Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 614
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
2.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e051561, 2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583103

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Exploration of the factors that influence hospital doctors' antibiotic prescribing decisions when treating children with respiratory symptoms in UK emergency departments. METHODS: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews based on a critical incident technique with 21 physicians of different grades and specialties that treat children in the UK. Interviews were audio-recorded then transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four themes were identified. These themes illustrate factors which influence clinician prescribing. The three principal themes were authorities, pressures and risk. The fourth transcending theme that ran through all themes was clinician awareness and complicity ('knowing but still doing'). CONCLUSIONS: Hospital doctors prescribe antibiotics even when they know they should not. This appears to be due to the influence of those in charge or external pressures experienced while weighing up the immediate and longer term risks but clinicians do this with full insight into their actions. These findings have implications for invested parties seeking to develop future antimicrobial stewardship programmes. It is recommended that stewardship interventions acknowledge and target these themes which may in turn facilitate behaviour change and antimicrobial prescribing practice in emergency departments.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Qualitative Research , United Kingdom
4.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 64: 91-99, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575357

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a growing global health threat that requires coordinated action across One Health sectors (humans, animals, environment) to stem its spread. Environmental surveillance of AMR is largely behind the curve in current One Health surveillance programs, but recent momentum in the establishment of infrastructure for monitoring of the SARS-CoV-2 virus in sewage provides an impetus for analogous AMR monitoring. Simultaneous advances in research have identified striking trends in various AMR measures in wastewater and other impacted environments across global transects. Methodologies for tracking AMR, including metagenomics, are rapidly advancing, but need to be standardized and made modular for access by LMICs, while also developing systems for sample archiving and data sharing. Such efforts will help optimize effective global AMR policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Waste Water
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261368, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571994

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global public health crisis that is now impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Little is known how COVID-19 risks influence people to consume antibiotics, particularly in contexts like Bangladesh where these pharmaceuticals can be purchased without a prescription. This paper identifies the social drivers of antibiotics use among home-based patients who have tested positive with SARS-CoV-2 or have COVID-19-like symptoms. Using qualitative telephone interviews, the research was conducted in two Bangladesh cities with 40 participants who reported that they had tested positive for coronavirus (n = 20) or had COVID-19-like symptoms (n = 20). Our analysis identified five themes in antibiotic use narratives: antibiotics as 'big' medicine; managing anxiety; dealing with social repercussions of COVID-19 infection; lack of access to COVID-19 testing and healthcare services; and informal sources of treatment advice. Antibiotics were seen to solve physical and social aspects of COVID-19 infection, with urgent ramifications for AMR in Bangladesh and more general implications for global efforts to mitigate AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Adult , Bangladesh , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , Social Factors
6.
Jpn J Radiol ; 39(10): 973-983, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530376

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To construct an auxiliary empirical antibiotic therapy (EAT) multi-class classification model for children with bacterial pneumonia using radiomics features based on artificial intelligence and low-dose chest CT images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected from children with pathogen-confirmed bacterial pneumonia including Gram-positive bacterial pneumonia (122/389, 31%), Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia (159/389, 41%) and atypical bacterial pneumonia (108/389, 28%) from January 1 to June 30, 2019. Nine machine-learning models were separately evaluated based on radiomics features extracted from CT images; three optimal submodels were constructed and integrated to form a multi-class classification model. RESULTS: We selected five features to develop three radiomics submodels: a Gram-positive model, a Gram-negative model and an atypical model. The comprehensive radiomics model using support vector machine method yielded an average area under the curve (AUC) of 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.65-0.83] and accuracy (ACC) of 0.58 [sensitivity (SEN), 0.57; specificity (SPE), 0.78] in the training set, and an average AUC of 0.73 (95% CI 0.61-0.79) and ACC of 0.54 (SEN, 0.52; SPE, 0.75) in the test set. CONCLUSION: This auxiliary EAT radiomics multi-class classification model was deserved to be researched in differential diagnosing bacterial pneumonias in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Artificial Intelligence , Child , Humans , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Euro Surveill ; 26(46)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526749

ABSTRACT

We present a European Union/European Economic Area-wide overview of the changes in consumption of antibacterials for systemic use (ATC J01) in the community between 2019 and 2020 as reported to the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Network. Overall antibiotic consumption decreased by 18.3% between 2019 and 2020, the largest annual decrease in the network's two-decade history. We observed a strong association between the level of community antibiotic consumption in 2019 and the size of the decrease between 2019 and 2020.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Utilization , Europe/epidemiology , European Union , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 3045-3058, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526166

