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1.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263437, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was great enthusiasm for the use of azithromycin with or without hydroxychloroquine. OBJECTIVES: We analyzed azithromycin consumption in Croatia in 2020 and compared this to the period 2017-2019. METHODS: Azithromycin consumption was evaluated using the IQVIA Adriatic d.o.o. database which collects data on azithromycin distribution from wholesale pharmacies to hospital and non-hospital pharmacies in Croatia. We analyzed data for the period from January 2017 to December 2020. Azithromycin distribution was measured as days of therapy (DOT) and reported as per 1000 inhabitants or per 1000 inhabitant-days. RESULTS: In the period 2017-2020, total azithromycin DOT in Croatia increased in 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020 (1.76, 1.91, 1.91 and 2.01/1000 inhabitant-days, respectively). Non-hospital pharmacies received 2.18 times and hospital pharmacies 4.39 times more DOT units/1000 inhabitants of azithromycin in March 2020 compared to the average distribution rate in March 2017-2019. During the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic (November and December 2020) azithromycin distribution increased considerably in hospital (3.62 and 3.19 times, respectively) and non-hospital pharmacies (1.93 and 1.84 times, respectively) compared to the average consumption in the same months in 2017-2019. CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed increased azithromycin distribution in the period 2017-2020 which indicates azithromycin overuse. Preliminary information on COVID-19 treatments with a desire to offer and try what is available even in the absence of strong scientific evidence may have influenced practices of antimicrobial prescriptions.


Subject(s)
Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Drug Utilization/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Croatia/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Drug Therapy, Combination , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785837

ABSTRACT

The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of propolis from a semi-arid region of Morocco were investigated. Fifteen compounds, including triterpenoids (1, 2, 7-12), macrocyclic diterpenes of ingol type (3-6) and aromatic derivatives (13-15), were isolated by various chromatographic methods. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic and chiroptical methods. Compounds 1 and 3 are new natural compounds, and 2, 4-6, and 9-11 are newly isolated from propolis. Moreover, the full nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assignments of three of the known compounds (2, 4 and 5) were reported for the first time. Most of the compounds tested, especially the diterpenes 3, 4, and 6, exhibited very good activity against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Compound 3 showed the strongest activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4-64 µg/mL. The combination of isolated triterpenoids and ingol diterpenes was found to be characteristic for Euphorbia spp., and Euphorbia officinarum subsp. echinus could be suggested as a probable and new plant source of propolis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Diterpenes , Euphorbia , Propolis , Triterpenes , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Diterpenes/chemistry , Euphorbia/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Morocco , Propolis/pharmacology , Triterpenes/chemistry
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785729

ABSTRACT

The development of affordable, effective, and environmentally friendly barrier fabrics is a current goal in antimicrobial textile development. The discovery of new routes to achieve non-toxic naturally occurring molecules with antimicrobial activity is of interest in the development of materials that promote wound healing, improve hygiene, and offer protection against nosocomial infection. Highly cleaned and sterile unbleached cotton has constituents that produce hydrogen peroxide at levels commensurate with those that favor cell signaling in wound healing. Here, we show the antimicrobial and antiviral properties of spunlaced griege cotton-containing nonwovens treated with ascorbic acid formulations. The mechanism of action occurs through the promotion of enhanced hydrogen peroxide activity. The levels of hydrogen peroxide activity afford antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and antiviral activity against MS2 bacteriophages. Spun-bond nonwoven unbleached cotton was treated with ascorbic acid using traditional pad-dry-cure methods. An assessment of antibacterial and antiviral activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and MS2 bacteriophages with the AATCC 100 test method showed a 99.99% inhibitory activity. An approach to the covalent attachment of ascorbic to cellulose through citric acid crosslinking chemistry is also discussed. Thus, a simple, low-cost approach to antimicrobial and antiviral cotton-based nonwovens applicable to dressings, nosocomial barrier fabrics, and face masks can be adopted by combining ascorbic acid with spunlace greige cotton nonwoven fabrics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Cotton Fiber , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Gossypium , Hydrogen Peroxide , Textiles
4.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 58, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785172

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical worldwide health issue that jeopardizes our ability to fight illnesses. However, despite being a natural phenomenon, AMR is exacerbated in the world by inappropriate administration of an antimicrobial medication such as under-use or overuse by the general population, farmers, and various health professionals. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic has put the world in a shocking state. The pandemic exacerbated the problem of antimicrobial resistance, which was largely caused by irrational off-label use of antivirals, anthelmintics, antimalarials, and, most notably, macrolide antibiotics. As a result, monitoring the AMR progression during the pandemic has been critical. The One Health Approach is progressively becoming the most widely utilized and recommended approach in the ongoing fight against AMR. The aim of this article is to address the lack of teachings in AMR and the One Health Approach in health student training curricula, as well as to provide recommendations that can be implemented as we progress beyond the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , One Health , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Students
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2803, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735270

