lactams. Genomic analysis revealed that the representative isolate also carried the 16S rRNA Methylase ArmA, which was detected for the first time in this species in Brazil.Conclusion. We report the rapid spread of an emerging CRAB clone responsible for causing a large outbreak in a hospital in Brazil, a country with predominance of other CRAB clones. Continuous and prospective surveillance is warranted to evaluate the impact of this clone in Brazilian hospital settings.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter Infections , Acinetobacter baumannii , COVID-19 , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clone Cells , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , beta-Lactamases/genetics
2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 58, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785172

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical worldwide health issue that jeopardizes our ability to fight illnesses. However, despite being a natural phenomenon, AMR is exacerbated in the world by inappropriate administration of an antimicrobial medication such as under-use or overuse by the general population, farmers, and various health professionals. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has put the world in a shocking state. The pandemic exacerbated the problem of antimicrobial resistance, which was largely caused by irrational off-label use of antivirals, anthelmintics, antimalarials, and, most notably, macrolide antibiotics. As a result, monitoring the AMR progression during the pandemic has been critical. The One Health Approach is progressively becoming the most widely utilized and recommended approach in the ongoing fight against AMR. The aim of this article is to address the lack of teachings in AMR and the One Health Approach in health student training curricula, as well as to provide recommendations that can be implemented as we progress beyond the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , One Health , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Students
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5914, 2022 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784027

ABSTRACT

Secondary plant metabolites remain one of the key sources of therapeutic agents despite the development of new approaches for the discovery of medicinal drugs. In the current study, chemical analysis, and biological activities of Kei apple (Dovyalis caffra) methanolic extract were evaluated. Chemical analysis was performed using HPLC and GC-MS. Antiviral and anticancer effect were assessed using the crystal violet technique and activity against human liver cells (HepG2), respectively. Antibacterial activity was tested with the disc diffusion method. The obtained results showed that chlorogenic acid (2107.96 ± 0.07 µg/g), catechin (168 ± 0.58 µg/g), and gallic acid (15.66 ± 0.02 µg/g) were the main bioactive compounds identified by HPLC techniques. While, compounds containing furan moieties, as well as levoglucosenone, isochiapin B, dotriacontane, 7-nonynoic acid and tert-hexadecanethiol, with different biological activities were identified by GC-MS. Additionally, inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) scavenging was 79.25% at 2000 µg/mL, indicating its antioxidant activity with IC50 of 728.20 ± 1.04 µg/mL. The tested extract exhibited potential anticancer activity (58.90% toxicity) against HepG2 cells at 1000 µg/mL. Potential bacterial inhibition was observed mainly against Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis with a diameter of growth inhibition ranging from 13 to 24 mm. While weak activities were recorded for fungi Candida albicans (10 mm). The extract showed mild antiviral activity against human coronavirus 229E with a selective index (SI) of 10.4, but not against human H3N2 (SI of 0.67). The molecular docking study's energy ratings were in good promise with the experiment documents of antibacterial and antiviral activities. The findings suggest that D. caffra juice extract is a potential candidate for further experiments to assess its use as potential alternative therapeutic agent.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Salicaceae , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Fruit/chemistry , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry
4.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785837

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis from a semi-arid region of Morocco were investigated. Fifteen compounds, including triterpenoids (1, 2, 7-12), macrocyclic diterpenes of ingol type (3-6) and aromatic derivatives (13-15), were isolated by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and chiroptical methods. Compounds 1 and 3 are new natural compounds, and 2, 4-6, and 9-11 are newly isolated from propolis. Moreover, the full nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments of three of the known compounds (2, 4 and 5) were reported for the first time. Most of the compounds tested, especially the diterpenes 3, 4, and 6, exhibited very good activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the strongest activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4-64 µg/mL. The combination of isolated triterpenoids and ingol diterpenes was found to be characteristic for Euphorbia spp., and Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus could be suggested as a probable and new plant source of propolis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Diterpenes , Euphorbia , Propolis , Triterpenes , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry , Euphorbia/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Morocco , Propolis/pharmacology , Triterpenes/chemistry
5.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785835

