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1.
Vet Rec ; 191(9): 363, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238858
2.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e072622, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233676

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Children with bone and joint infections are traditionally treated with intravenous antibiotics for 3-10 days, followed by oral antibiotics. Oral-only treatment has not been tested in randomised trials. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Children (3 months to 18 years) will be randomised 1:1 with the experimental group receiving high-dose oral antibiotics and the control group receiving intravenous antibiotics with a shift in both groups to standard oral antibiotics after clinical and paraclinical improvement. Children in need of acute surgery or systemic features requiring intravenous therapy, including septic shock, are excluded. The primary outcome is defined as a normal blinded standardised clinical assessment 6 months after end of treatment. Secondary outcomes are non-acute treatment failure and recurrent infection. Outcomes will be compared by a non-inferiority assumption with an inferiority margin of 5%. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial has the potential to reduce unnecessary hospitalisation and use of intravenous antibiotics in children with bone or joint infections. Due to the close follow-up, exclusion of severely ill children and predefined criteria for discontinuation of the allocated therapy, we expect the risk of treatment failure to be minimal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04563325.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Administration, Intravenous , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
BJS Open ; 7(3)2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233205

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A major shift in treatment of appendicitis occurred early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic with non-operative management used commonly outside research protocols and in units with limited previous experience. This study aims to compare real-world outcomes of surgery versus non-operative management of uncomplicated appendicitis in children with 1-year follow-up. METHOD: A prospective multicentre observational study of children treated for uncomplicated appendicitis at 74 hospitals in the UK and Ireland from 1 April to 31 July 2020 was performed. Propensity-score matched analysis was conducted using age, sex, C-reactive protein at diagnosis and duration of symptoms as covariates. Primary outcomes were success of non-operative management defined as achieving 1-year follow-up without undergoing appendicectomy due to recurrent appendicitis or ongoing symptoms, and occurrence of any predefined complication (intra-abdominal collection, wound infection, bowel obstruction or reintervention). RESULTS: Of 1464 children with presumed uncomplicated appendicitis, 1027 (70.2 per cent) underwent surgery and 437 (29.9 per cent) underwent non-operative management. Ninety-four children (21.5 per cent) treated by initial non-operative management required appendicectomy during the index hospital admission while recurrent appendicitis after discharge occurred in 25 (10.4 per cent) children within 1 year. The overall success rate of non-operative management at 1 year was 63.1 per cent (95 per cent c.i. 58.0 to 68.3 per cent). For propensity-score matched analyses, 688 children undergoing surgery and 307 undergoing non-operative management were included. Any predefined complication occurred in 50 (7.3 per cent) children undergoing surgery and in four (1.3 per cent) children undergoing non-operative management (OR 5.9 (95 per cent c.i. 2.1 to 16.6)) in the propensity-score matched cohort. There was no mortality or stoma formation. CONCLUSION: Non-operative management is a safe and valid alternative to appendicectomy in children with uncomplicated appendicitis.


Subject(s)
Appendicitis , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Appendicitis/surgery , Appendicitis/complications , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Male , Female
4.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 77(1): 23-33, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233067