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on health systems. The WHO Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Surveillance and Quality Assessment Collaborating Centres Network conducted a survey to assess the effects of COVID-19 on AMR surveillance, prevention and control. METHODS: From October to December 2020, WHO Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System (GLASS) national focal points completed a questionnaire, including Likert scales and open-ended questions. Data were descriptively analysed, income/regional differences were assessed and free-text questions were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Seventy-three countries across income levels participated. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 67% reported limited ability to work with AMR partnerships; decreases in funding were frequently reported by low- and middle-income countries (LMICs; P < 0.01). Reduced availability of nursing, medical and public health staff for AMR was reported by 71%, 69% and 64%, respectively, whereas 67% reported stable cleaning staff availability. The majority (58%) reported reduced reagents/consumables, particularly LMICs (P < 0.01). Decreased numbers of cultures, elective procedures, chronically ill admissions and outpatients and increased ICU admissions reported could bias AMR data. Reported overall infection prevention and control (IPC) improvement could decrease AMR rates, whereas increases in selected inappropriate IPC practices and antimicrobial prescribing could increase rates. Most did not yet have complete data on changing AMR rates due to COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This was the first survey to explore the global impact of COVID-19 on AMR among GLASS countries. Responses highlight important actions to help ensure that AMR remains a global health priority, including engaging with GLASS to facilitate reliable AMR surveillance data, seizing the opportunity to develop more sustainable IPC programmes, promoting integrated antibiotic stewardship guidance, leveraging increased laboratory capabilities and other system-strengthening efforts.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 768377, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523678

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Recent reports have highlighted the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of infectious disease illnesses and antibiotic use. This study investigates the effect of the pandemic on childhood incidence of otitis media (OM) and associated antibiotic prescribing in a large primary care-based cohort in the Netherlands. Material and Methods: Retrospective observational cohort study using routine health care data from the Julius General Practitioners' Network (JGPN). All children aged 0-12 registered in 62 practices before the COVID-19 pandemic (1 March 2019 - 29 February 2020) and/or during the pandemic (1 March 2020 - 28 February 2021) were included. Data on acute otitis media (AOM), otitis media with effusion (OME), ear discharge episodes and associated antibiotic prescriptions were extracted. Incidence rates per 1,000 child years (IR), incidence rate ratios (IRR) and incidence rate differences (IRD) were compared between the two study periods. Results: OM episodes declined considerably during the COVID-19 pandemic: IR pre-COVID-19 vs COVID-19 for AOM 73.7 vs 27.1 [IRR 0.37]; for OME 9.6 vs 4.1 [IRR 0.43]; and for ear discharge 12.6 vs 5.8 [IRR 0.46]. The absolute number of AOM episodes in which oral antibiotics were prescribed declined accordingly (IRD pre-COVID-19 vs COVID-19: -22.4 per 1,000 child years), but the proportion of AOM episodes with antibiotic prescription was similar in both periods (47% vs 46%, respectively). Discussion: GP consultation for AOM, OME and ear discharge declined by 63%, 57% and 54% respectively in the Netherlands during the COVID-19 pandemic. Similar antibiotic prescription rates before and during the pandemic indicate that the case-mix presenting to primary care did not considerably change. Our data therefore suggest a true decline as a consequence of infection control measures introduced during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Otitis Media , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Netherlands/epidemiology , Otitis Media/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Genome Med ; 13(1): 182, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523323

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical metagenomics (CMg) has the potential to be translated from a research tool into routine service to improve antimicrobial treatment and infection control decisions. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic provides added impetus to realise these benefits, given the increased risk of secondary infection and nosocomial transmission of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens linked with the expansion of critical care capacity. METHODS: CMg using nanopore sequencing was evaluated in a proof-of-concept study on 43 respiratory samples from 34 intubated patients across seven intensive care units (ICUs) over a 9-week period during the first COVID-19 pandemic wave. RESULTS: An 8-h CMg workflow was 92% sensitive (95% CI, 75-99%) and 82% specific (95% CI, 57-96%) for bacterial identification based on culture-positive and culture-negative samples, respectively. CMg sequencing reported the presence or absence of ß-lactam-resistant genes carried by Enterobacterales that would modify the initial guideline-recommended antibiotics in every case. CMg was also 100% concordant with quantitative PCR for detecting Aspergillus fumigatus from 4 positive and 39 negative samples. Molecular typing using 24-h sequencing data identified an MDR-K. pneumoniae ST307 outbreak involving 4 patients and an MDR-C. striatum outbreak involving 14 patients across three ICUs. CONCLUSION: CMg testing provides accurate pathogen detection and antibiotic resistance prediction in a same-day laboratory workflow, with assembled genomes available the next day for genomic surveillance. The provision of this technology in a service setting could fundamentally change the multi-disciplinary team approach to managing ICU infections. The potential to improve the initial targeted treatment and rapidly detect unsuspected outbreaks of MDR-pathogens justifies further expedited clinical assessment of CMg.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cross Infection/transmission , Metagenomics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Corynebacterium/genetics , Corynebacterium/isolation & purification , Cross Infection/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/chemistry , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sequence Analysis, DNA , beta-Lactamases/genetics
12.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(6): 718-727, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506882