ABSTRACT

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an opportunistic pathogen and responsible for causing life-threatening infections. The emergence of hypervirulent and multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. aureus strains led to challenging issues in antibiotic therapy. Consequently, the morbidity and mortality rates caused by S. aureus infections have a substantial impact on health concerns. The current worldwide prevalence of MRSA infections highlights the need for long-lasting preventive measures and strategies. Unfortunately, effective measures are limited. In this study, we focus on the identification of vaccine candidates and drug target proteins against the 16 strains of MRSA using reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomics approaches. Using the reverse vaccinology approach, 4 putative antigenic proteins were identified; among these, PrsA and EssA proteins were found to be more promising vaccine candidates. We applied a molecular docking approach of selected 8 drug target proteins with the drug-like molecules, revealing that the ZINC4235426 as potential drug molecule with favorable interactions with the target active site residues of 5 drug target proteins viz., biotin protein ligase, HPr kinase/phosphorylase, thymidylate kinase, UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate-L-lysine ligase, and pantothenate synthetase. Thus, the identified proteins can be used for further rational drug or vaccine design to identify novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of multidrug-resistant staphylococcal infection.


Subject(s)
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Vaccines , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Genomics , Humans , Ligases , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/genetics , Molecular Docking Simulation , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control , Staphylococcus aureus , Vaccinology
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785729

ABSTRACT

The development of affordable, effective, and environmentally friendly barrier fabrics is a current goal in antimicrobial textile development. The discovery of new routes to achieve non-toxic naturally occurring molecules with antimicrobial activity is of interest in the development of materials that promote wound healing, improve hygiene, and offer protection against nosocomial infection. Highly cleaned and sterile unbleached cotton has constituents that produce hydrogen peroxide at levels commensurate with those that favor cell signaling in wound healing. Here, we show the antimicrobial and antiviral properties of spunlaced griege cotton-containing nonwovens treated with ascorbic acid formulations. The mechanism of action occurs through the promotion of enhanced hydrogen peroxide activity. The levels of hydrogen peroxide activity afford antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and antiviral activity against MS2 bacteriophages. Spun-bond nonwoven unbleached cotton was treated with ascorbic acid using traditional pad-dry-cure methods. An assessment of antibacterial and antiviral activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and MS2 bacteriophages with the AATCC 100 test method showed a 99.99% inhibitory activity. An approach to the covalent attachment of ascorbic to cellulose through citric acid crosslinking chemistry is also discussed. Thus, a simple, low-cost approach to antimicrobial and antiviral cotton-based nonwovens applicable to dressings, nosocomial barrier fabrics, and face masks can be adopted by combining ascorbic acid with spunlace greige cotton nonwoven fabrics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Cotton Fiber , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Gossypium , Hydrogen Peroxide , Textiles
7.
Front Public Health ; 10: 794513, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775996

ABSTRACT

Aquatic environments, under frequent anthropogenic pressure, could serve as reservoirs that provide an ideal condition for the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genetic determinants. We investigated the prevalence and diversity of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli by focusing on their genetic diversity, virulence, and resistance genes in anthropogenic-impacted Larut River. The abundance of E. coli ranged from (estimated count) Est 1 to 4.7 × 105 (colony-forming units per 100 ml) CFU 100 ml-1 to Est 1 to 4.1 × 105 CFU 100 ml-1 with phylogenetic group B1 (46.72%), and A (34.39%) being the most predominant. The prevalence of multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes of E. coli, with the presence of tet and sul resistance genes, was higher in wastewater effluents than in the river waters. These findings suggested that E. coli could be an important carrier of the resistance genes in freshwater river environments. The phylogenetic composition of E. coli and resistance genes was associated with physicochemical properties and antibiotic residues. These findings indicated that the anthropogenic inputs exerted an effect on the E. coli phylogroup composition, diversification of multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes, and the distribution of resistance genes in the Larut River.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli , Rivers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/genetics , Malaysia , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Rivers/microbiology
8.
Front Public Health ; 10: 790892, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775994