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The primary symptom of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is diarrhea of varying severity. Both malnutrition and clinical nutrition increase the risk for contracting Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile) infection and the likelihood of relapses. Moreover, the risk for recurrence is higher if there is infection with a hypervirulent strain (NAP1/BI/027). Hypoalbuminemia predisposes to a severe course of the disease and morbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Analysis was carried out of the data regarding patients hospitalized at the Regional Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Warsaw from 01 January 2020 to 31 December 2021 who were diagnosed with C. difficile infection. A severe course of infection was diagnosed when a blood test showed a leukocyte count greater than or equal to 15,000/µl and/or a creatinine concentration >1.5 mg/dl (>132.6 mmol/l). RESULTS: Clostridioides difficile infection was the reason for 185 hospitalizations (involving 108 women and 77 men), of 167 patients aged from 22 to 93 years old. There were 68 (37%) cases of recurrent infection. Seventy-five (41%) infections met the study's criteria for severe CDI, and 12 (7%) patients died. Out of the total number of hospitalizations, 41 (22%) were due SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. PCR tests detecting binary toxin revealed 34 (18%) positive results. Infection with a hypervirulent strain was an independent risk factor for the recurrence of diarrhea which had C. difficile etiology. Overall, during an episode of diarrhea, one antibacterial drug was used in 139 cases (75%), two in 27 (15%), three in 14 (8%) situations, and four - twice (1%). Among these, drugs not recommended for the treatment of CDI were used in 21 (11%) cases. The number of antibacterial drugs administered during an episode of diarrhea was an independent risk factor for the death of the infected person. Clinical nutrition was applied during 19 hospitalizations (10%), out of which 12 (63%) cases showed a severe course of C. difficile infection, while four patients (21%) died. Using clinical nutrition methods was an independent risk factor for a severe course of the disease and patient death. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical nutrition and the number of antibiotics used during an episode of diarrhea are independent risk factors for the death of a patient with CDI. Infection with a hypervirulent strain increases the risk for relapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clostridioides difficile , Clostridium Infections , Male , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Poland/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Clostridium Infections/complications , Clostridium Infections/epidemiology , Recurrence
5.
J Hosp Infect ; 137: 44-53, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232613

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In Tuscany, Italy, New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (NDM-CRE) in hospitalized patients has increasingly been observed since 2018, leading in 2019 to the implementation of enhanced control measures successfully reducing transmission. We describe the NDM-CRE epidemiology during the COVID-19 pandemic in Tuscany. METHODS: Data on NDM-CRE patients hospitalized in five Tuscan hospitals were collected from January 2019 to December 2021. Weekly rates of NDM-CRE cases on hospital days in medical and critical-care wards were calculated. In March-December 2020, NDM-CRE rates were stratified by COVID-19 diagnosis. Multi-variate regression analysis was performed to assess outcomes' differences among two periods analysed and between COVID-19 populations. RESULTS: Since March 2020, an increase in NDM-CRE cases was observed, associated with COVID-19 admissions. COVID-19 patients differed significantly from non-COVID-19 ones by several variables, including patient features (age, Charlson index) and clinical history and outcomes (NDM-CRE infection/colonization, intensive care unit stay, length of stay, mortality). During the pandemic, we observed a higher rate of NDM-CRE cases per hospital day in both non-COVID-19 patients (273/100,000) and COVID-19 patients (370/100,00) when compared with pre-pandemic period cases (187/100,00). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a resurgence in NDM-CRE spread among hospitalized patients in Tuscany during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as a change in patients' case-mix. The observed increase in hospital transmission of NDM-CRE could be related to changes in infection prevention and control procedures, aimed mainly at COVID-19 management, leading to new challenges in hospital preparedness and crisis management planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gammaproteobacteria , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases , Hospitals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
6.
Bull World Health Organ ; 101(6): 369-370, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20232468

ABSTRACT

John Rex talks to Gary Humphreys about the challenges faced in developing and bringing to market new antibiotics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Investments , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 13: 1181402, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237417