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused multiple challenges to ICUs, including an increased rate of secondary infections, mostly caused by Gram-negative micro-organisms. Worrying trends of resistance acquisition complicate this picture. We provide a review of the latest evidence to guide management of patients with septic shock because of Gram-negative bacteria. RECENT FINDINGS: New laboratory techniques to detect pathogens and specific resistance patterns from the initial culture are available. Those may assist decreasing the time to adequate antimicrobial therapy and avoid unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotic overuse. New antimicrobials, including ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations, such as ceftolozane-tazobactam, imipenem-relebactam or meropenem-vaborbactam and cephalosporins, such as cefiderocol targeted to specific pathogens and resistance patterns are available for use in the clinical setting. Optimization of antibiotic dosing and delivery should follow pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles and wherever available therapeutic drug monitoring. Management of sepsis has brought capillary refill time back to the spotlight along with more reasoned fluid resuscitation and a moderate approach to timing of dialysis initiation. SUMMARY: Novel rapid diagnostic tests and antimicrobials specifically targeted to Gram-negative pathogens are available and should be used within the principles of antimicrobial stewardship including de-escalation and short duration of antimicrobial therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Shock, Septic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/drug therapy
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1144, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the concept of medicine. This work aims to analyze the use of antibiotics in patients admitted to the hospital due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: This work analyzes the use and effectiveness of antibiotics in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 based on data from the SEMI-COVID-19 registry, an initiative to generate knowledge about this disease using data from electronic medical records. Our primary endpoint was all-cause in-hospital mortality according to antibiotic use. The secondary endpoint was the effect of macrolides on mortality. RESULTS: Of 13,932 patients, antibiotics were used in 12,238. The overall death rate was 20.7% and higher among those taking antibiotics (87.8%). Higher mortality was observed with use of all antibiotics (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.21-1.62; p < .001) except macrolides, which had a higher survival rate (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.64-0.76; p < .001). The decision to start antibiotics was influenced by presence of increased inflammatory markers and any kind of infiltrate on an x-ray. Patients receiving antibiotics required respiratory support and were transferred to intensive care units more often. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial co-infection was uncommon among COVID-19 patients, yet use of antibiotics was high. There is insufficient evidence to support widespread use of empiric antibiotics in these patients. Most may not require empiric treatment and if they do, there is promising evidence regarding azithromycin as a potential COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504055

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite acute respiratory infections (ARIs) being the single largest reason for antibiotic use in under-5 children in Bangladesh, the prevalence of antibiotic use in the community for an ARI episode and factors associated with antibiotic use in this age group are unknown. METHODS: We analysed nationally representative, population-based, household survey data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2014 to determine the prevalence of antibiotic use in the community for ARI in under-5 children. Using a causal graph and multivariable logistical regression, we then identified and determined the sociodemographic and antibiotic source factors significantly associated with the use of antibiotics for an episode of ARI. RESULTS: We analysed data for 2 144 children aged <5 years with symptoms of ARI from 17 300 households. In our sample, 829 children (39%) received antibiotics for their ARI episode (95% CI 35.4% to 42.0%). Under-5 children from rural households were 60% (adjusted OR (aOR): 1.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.1) more likely to receive antibiotics compared with those from urban households, largely driven by prescriptions from unqualified or traditional practitioners. Private health facilities were 50% (aOR: 0.5; 95% CI 0.3 to 0.7) less likely to be sources of antibiotics compared with public health facilities and non-governmental organisations. Age of children, sex of children or household wealth had no impact on use of antibiotics. CONCLUSION: In this first nationally representative analysis of antibiotic use in under-5 children in Bangladesh, we found almost 40% of children received antibiotics for an ARI episode. The significant prevalence of antibiotic exposure in under-5 children supports the need for coordinated policy interventions and implementation of clinical practice guidelines at point of care to minimise the adverse effects attributed to antibiotic overuse.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Respiratory Tract Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Child , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rural Population
15.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503647