ABSTRACT

Background: Antimicrobial resistance is one of the many health challenges worldwide, particularly in resource-limited countries like Ethiopia. Increasing knowledge of health professionals can reduce the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, we determined the antimicrobial resistance knowledge and examined the associated factors among the University of Gondar Hospital health professionals. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional survey was carried out. The samples were randomly recruited. Statistical analysis was performed by using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 after entering the data using Epidemiological information (Epi-Info). To identify associated factors, the authors executed binary logistic regression and multivariate analysis wherein the statistical significance was decided at p < 0.05. Results: Four hundred and twelve health professionals with ages ranging from 20-60 years and mean age of 29.9 years took part in the study. Fifty-three-point-four percent of participants were males. The majority of the total respondents (84.7%, 95% CI: 80.08-88.30) had good knowledge of antimicrobial resistance. It was found that being male (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.10, 3.52), a work experience of 6-10 years (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.28, 4.68), having 30-38working hours per week (AOR = 3.93, 95% CI: 1.38, 5.11), and antibiotic intake (AOR = 3.71, 95% CI: 1.75, 7.87) were significant factors of antimicrobial resistance knowledge. Conclusion: In the current study, about 84.5% of health professionals had good knowledge of antimicrobial resistance. Reducing working hours per week and increasing the experience of workers are recommended to increase the knowledge on AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Personnel, Hospital , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 787299, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775992

ABSTRACT

Background: Macrolides have been widely used to treat moderate-to-severe acne for more than 50 years. However, the prevalent antibiotic resistance of Propionibacterium acnes, along with the absence of clinically available resistance tests, has made macrolide misuse a frequent occurrence around the globe, with serious consequences. Objective: We developed Cutibacterium acnes quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based antibiotics resistance assay (ACQUIRE) to enable fast and accurate detection of C. acnes macrolide resistance in clinical settings, representing an opportunity to administer antibiotics more wisely and improve the quality of care. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study (n = 915) was conducted to probe into the macrolide resistance of C. acnes in patients with acne. Results: The high sensitivity of ACQUIRE enabled us to reveal a much higher C. acnes 23S recombinant DNA (rDNA) point mutation rate (52%) and thus a higher macrolide resistance (75.5%) compared to previous reports. Carriage of ermX gene was discovered on 472 (53%) subjects, which concurs with previous studies. Conclusion: The macrolide resistance of C. acnes is much higher than previously reported. Integrating ACQUIRE into acne treatment modalities may eliminate macrolide misuse and achieve better clinical improvements.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Acne Vulgaris/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 750551, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775934

ABSTRACT

Campylobacter is the most common cause of bacterial infectious diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis globally, and is recognized as a significant zoonotic pathogen. Antimicrobial resistance amongst Campylobacter isolates is a significant global concern. A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify and characterize Campylobacter species in humans, animals and water sources in livestock owning households of peri-urban Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; and to characterize antimicrobial resistance. A total of 519 fecal samples from humans (n = 99), livestock (n = 179), poultry (n = 69), and water (n = 172) were collected. Samples were cultured for viable Campylobacter spp. and multiplex PCR utilized for the identification and confirmation. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Campylobacter spp. was detected in 67/519 (13.0%) of the total tested samples, and the household level prevalence of Campylobacter was 42.4%. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was: humans (10.1%), cattle (18.5%), poultry (13.0%), sheep (13.3%), goats (7.1%), and water (10.5%). Campylobacter jejuni and C. fetus were the most frequently isolated species, followed by C. coli. The majority of isolates obtained from human samples had co-occurrence with isolates from cattle, poultry or water samples from the same household. The use of stored water, the practice of indoor and outdoor manure collecting, and animal species Campylobacter positivity were significantly associated with greater odds of human Campylobacter spp. positivity. All Campylobacter isolates from humans, poultry, sheep, goats and water, and 96.0% of isolates from cattle were resistant to at least one or more of the tested antimicrobials, with 95.5% of isolates resistant to three or more classes of antimicrobials. A One Health approach is recommended to further investigate Campylobacter species infections, and other zoonotic infectious diseases, in the livestock owning populations in Ethiopia, where there is close interaction between humans, animals and the environment.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter , One Health , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cattle , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Livestock , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Sheep , Water
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736897

ABSTRACT

The impact of globalization on beekeeping brings new economic, scientific, ecological and social dimensions to this field The present study aimed to evaluate the chemical compositions of eight propolis extracts from Romania, and their antioxidant action and antimicrobial activity against seven species of bacteria, including pathogenic ones: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant activity of propolis extracts were quantified; the presence of flavones and aromatic acids was determined. Quercetin and rutin were identified by HPLC analysis and characterized using molecular descriptors. All propolis samples exhibited antibacterial effects, especially against P. aeruginosa and L. monocytogenes. A two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate correlations among the diameters of the inhibition zones, the bacteria used and propolis extracts used. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the diameter of the inhibition zone was influenced by the strain type, but no association between the propolis origin and the microbial activity was found.