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the real need for mechanisms to control the spread of airborne respiratory pathogens. Thus, preventing the spread of disease from pathogens has come to the forefront of the public consciousness. This has brought an increasing demand for novel technologies to prioritise clean air. In this study we report on the efficacy of novel biocide treated filters and their antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. The antimicrobial filters reported here are shown to kill pathogens, such as Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and MRSA in under 15 min and to destroy SARS-CoV-2 viral particles in under 30 s following contact with the filter. Through air flow rate testing, light microscopy and SEM, the filters are shown to maintain their structure and filtration function. Further to this, the filters are shown to be extremely durable and to maintain antimicrobial activity throughout the operational lifetime of the product. Lastly, the filters have been tested in field trials onboard the UK rail network, showing excellent efficacy in reducing the burden of microbial species colonising the air conditioning system.


Subject(s)
Air Filters/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Air Filters/virology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Time Factors
6.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 60(246): 225-228, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1716442

ABSTRACT

As the world still mourns the victims of the pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2, another pandemic that is expected to kill millions of people in less than a century, is already brewing. In the distant future, the global, mostly silent pandemic of antimicrobial resistance is increasingly claiming the lives of patients on hospital floors. Unfortunately, the global health community is now gradually and progressively facing the silently emerging pandemic that could endanger some of the most significant advances in modern medicine. Medical students as future physicians, have the potential to help address this problem sustainably keeping in mind that today's medical professionals will hand over the baton to them and hope for a greater improvement in antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic usage. Thus, the next generation of doctors must be better prepared to use antimicrobials more sparingly and appropriately.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e049867, 2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1714406

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the critical medical issues of the 21st century. Medical professionals are the primary prescribers of antimicrobials; their undergraduate education of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) is considered one of the fundamental approaches in combating the issue of AMR. This education level provides a platform to bridge any gaps in their knowledge and competency in AMS. This study aims to develop an educational resource on microbes, hygiene and prudent antimicrobial use for the undergraduate medical programme. The guideline produced will then be assimilated into the existing curriculum which will help to improve the quality of education which in turn will improve rationale as the use of antimicrobials in the future. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A three-step approach consensus approach will be adopted for this study for the development of a validated medical curriculum guideline on AMR. A preliminary curriculum for the programme will be drafted from reviews of published literature including syllabi as well as national and international guidelines. A total of 26 potential sources were found to be relevant, and selected for this study. Subsequently, the drafted curriculum will be subjected for validation via online surveys by various infectious disease experts. Finally, a Delphi technique will be employed to obtain consensus on heterogeneous findings to the revised curriculum. The quantitative and qualitative responses will be analysed and discussed among the panel of researchers. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol has been approved by the Institute of Health Sciences Research Ethics Committee of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (Reference: UBD/PAPRSBIHSREC/2020/124). Informed consent declaration will be collected prior to data collections as indication of agreement of participation in the study. Results will be made available to medical educators and also researchers on AMR and stewardship. The results also will be disseminated at feedback sessions to officers at Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education, Brunei Darussalam.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Prospective Studies
8.
Commun Dis Intell (2018) ; 462022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689523

ABSTRACT

Background: Concerns have been raised internationally, regarding possible increased antimicrobial use during the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact on antimicrobial resistance. This analysis aimed to investigate hospital usage rates of broad-spectrum antibacterial agents used to treat community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and/or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in Australian principal referral hospitals during 2020. Secondly, usage rates in Victoria were compared with equivalent national rates. Methods: Monthly antimicrobial dispensing data for all 31 Australian principal referral hospitals were analysed for the period January 2019 to December 2020. Grams of antimicrobial agents used were converted into the World Health Organization (WHO) assigned metric 'Defined Daily Dose' (DDD). Using the hospital activity metric Occupied Bed Days (OBD), a standardised usage density rate was calculated (in units of DDD / 1,000 OBD). Results: The typical expected seasonal trend in aggregate usage rates, for antibacterials used in the treatment of CAP, was not evident in 2020. Overall usage of doxycycline, azithromycin, amoxicillin and cefuroxime decreased in principal referral hospitals compared to 2019. Aggregated monthly usage rates for broad-spectrum agents used to treat HAP increased nationally, on average, by 5.0% in 2020 compared to 2019. Victoria's second COVID-19 wave (July-October 2020) coincided with higher usage rates of antibacterials used for CAP. Conclusion: Public health interventions introduced to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections may have had unintended benefits on other respiratory infection rates. The drop in hospital usage of antibacterials typically used to treat CAP suggests that the number of cases of pneumonia acquired in the community requiring hospitalisation was markedly reduced in 2020.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Hospitals , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2 , Victoria
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686816

ABSTRACT

This Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, entitled "Antimicrobial Materials with Medical Applications", covers a selection of recent research and review articles in the field of antimicrobial materials, as well as their medical applications [...].