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
16.
Br J Nurs ; 30(19): S4-S12, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497946

ABSTRACT

Community intravenous therapy is well-established in most regions of the UK. Although there are national good practice recommendations detailing the service provision of outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT), examples of extended service delivery of other therapies are limited. This article describes the development of a community IV therapy service through integration with acute and primary care teams. IV therapies delivered in addition to antimicrobials safely outside of the hospital setting are also discussed with scope for future areas of development explored. The benefits of care closer to home for patients during the global COVID-19 pandemic are examined, as well as the potential for widening the whole gamut of practice for already established NHS community services through the development of integrated working in a local care organisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 155, 2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We defined the frequency of respiratory community-acquired bacterial co-infection in patients with COVID-19, i.e. patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or a COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) score ≥ 4, based on a complete clinical assessment, including prior antibiotic use, clinical characteristics, inflammatory markers, chest computed tomography (CT) results and microbiological test results. METHODS: Our retrospective study was conducted within a cohort of prospectively included patients admitted for COVID-19 in our tertiary medical centres between 1-3-2020 and 1-6-2020. A multidisciplinary study team developed a diagnostic protocol to retrospectively categorize patients as unlikely, possible or probable bacterial co-infection based on clinical, radiological and microbiological parameters in the first 72 h of admission. Within the three categories, we summarized patient characteristics and antibiotic consumption. RESULTS: Among 281 included COVID-19 patients, bacterial co-infection was classified as unlikely in 233 patients (82.9%), possible in 35 patients (12.4%) and probable in 3 patients (1.1%). Ten patients (3.6%) could not be classified due to inconclusive data. Within 72 h of hospital admission, 81% of the total study population and 78% of patients classified as unlikely bacterial co-infection received antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients are unlikely to have a respiratory community-acquired bacterial co-infection. This study underpins recommendations for restrictive use of antibacterial drugs in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Pharmacol Rev ; 73(4): 233-262, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494905

ABSTRACT

Macrolides are among the most widely prescribed broad spectrum antibacterials, particularly for respiratory infections. It is now recognized that these drugs, in particular azithromycin, also exert time-dependent immunomodulatory actions that contribute to their therapeutic benefit in both infectious and other chronic inflammatory diseases. Their increased chronic use in airway inflammation and, more recently, of azithromycin in COVID-19, however, has led to a rise in bacterial resistance. An additional crucial aspect of chronic airway inflammation, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, as well as other inflammatory disorders, is the loss of epithelial barrier protection against pathogens and pollutants. In recent years, azithromycin has been shown with time to enhance the barrier properties of airway epithelial cells, an action that makes an important contribution to its therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we review the background and evidence for various immunomodulatory and time-dependent actions of macrolides on inflammatory processes and on the epithelium and highlight novel nonantibacterial macrolides that are being studied for immunomodulatory and barrier-strengthening properties to circumvent the risk of bacterial resistance that occurs with macrolide antibacterials. We also briefly review the clinical effects of macrolides in respiratory and other inflammatory diseases associated with epithelial injury and propose that the beneficial epithelial effects of nonantibacterial azithromycin derivatives in chronic inflammation, even given prophylactically, are likely to gain increasing attention in the future. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Based on its immunomodulatory properties and ability to enhance the protective role of the lung epithelium against pathogens, azithromycin has proven superior to other macrolides in treating chronic respiratory inflammation. A nonantibiotic azithromycin derivative is likely to offer prophylactic benefits against inflammation and epithelial damage of differing causes while preserving the use of macrolides as antibiotics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macrolides , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/pharmacology , Humans , Macrolides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(5): 423-431, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452768

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria poses a major risk to global public health, with many factors contributing to the observed increase in AMR. International travel is one recognized contributor. The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the acquisition, carriage and spread of AMR bacteria by international travelers. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have highlighted that travel is an important risk factor for the acquisition of AMR bacteria, with approximately 30% of studied travelers returning with an acquired AMR bacterium. Epidemiological studies have shown there are three major risk factors for acquisition: travel destination, antimicrobial usage and travelers' diarrhea (TD). Analyses have begun to illustrate the AMR genes that are acquired and spread by travelers, risk factors for acquisition and carriage of AMR bacteria, and local transmission of imported AMR organisms. SUMMARY: International travel is a contributor to the acquisition and dissemination of AMR organisms globally. Efforts to reduce the burden of AMR organisms should include a focus on international travelers. Routine genomic surveillance would further elucidate the role of international travel in the global spread of AMR bacteria.


Subject(s)
Diarrhea , Travel , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Diarrhea/drug therapy , Global Health , Humans
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...