Subject(s)
Propolis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Propolis/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Romania
12.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 45, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 is difficult to distinguish from other viral and bacterial etiologies. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are frequently prescribed to patients hospitalized with COVID-19 which potentially acts as a catalyst for the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis during the first 18 months of the pandemic to quantify the prevalence and types of resistant co-infecting organisms in patients with COVID-19 and explore differences across hospital and geographic settings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science (BioSIS), and Scopus from November 1, 2019 to May 28, 2021 to identify relevant articles pertaining to resistant co-infections in patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Patient- and study-level analyses were conducted. We calculated pooled prevalence estimates of co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms using random effects models. Stratified meta-analysis by hospital and geographic setting was also performed to elucidate any differences. RESULTS: Of 1331 articles identified, 38 met inclusion criteria. A total of 1959 unique isolates were identified with 29% (569) resistant organisms identified. Co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms ranged from 0.2 to 100% among included studies. Pooled prevalence of co-infection with resistant bacterial and fungal organisms was 24% (95% CI 8-40%; n = 25 studies: I2 = 99%) and 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.6%; n = 8 studies: I2 = 78%), respectively. Among multi-drug resistant organisms, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multi-drug resistant Candida auris were most commonly reported. Stratified analyses found higher proportions of AMR outside of Europe and in ICU settings, though these results were not statistically significant. Patient-level analysis demonstrated > 50% (n = 58) mortality, whereby all but 6 patients were infected with a resistant organism. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 18 months of the pandemic, AMR prevalence was high in COVID-19 patients and varied by hospital and geography although there was substantial heterogeneity. Given the variation in patient populations within these studies, clinical settings, practice patterns, and definitions of AMR, further research is warranted to quantify AMR in COVID-19 patients to improve surveillance programs, infection prevention and control practices and antimicrobial stewardship programs globally.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mycoses/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Humans , Mycoses/etiology , Mycoses/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
14.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 22(2): 83-94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725177

ABSTRACT

As a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Shuang-Huang-Lian (SHL) has been widely used for treating infectious diseases of the respiratory tract such as encephalitis, pneumonia, and asthma. During the past few decades, considerable research has focused on pharmacological action, pharmacokinetic interaction with antibiotics, and clinical applications of SHL. A huge and more recent body of pharmacokinetic studies support the combination of SHL and antibiotics have different effects such as antagonism and synergism. SHL has been one of the best-selling TCM products. However, there is no systematic review of SHL preparations, ranging from protection against respiratory tract infections to interaction with antibiotics. Since their important significance in clinical therapy, the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and interactions with antibiotics of SHL were reviewed and discussed. In addition, this review attempts to explore the possible potential mechanism of SHL preparations in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. We are concerned about the effects of SHL against viruses and bacteria, as well as its interactions with antibiotics in an attempt to provide a new strategy for expanding the clinical research and medication of SHL preparations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 366: 109572, 2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719840

ABSTRACT

Listeria monocytogenes remains a significant public health threat, leading to invasive listeriosis with severe manifestations (i.e. septicemia, meningitis, and abortion) and up to 30% of fatal cases. Here, we aimed to investigate genotypic diversity, virulence profiles, antimicrobial resistance patterns from a large and integrated population of L. monocytogenes isolates in China (n = 369), including food (n = 326), livestock (n = 25), and hospitalized humans (n = 18) over the years (2002-2019). PCR-based serogrouping showed the dominance of serogroup 1/2a-3a (37.4%) in food, 4a-4c (76%) in livestock, and 1/2a-3a (44.4%) in humans. Phylogenetic lineage analysis revealed the dominance of lineage II (63.4%) in food, lineage III (76%) in livestock, and lineage II (55.5%) in humans. Altogether, 369 isolates were grouped into 55 sequence types (STs) via multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), which belonged to 26 clonal complexes (CCs) and 17 singletons. Among various STs, ST9 (26%) was the most abundant in food, ST202 (76%) in livestock, and ST8 (16.6%) in humans. Overall, ST4/CC4, ST218/CC218, and ST619 isolates harbored both LIPI-3 and LIPI-4 genes subsets indicating their hypervirulence potential. Additionally, a low resistance was observed towards tetracycline (5.1%), erythromycin (3.2%), cotrimoxazole (2.9%), chloramphenicol (2.7%), gentamicin (2.4%), and ampicillin (2.1%). Collectively, detection of hypervirulent determinants and antimicrobial-resistant phenotype among Chinese isolates poses an alarming threat to food safety and public health, which requires a continued and enhanced surveillance system for further prevention of human listeriosis.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Listeria monocytogenes , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , China/epidemiology , Food Microbiology , Genetic Variation , Humans , Listeria monocytogenes/drug effects , Listeria monocytogenes/genetics , Listeriosis/epidemiology , Listeriosis/veterinary , Livestock/microbiology , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Phylogeny , Virulence Factors/genetics
16.
Environ Toxicol Chem ; 41(3): 687-714, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706213