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Drug Development , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , Product Packaging
10.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(7): 8718-8727, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683917

ABSTRACT

Transparent antimicrobial coatings can maintain the aesthetic appeal of surfaces and the functionality of a touch-screen while adding the benefit of reducing disease transmission. We fabricated an antimicrobial coating of silver oxide particles in a silicate matrix on glass. The matrix was grown by a modified Stöber sol-gel process with vapor-phase water and ammonia. A coating on glass with 2.4 mg of Ag2O per mm2 caused a reduction of 99.3% of SARS-CoV-2 and >99.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared to the uncoated glass after 1 h. We envisage that screen protectors with transparent antimicrobial coatings will find particular application to communal touch-screens, such as in supermarkets and other check-out or check-in facilities where a number of individuals utilize the same touch-screen in a short interval.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oxides/chemistry , Silver Compounds/chemistry , Ammonia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Glass/chemistry , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Oxides/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Silicates/chemistry , Silver Compounds/pharmacology , Water/chemistry
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650511

ABSTRACT

International interest in metal-based antimicrobial coatings to control the spread of bacteria, fungi, and viruses via high contact human touch surfaces are growing at an exponential rate. This interest recently reached an all-time high with the outbreak of the deadly COVID-19 disease, which has already claimed the lives of more than 5 million people worldwide. This global pandemic has highlighted the major role that antimicrobial coatings can play in controlling the spread of deadly viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and scientists and engineers are now working harder than ever to develop the next generation of antimicrobial materials. This article begins with a review of three discrete microorganism-killing phenomena of contact-killing surfaces, nanoprotrusions, and superhydrophobic surfaces. The antimicrobial properties of metals such as copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn) are reviewed along with the effects of combining them with titanium dioxide (TiO2) to create a binary or ternary contact-killing surface coatings. The self-cleaning and bacterial resistance of purely structural superhydrophobic surfaces and the potential of physical surface nanoprotrusions to damage microbial cells are then considered. The article then gives a detailed discussion on recent advances in attempting to combine these individual phenomena to create super-antimicrobial metal-based coatings with binary or ternary killing potential against a broad range of microorganisms, including SARS-CoV-2, for high-touch surface applications such as hand rails, door plates, and water fittings on public transport and in healthcare, care home and leisure settings as well as personal protective equipment commonly used in hospitals and in the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Metals/chemistry , Touch , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/transmission , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemical synthesis , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/microbiology , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Surface Properties , Viruses/drug effects
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662665

ABSTRACT

Endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent chronic gynecological disease, is characterized by a systemic inflammation that affects circulating red blood cells (RBC), by reducing anti-oxidant defenses. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential beneficial effects of licorice intake to protect RBCs from dapsone hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH), a harmful metabolite of dapsone, commonly used in the treatment of many diseases. A control group (CG, n = 12) and a patient group (PG, n = 18) were treated with licorice extract (25 mg/day), for a week. Blood samples before (T0) and after (T1) treatment were analyzed for: i) band 3 tyrosine phosphorylation and high molecular weight aggregates; and ii) glutathionylation and carbonic anhydrase activity, in the presence or absence of adjunctive oxidative stress induced by DDS-NHOH. Results were correlated with plasma glycyrrhetinic acid (GA) concentrations, measured by HPLC-MS. Results showed that licorice intake decreased the level of DDS-NHOH-related oxidative alterations in RBCs, and the reduction was directly correlated with plasma GA concentration. In conclusion, in PG, the inability to counteract oxidative stress is a serious concern in the evaluation of therapeutic approaches. GA, by protecting RBC from oxidative assault, as in dapsone therapy, might be considered as a new potential tool for preventing further switching into severe endometriosis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Dapsone/adverse effects , Endometriosis/chemically induced , Glycyrrhiza , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Protective Agents/therapeutic use , Adult , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Endometriosis/prevention & control , Erythrocytes/drug effects , Female , Glycyrrhiza/chemistry , Humans , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Young Adult
13.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 172-181, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1578216