ABSTRACT

Background: Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) is a commonly occurring pathogen causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. The global prevalence of macrolide-resistant MP (MRMP) infection, especially in Asian regions, is increasing rapidly. However, the prevalence of MRMP and its clinical significance during the COVID-19 pandemic is not clear. Methods: This study enrolled children with molecularly confirmed macrolide-susceptible MP (MSMP) and MRMP CAP from Beijing Children's Hospital Baoding Hospital, Capital Medical University between August 2021 and July 2022. The clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, chest imaging presentations, and strain genotypes were compared between patients with MSMP and MRMP CAP. Results: A total of 520 hospitalized children with MP-CAP were enrolled in the study, with a macrolide resistance rate of 92.7%. Patients with MRMP infection exhibited more severe clinical manifestations (such as dyspnea and pleural effusion) and had a longer hospital stay than the MSMP group. Furthermore, abnormal blood test results (including increased LDH and D-dimer) were more common in the MRMP group (P<0.05). Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was performed on 304 samples based on four loci (Mpn13-16), and M3562 and M4572 were the major types, accounting for 74.0% and 16.8% of the strains, respectively. The macrolide resistance rate of M3562 strains was up to 95.1%. Conclusion: The prevalence of MRMP strains in hospitalized CAP patients was extremely high in the Baoding area, and patients infected with MRMP strains exhibited more severe clinical features and increased LDH and D-dimer. M3562 was the predominant resistant clone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma , Child , Humans , Pneumonia, Mycoplasma/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Macrolides/pharmacology , Clinical Relevance , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/genetics , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology
10.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 78: 100231, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to analyze the Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) rates and antimicrobial consumption in Intensive Care Units (ICU) in São Paulo city during the COVID-19 pandemic and compare them with the pre-pandemic period. METHODS: This cohort included all hospitals that reported HAI rates (Central-Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection ‒ CLABSI and Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia ‒ VAP), the proportion of microorganisms that caused CLABSI, the proportion of resistant microorganisms, and antimicrobial consumption from January 2017 ‒ December 2020. Hospitals were stratified by the number of beds, Central Venous Catheter (CVC) utilization rate, Mechanical-Ventilation (MV) utilization rate, and type of funding. Statistical analyses were based on time-series plots and regression models. RESULTS: 220 ICUs were included. The authors observed an abrupt increase in CLABSI rates after the pandemic onset. High CLABSI rates during the pandemic were associated with hospital size, funding (public and non-profit private), and low CVC use (≤ 50%). An increase in VAP rates was associated with public hospitals, and high MV use (> 35%). The susceptibility profile of microorganisms did not differ from that of the pre-pandemic period. polymyxin, glycopeptides, and antifungal use increased, especially in COVID-19 ICUs. CONCLUSIONS: HAI increased during COVID-19. The microorganisms' susceptibility profile did not change with the pandemic, but the authors observed a disproportionate increase in large-spectrum antimicrobial drug use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Catheter-Related Infections , Cross Infection , Humans , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/complications , Catheter-Related Infections/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross Infection/etiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Intensive Care Units , Delivery of Health Care
11.
Am J Emerg Med ; 69: 5-10, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244366

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Prior data have suggested that suboptimal antibiotic prescribing in the emergency department (ED) is common for uncomplicated lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), urinary tract infections (UTI), and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). The objective of this study was to measure the effect of indication-based antibiotic order sentences (AOS) on optimal antibiotic prescribing in the ED. METHODS: This was an IRB-approved quasi-experiment of adults prescribed antibiotics in EDs for uncomplicated LRTI, UTI, or ABSSSI from January to June 2019 (pre-implementation) and September to December 2021 (post-implementation). AOS implementation occurred in July 2021. AOS are lean process, electronic discharge prescriptions retrievable by name or indication within the discharge order field. The primary outcome was optimal prescribing, defined as correct antibiotic selection, dose, and duration per local and national guidelines. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were performed; multivariable logistic regression was used to determine variables associated with optimal prescribing. RESULTS: A total of 294 patients were included: 147 pre-group and 147 post-group. Overall optimal prescribing improved from 12 (8%) to 34 (23%) (P < 0.001). Individual components of optimal prescribing were optimal selection at 90 (61%) vs 117 (80%) (P < 0.001), optimal dose at 99 (67%) vs 115 (78%) (P = 0.036), and optimal duration at 38 (26%) vs 50 (34%) (P = 0.13) for pre- and post-group, respectively. AOS was independently associated with optimal prescribing after multivariable logistic regression analysis (adjOR, 3.6; 95%CI,1.7-7.2). A post-hoc analysis showed low uptake of AOS by ED prescribers. CONCLUSIONS: AOS are an efficient and promising strategy to enhance antimicrobial stewardship in the ED.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , Respiratory Tract Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Adult , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Inappropriate Prescribing
12.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(5): 597-609, 2023 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243572