ABSTRACT

River ecosystems are very important parts of the water cycle and an excellent habitat, food, and drinking water source for many organisms, including humans. Antibiotics are emerging contaminants which can enter rivers from various sources. Several antibiotics and their related antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been detected in these ecosystems by various research programs and could constitute a substantial problem. The presence of antibiotics and other resistance cofactors can boost the development of ARGs in the chromosomes or mobile genetic elements of natural bacteria in rivers. The ARGs in environmental bacteria can also be transferred to clinically important pathogens. However, antibiotics and their resistance genes are both not currently monitored by national or international authorities responsible for controlling the quality of water bodies. For example, they are not included in the contaminant list in the European Water Framework Directive or in the US list of Water-Quality Benchmarks for Contaminants. Although ARGs are naturally present in the environment, very few studies have focused on non-impacted rivers to assess the background ARG levels in rivers, which could provide some useful indications for future environmental regulation and legislation. The present study reviews the antibiotics and associated ARGs most commonly measured and detected in rivers, including the primary analysis tools used for their assessment. In addition, other factors that could enhance antibiotic resistance, such as the effects of chemical mixtures, the effects of climate change, and the potential effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, are discussed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2022;41:687-714. © 2022 SETAC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Rivers , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , China , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Ecosystem , Genes, Bacterial , Humans , Rivers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
17.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 185, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699104

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has had a heavy impact on national health system, especially in the first wave. That impact hit principally the intensive care units (ICUs). The large number of patients requiring hospitalization in ICUs lead to a complete upheaval of intensive wards. The increase in bed, the fewer number of nurses per patient, the constant use of personal protective equipment, the new antimicrobial surveillance protocols could have had deeply effects on microbiological flora of these wards. Moreover, the overconsumption of antimicrobial therapy in COVID-19 patients, like several studies report, could have impact of this aspect. Aim of this study is to evaluate the changing pattern of microbiological respiratory isolates during and before COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary hospital ICUs. METHODS: A retrospective, observational study was conducted in ICUs of "ASST Papa Giovanni XXIII", a large tertiary referral hospital in Northern Italy. We have retrospectively collected the microbiological data from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and tracheal aspirate (TA) of patients with COVID-19, hospitalized in ICUs from 22nd February 2020 to 31st May 2020 (Period 1), and without COVID-19, from 22nd February 2019 to 31st May 2019 (Period 2). We compared the prevalence and the antibiotic profile of bacterial and fungal species in the two time periods. RESULTS: The prevalence of Pseudomonas spp. shows a statistically significant increase from patients without COVID-19 compared to COVID-19 positive as well as the prevalence of Enterococcus spp. On the contrary, the prevalence of Gram negative non fermenting bacteria (GN-NFB), Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae showed a significant reduction between two periods. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance of Pseudomonas spp. to carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam and Enterobacterales spp. for piperacillin/tazobactam, in COVID-19 positive patients compared to patients without COVID-19. We did not observe significant changing in fungal respiratory isolates. CONCLUSIONS: A changing pattern in prevalence and resistance profiles of bacterial and fungal species was observed during COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257085, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690808

ABSTRACT

A kiosk-based survey at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City in 2016-2018 allowed us to assess public knowledge of antibiotics and public attitudes toward microbes in museum goers. Over 22,000 visitors from 172 countries and territories answered several carefully designed questions about microbes and antibiotics. These visitors also entered age, gender, and country demographic data that allowed for stratification along these demographic and geographic divisions. Because museum goers are likely to be better informed about these and other science-based topics, the results described here can set a potential upper bound for public knowledge on these topics. Surprisingly, the results of our analysis of museum goers' answers about microbes and antibiotics indicate a substantial lack of familiarity with both topics. For example, overall only about 50% of respondents can correctly identify penicillin as an antibiotic and less than 50% of museum visitors view microbes as beneficial. The results described here suggest that we are perhaps off target with our educational efforts in this area and that a major shift in approach toward more basic microbial topics is warranted in our educational efforts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Museums , Natural History , Perception , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Analysis , Humans , Language
19.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686904

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Acne is a widespread skin disease, especially among adolescents. Following the COVID-19 pandemic and the use of masks, the problem has been affecting a greater number of people, and the attention of the skin care beauty routine cosmetics has been focused on the "Maskne", caused by the sebum excretion rate (SER) that stimulates microbial proliferation. (2) Methods: the present study was focused on the rheological characterization and quality assurance of the preservative system of an anti-acne serum. The biological effectiveness (cytotoxicity-skin and eye irritation-antimicrobial, biofilm eradication and anti-inflammatory activity) was evaluated in a monolayer cell line of keratinocytes (HaCaT) and on 3D models (reconstructed human epidermis, RHE and human reconstructed corneal epithelium, HCE). The Cutibacterium acnes, as the most relevant acne-inducing bacterium, is chosen as a pro-inflammatory stimulus and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the serum. (3) Results and Conclusions: Rheology allows to simulate serum behavior at rest, extrusion and application, so the serum could be defined as having a solid-like behavior and being pseudoplastic. The preservative system is in compliance with the criteria of the reference standard. Biological effectiveness evaluation shows non-cytotoxic and irritant behavior with a good antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of the formulation, supporting the effectiveness of the serum for acne-prone skin treatment.


Subject(s)
Acne Vulgaris/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Biofilms/drug effects , COVID-19 , Cosmeceuticals , Pandemics , Propionibacteriaceae/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acne Vulgaris/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Transformed , Cosmeceuticals/chemistry , Cosmeceuticals/pharmacology , Humans
20.
Murray, Christopher J. L.; Ikuta, Kevin Shunji, Sharara, Fablina, Swetschinski, Lucien, Robles Aguilar, Gisela, Gray, Authia, Han, Chieh, Bisignano, Catherine, Rao, Puja, Wool, Eve, Johnson, Sarah C.; Browne, Annie J.; Chipeta, Michael Give, Fell, Frederick, Hackett, Sean, Haines-Woodhouse, Georgina, Kashef Hamadani, Bahar H.; Kumaran, Emmanuelle A. P.; McManigal, Barney, Agarwal, Ramesh, Akech, Samuel, Albertson, Samuel, Amuasi, John, Andrews, Jason, Aravkin, Aleskandr, Ashley, Elizabeth, Bailey, Freddie, Baker, Stephen, Basnyat, Buddha, Bekker, Adrie, Bender, Rose, Bethou, Adhisivam, Bielicki, Julia, Boonkasidecha, Suppawat, Bukosia, James, Carvalheiro, Cristina, Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos, Chansamouth, Vilada, Chaurasia, Suman, Chiurchiù, Sara, Chowdhury, Fazle, Cook, Aislinn J.; Cooper, Ben, Cressey, Tim R.; Criollo-Mora, Elia, Cunningham, Matthew, Darboe, Saffiatou, Day, Nicholas P. J.; De Luca, Maia, Dokova, Klara, Dramowski, Angela, Dunachie, Susanna J.; Eckmanns, Tim, Eibach, Daniel, Emami, Amir, Feasey, Nicholas, Fisher-Pearson, Natasha, Forrest, Karen, Garrett, Denise, Gastmeier, Petra, Giref, Ababi Zergaw, Greer, Rachel Claire, Gupta, Vikas, Haller, Sebastian, Haselbeck, Andrea, Hay, Simon I.; Holm, Marianne, Hopkins, Susan, Iregbu, Kenneth C.; Jacobs, Jan, Jarovsky, Daniel, Javanmardi, Fatemeh, Khorana, Meera, Kissoon, Niranjan, Kobeissi, Elsa, Kostyanev, Tomislav, Krapp, Fiorella, Krumkamp, Ralf, Kumar, Ajay, Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe, Lim, Cherry, Limmathurotsakul, Direk, Loftus, Michael James, Lunn, Miles, Ma, Jianing, Mturi, Neema, Munera-Huertas, Tatiana, Musicha, Patrick, Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa Marcia, Nakamura, Tomoka, Nanavati, Ruchi, Nangia, Sushma, Newton, Paul, Ngoun, Chanpheaktra, Novotney, Amanda, Nwakanma, Davis, Obiero, Christina W.; Olivas-Martinez, Antonio, Olliaro, Piero, Ooko, Ednah, Ortiz-Brizuela, Edgar, Peleg, Anton Yariv, Perrone, Carlo, Plakkal, Nishad, Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo, Raad, Mathieu, Ramdin, Tanusha, Riddell, Amy, Roberts, Tamalee, Robotham, Julie Victoria, Roca, Anna, Rudd, Kristina E.; Russell, Neal, Schnall, Jesse, Scott, John Anthony Gerard, Shivamallappa, Madhusudhan, Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose, Steenkeste, Nicolas, Stewardson, Andrew James, Stoeva, Temenuga, Tasak, Nidanuch, Thaiprakong, Areerat, Thwaites, Guy, Turner, Claudia, Turner, Paul, van Doorn, H. Rogier, Velaphi, Sithembiso, Vongpradith, Avina, Vu, Huong, Walsh, Timothy, Waner, Seymour, Wangrangsimakul, Tri, Wozniak, Teresa, Zheng, Peng, Sartorius, Benn, Lopez, Alan D.; Stergachis, Andy, Moore, Catrin, Dolecek, Christiane, Naghavi, Mohsen.