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a natural evolutionary process in bacteria that is accelerated by selection pressure from the frequent and irrational use of antimicrobial drugs. This study aimed to determine the variations in AMR patterns of priority bacterial pathogens at a tertiary care hospital in the Gaza Strip during pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: This is a retrospective observational study to determine the AMR patterns of bacterial pathogens at a tertiary hospital in the Gaza Strip in the post-COVID-19 pandemic period compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. Positive-bacterial culture data of 2039 samples from pre-COVID-19 period and 1827 samples from post-COVID-19 period were obtained from microbiology laboratory records. These data were analysed and compared by Chi square test using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Program. RESULTS: Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens were isolated. Escherichia coli was the most prevalent in both study periods. The overall AMR rate was high. There was a statistically significant increase in resistance to cloxacillin, erythromycin, cephalexin, co-trimoxazole and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid in the post-COVID-19 period compared to pre-COVID-19 period. There was also a significant decrease in resistance to cefuroxime, cefotaxime, gentamicin, doxycycline, rifampicin, vancomycin and meropenem in the post-COVID-19 period. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the AMR rates of restricted and noncommunity-used antimicrobials declined. However, there was an increase in AMR to antimicrobials used without medical prescription. Therefore, restriction on the sale of antimicrobial drugs by community pharmacies without a prescription, hospital antimicrobial stewardship and awareness about the dangers of extensive use of antibiotics are recommended.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Tertiary Care Centers , Pandemics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , COVID-19/epidemiology , Bacteria , Escherichia coli , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
13.
PLoS Med ; 20(6): e1004240, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243081

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Circulation of multidrug-resistant bacteria (MRB) in healthcare facilities is a major public health problem. These settings have been greatly impacted by the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, notably due to surges in COVID-19 caseloads and the implementation of infection control measures. We sought to evaluate how such collateral impacts of COVID-19 impacted the nosocomial spread of MRB in an early pandemic context. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a mathematical model in which Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and MRB cocirculate among patients and staff in a theoretical hospital population. Responses to COVID-19 were captured mechanistically via a range of parameters that reflect impacts of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on factors relevant for pathogen transmission. COVID-19 responses include both "policy responses" willingly enacted to limit SARS-CoV-2 transmission (e.g., universal masking, patient lockdown, and reinforced hand hygiene) and "caseload responses" unwillingly resulting from surges in COVID-19 caseloads (e.g., abandonment of antibiotic stewardship, disorganization of infection control programmes, and extended length of stay for COVID-19 patients). We conducted 2 main sets of model simulations, in which we quantified impacts of SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on MRB colonization incidence and antibiotic resistance rates (the share of colonization due to antibiotic-resistant versus antibiotic-sensitive strains). The first set of simulations represents diverse MRB and nosocomial environments, accounting for high levels of heterogeneity across bacterial parameters (e.g., rates of transmission, antibiotic sensitivity, and colonization prevalence among newly admitted patients) and hospital parameters (e.g., rates of interindividual contact, antibiotic exposure, and patient admission/discharge). On average, COVID-19 control policies coincided with MRB prevention, including 28.2% [95% uncertainty interval: 2.5%, 60.2%] fewer incident cases of patient MRB colonization. Conversely, surges in COVID-19 caseloads favoured MRB transmission, resulting in a 13.8% [-3.5%, 77.0%] increase in colonization incidence and a 10.4% [0.2%, 46.9%] increase in antibiotic resistance rates in the absence of concomitant COVID-19 control policies. When COVID-19 policy responses and caseload responses were combined, MRB colonization incidence decreased by 24.2% [-7.8%, 59.3%], while resistance rates increased by 2.9% [-5.4%, 23.2%]. Impacts of COVID-19 responses varied across patients and staff and their respective routes of pathogen acquisition. The second set of simulations was tailored to specific hospital wards and nosocomial bacteria (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli). Consequences of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks were found to be highly context specific, with impacts depending on the specific ward and bacteria evaluated. In particular, SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks significantly impacted patient MRB colonization only in settings with high underlying risk of bacterial transmission. Yet across settings and species, antibiotic resistance burden was reduced in facilities with timelier implementation of effective COVID-19 control policies. CONCLUSIONS: Our model suggests that surges in nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 transmission generate selection for the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Timely implementation of efficient COVID-19 control measures thus has 2-fold benefits, preventing the transmission of both SARS-CoV-2 and MRB, and highlighting antibiotic resistance control as a collateral benefit of pandemic preparedness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
14.
Pathog Glob Health ; 117(5): 437-449, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242484