Lancet ; 399(10325): 629-655, 2022 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to human health around the world. Previous publications have estimated the effect of AMR on incidence, deaths, hospital length of stay, and health-care costs for specific pathogen-drug combinations in select locations. To our knowledge, this study presents the most comprehensive estimates of AMR burden to date. METHODS: We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to and associated with bacterial AMR for 23 pathogens and 88 pathogen-drug combinations in 204 countries and territories in 2019. We obtained data from systematic literature reviews, hospital systems, surveillance systems, and other sources, covering 471 million individual records or isolates and 7585 study-location-years. We used predictive statistical modelling to produce estimates of AMR burden for all locations, including for locations with no data. Our approach can be divided into five broad components: number of deaths where infection played a role, proportion of infectious deaths attributable to a given infectious syndrome, proportion of infectious syndrome deaths attributable to a given pathogen, the percentage of a given pathogen resistant to an antibiotic of interest, and the excess risk of death or duration of an infection associated with this resistance. Using these components, we estimated disease burden based on two counterfactuals: deaths attributable to AMR (based on an alternative scenario in which all drug-resistant infections were replaced by drug-susceptible infections), and deaths associated with AMR (based on an alternative scenario in which all drug-resistant infections were replaced by no infection). We generated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for final estimates as the 25th and 975th ordered values across 1000 posterior draws, and models were cross-validated for out-of-sample predictive validity. We present final estimates aggregated to the global and regional level. FINDINGS: On the basis of our predictive statistical models, there were an estimated 4·95 million (3·62-6·57) deaths associated with bacterial AMR in 2019, including 1·27 million (95% UI 0·911-1·71) deaths attributable to bacterial AMR. At the regional level, we estimated the all-age death rate attributable to resistance to be highest in western sub-Saharan Africa, at 27·3 deaths per 100 000 (20·9-35·3), and lowest in Australasia, at 6·5 deaths (4·3-9·4) per 100 000. Lower respiratory infections accounted for more than 1·5 million deaths associated with resistance in 2019, making it the most burdensome infectious syndrome. The six leading pathogens for deaths associated with resistance (Escherichia coli, followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were responsible for 929 000 (660 000-1 270 000) deaths attributable to AMR and 3·57 million (2·62-4·78) deaths associated with AMR in 2019. One pathogen-drug combination, meticillin-resistant S aureus, caused more than 100 000 deaths attributable to AMR in 2019, while six more each caused 50 000-100 000 deaths: multidrug-resistant excluding extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis, third-generation cephalosporin-resistant E coli, carbapenem-resistant A baumannii, fluoroquinolone-resistant E coli, carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae, and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant K pneumoniae. INTERPRETATION: To our knowledge, this study provides the first comprehensive assessment of the global burden of AMR, as well as an evaluation of the availability of data. AMR is a leading cause of death around the world, with the highest burdens in low-resource settings. Understanding the burden of AMR and the leading pathogen-drug combinations contributing to it is crucial to making informed and location-specific policy decisions, particularly about infection prevention and control programmes, access to essential antibiotics, and research and development of new vaccines and antibiotics. There are serious data gaps in many low-income settings, emphasising the need to expand microbiology laboratory capacity and data collection systems to improve our understanding of this important human health threat. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, and Department of Health and Social Care using UK aid funding managed by the Fleming Fund.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Global Burden of Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Global Health , Humans , Models, Statistical
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