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a substantial risk to public health. In low-income and middle-income (LMICs) nations, the impact of AMR is significantly more severe. The absence of data from low-income countries (LMICs) causes this topic to be frequently overlooked. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic could make the AMR issue even worse. Earlier guidelines recommended antibiotic use in patients with COVID-19, even in those without bacterial coinfection. This study aims to investigate the proportion of antibiotic prescriptions in LMICs among patients with and without coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), the proportion of inappropriate antibiotics, and multi-antibiotic prescribing. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA). We retrieved data through online databases, including PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. Amongst COVID-19 patients, the meta-analytic estimate of antibiotic prescription was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72-0.88), whereas antibiotic use among patients with non-COVID-19 infections was 0.54 (95% CI: 0.49-0.58). Half of those prescribed antibiotics (0.52, 95% CI: 0.32-0.72) are inappropriate prescriptions. In addition, we found that one-third of antibiotics prescriptions consisted of more than one antibiotic (0.32, 95% CI: 0.21-0.43). In conclusion, antibiotics are highly prescribed across LMICs, and their use is increased in patients with COVID-19. Amongst those prescriptions, inappropriate and multiple use was not uncommon. This study has several limitations, as it included two studies in an ambulatory setting, and some of the studies included in the analysis were conducted on a small scale. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that urgent action to improve prescribing practices is essential.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Developing Countries , Prevalence , Pandemics , Prescriptions
15.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 17(1): 129-134, 2023 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242325

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common nosocomial infections with different clinical and microbiological characteristics. We studied these characteristics in critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY: This research was a cross-sectional study conducted on intensive care unit (ICU) patients with CAUTI. Patients' demographic and clinical information and laboratory data, including causative microorganisms and antibiotic susceptibility tests, were recorded and analyzed. Finally, the differences between the patients who survived and died were compared. RESULTS: After reviewing 353 ICU cases, 80 patients with CAUTI were finally included in the study. The mean age was 55.9 ± 19.1 years, 43.7% were male and 56.3% were female. The mean length of infection development since hospitalisation and hospital stay were 14.7 (3-90) and 27.8 (5-98) days, respectively. The most common symptom was fever (80%). The microbiological identification showed that the most isolated microorganisms were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Enterobacteriaceae (75%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8%), Gram-positive uropathogens (8.8%) and Acinetobacter baumannii (5%). Fifteen patients (18.8%) died among whom infections with A. baumannii (75%) and P. aeruginosa (57.1%) were associated with more death (p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Although A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa can be the most important pathogens for death, MDR Enterobacteriaceae are still a serious concern as causes of CAUTIs.


Subject(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii , Cross Infection , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Critical Illness , Cross Infection/microbiology , Catheters , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Intensive Care Units , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 23(6): 706-718, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding strategic commitments and policy responses to overcome antimicrobial resistance at the national, regional, and global levels is required to evaluate current progress and direct future planning. National action plans (NAPs) are the primary mechanism for guiding national strategy and action for antimicrobial resistance governance. Although several NAPs have been developed, no comprehensive content analysis of these plans exists. Using a governance framework, we aimed to assess all publicly available NAPs on antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the contents of NAPs on antimicrobial resistance from 114 countries, applying a governance framework containing 18 domains and 54 indicators in three integral areas: policy design, implementation tools, and monitoring and evaluation. As well as manually searching NAPs and doing online and literature searches that were relevant to specific indicators from repository inception to June 1, 2022, several data sources were used to generate scores, including the Tripartite Antimicrobial Resistance Country Self-Assessment Survey, the Global Antimicrobial Resistance and Use Surveillance System, the Global Antimicrobial Resistance Research and Development Hub, and various WHO datasets. NAPs were included if the country had also submitted the NAP to the Tripartite Antimicrobial Resistance Country Self-Assessment Survey 2020-21, if the NAP was retrievable through a publicly accessible database or website, and if the NAP was either published in English or eligible for machine translation. Three researchers independently reviewed each NAP and were initially blinded to the evaluations of other researchers. They generated a score using a quantification system for each of 54 indicators. The Cochrane protocol for ensuring reliability was followed. The three researchers were then unblinded and met to resolve any disagreements in scoring to reach a consensus agreement. In each case of discrepancy, consensus was reached between the researchers. We developed criteria to standardise the process of quantifying each indicator. We also weighted and collated relevant national data from various sources to generate composite scores concordant with the key governance areas. We transformed these data to a scale of 0 (worst) to 100 (best), ranked countries on the basis of their mean scores, and used descriptive statistics to analyse global and regional trends. FINDINGS: 306 NAPs were identified and 114 were eligible for analysis. Between 2020 and 2021, the mean antimicrobial resistance governance score was 51 (SD 14). Norway had the highest governance score (mean 85 [SD 32]), and the Federated States of Micronesia had the lowest governance score (28 [37]). The highest scoring domain was participation (83 [16]), and the lowest scoring domains were accountability (30 [18]) and feedback mechanism (30 [25]). Domains relating to policy design (55 [13]) and implementation tools (54 [17]) scored similarly, whereas monitoring and evaluation (38 [20]) efforts were lower. INTERPRETATION: International efforts to control antimicrobial resistance varied considerably between countries. Monitoring and evaluation efforts need improving for continuous understanding of national and international progress. International response might not be commensurate with the scale and severity of antimicrobial resistance. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Micronesia , Norway
18.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(7): 223, 2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20231023

ABSTRACT

The novel human coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which results in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused a serious threat to global public health. Therefore, many studies are performed on the causes and prevalence of this disease and the possible co-occurrence of the infection with other viral and bacterial pathogens is investigated. Respiratory infections predispose patients to co-infections and these lead to increased disease severity and mortality. Numerous types of antibiotics have been employed for the prevention and treatment of bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infections in patients with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Although antibiotics do not directly affect SARS-CoV-2, viral respiratory infections often result in bacterial pneumonia. It is possible that some patients die from bacterial co-infection rather than virus itself. Therefore, bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection are considered critical risk factors for the severity and mortality rates of COVID-19. In this review, we will summarize the bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection in some featured respiratory viral infections, especially COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Coinfection/epidemiology , Bacteria/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 35(2)2023 May 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20230769

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 pandemic and the related public health mitigation measures have impacted the transmission of infectious diseases; however, their impact on the use of antibacterials has not yet been extensively evaluated. This study evaluated the impact of the pandemic on the consumption patterns of antibacterials for systemic use in primary care in Portugal. An interrupted time-series analysis was performed using the autoregressive integrated moving average model of the antibacterials dispensed in the community pharmacies in Portugal from 1 January 2016 to 30 June 2022. Monthly rates of absolute consumption (all antibacterials for systemic use, and specifically penicillins; cephalosporins; macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins; and quinolones) and the relative consumption of antibacterials (penicillins sensitive to ß-lactamase, penicillin combinations including ß-lactamase inhibitors, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and the ratio of broad- to narrow-spectrum antibacterials) were estimated. Antibiotic consumption was expressed in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID). In Portugal, the consumption of antibacterials (J01) declined sharply immediately after the beginning of the pandemic, having a significant reduction of >5 DID (P < .0001). A similar, short-term impact was found for penicillins (-2.920 DID; P < .0001); cephalosporins (-0.428 DID; P < .0001); macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins (-0.681 DID; P = .0021); and quinolones (-0.320 DID; P < .0001). A long-term increase was found for cephalosporins (+0.019 DID per month; P < .0001). Relative consumption changes were only found for third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (0.0734%). Our study suggests that the coronavirus disease-19 pandemic may have resulted in a decrease in antibiotic use, with no significant changes in the relative dispense. Uncertainties regarding the long-term effects of the pandemic and its impact on the rates of resistance remain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quinolones , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Penicillins , Cephalosporins , Streptogramins , Lincosamides , Macrolides , Primary Health Care
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