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) is significant challenge humanity faces today, with many patients losing their lives every year due to AMR. It is more widespread and has shown a higher prevalence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) due to lack of awareness and other associated reasons. WHO has suggested some crucial guidelines and specific strategies such as antimicrobial stewardship programs taken at the institutional level to combat AMR. Creating awareness at the grassroots level can help to reduce the AMR and promote safe and effective use of antimicrobials. Control strategies in curbing AMR also comprise hygiene and sanitation as microbes travel from contaminated surroundings to the human body surface. As resistance to multiple drugs increases, vaccines can play a significant role in curbing the menace of AMR. This article summarizes the current surveillance practices and applied control measures to tackle the hostility in these countries with particular reference to the role of antimicrobial stewardship programs and the responsibilities of regulatory authorities in managing the situation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Developing Countries , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Hostility , Humans
14.
Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf ; 48(3): 154-164, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The childhood obesity epidemic in the United States has increased utilization of health care and prescribing of medications in overweight and obese children, yet it is unclear whether this has led to more medication errors. The objective of this study was to review all available literature on incidence and types of medication errors in overweight and obese children. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus databases was conducted for all studies and oral abstracts through December 2020 reporting medication errors in overweight or obese children aged ≤ 18 years. All studies were identified and extracted via a Covidence database. Two reviewers independently reviewed studies and rated the methodologic quality of those included per GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations) criteria. RESULTS: The search identified 1,016 abstracts from databases. Following review, full text was obtained for 146 articles, of which 141 were excluded. A total of 5 studies met criteria for inclusion and described dosing errors of antimicrobials, anesthetics, and paracetamol in overweight and obese pediatric patients. Two of the 5 studies compared medication errors in obese to nonobese children, and both found that medication errors (both over- and underdosing) were generally more common among obese children. The identified reasons for medication errors included incorrect dosing weight, incorrect dosing strategy, over- and underdosing with weight-based and flat-fixed dosing, and inapposite use of age-based dosing schemas. CONCLUSION: There is a paucity of patient safety evidence available evaluating medication use in overweight and obese children and associated medication errors. Overweight and obese children may be at increased risk of medication errors, although the clinical significance of this is unknown.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Medication Errors , Overweight/drug therapy , Pediatric Obesity/drug therapy
15.
Glycoconj J ; 39(2): 261-290, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626176

ABSTRACT

Carbohydrate esters are significant in medicinal chemistry because of their efficacy for the synthesis of biologically active drugs. In the present study, methyl ß-D-galactopyranoside (MGP) was treated with various acyl halides to produce 6-O-acyl MGP esters by direct acylation method with an excellent yield. To obtain newer products for antimicrobial assessment studies, the 6-O-MGP esters were further modified into 2,3,4-tri-O-acyl MGP esters containing a wide variety of functionalities in a single molecular framework. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by analyzing their physicochemical, elemental, and spectroscopic data. In vitro antimicrobial testing against five bacteria and two fungi and the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) revealed that these MGP estes have promising antifungal functionality compared to their antibacterial activities. The antimicrobial tests demonstrated that the compounds 3 and 10 were the most potent against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli strains, with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.352 ± 0.02 to 0.703 ± 0.01 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values ranging from 0.704 ± 0.02 to 1.408 ± 0.04 mg/ml. Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/3-21G level of theory was employed to enumerate, frontier orbital energy, enthalpy, free energy, electronic energy, MEP, dipole moment which evaluated the effect of certain groups (aliphatic and aromatic) on drug properties. They discovered that all esters were more thermodynamically stable than the parent molecule. Molecular docking is performed using AutoDock Vina to determine the binding affinities and interactions between the MGP esters and the SARS-CoV-2 main protease. The modified esters strongly interact with the prime Cys145, His41, MET165, GLY143, THR26, and ASN142 residues. The MGP esters' shape and ability to form multiple electrostatic and hydrogen bonds with the active site match other minor-groove binders' binding modes. The molecular dynamics simulation validates the molecular docking results. The pharmacokinetic characterization of the optimized inhibitor demonstrates that these MGP esters appear to be safer inhibitors and a combination of in silico ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) prediction and drug-likeness had promising results due to their improved kinetic properties. Structure activity relationships (SAR) study including in vitro and silico results revealed that the acyl chain, palmitoyl (C16) and 4-chlorobenzoyl (4.ClC6H4CO-) in combination with sugar were found the most potential activates against human and fungal pathogens. After all, our comprehensive computational and statistical analysis shows that these selected MGP esters can be used as potential inhibitors against the SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Esters/pharmacology , Galactose , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Peptide Hydrolases , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0052221, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622001

ABSTRACT

Heme-containing peroxidases are widely distributed in the animal and plant kingdoms and play an important role in host defense by generating potent oxidants. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), the prototype of heme-containing peroxidases, exists in neutrophils and monocytes. MPO has a broad spectrum of microbial killing. The difficulty of producing MPO at a large scale hinders its study and utilization. This study aimed to overexpress recombinant human MPO and characterize its microbicidal activities in vitro and in vivo. A human HEK293 cell line stably expressing recombinant MPO (rMPO) was established as a component of this study. rMPO was overexpressed and purified for studies on its biochemical and enzymatic properties, as well as its microbicidal activities. In this study, rMPO was secreted into culture medium as a monomer. rMPO revealed enzymatic activity similar to that of native MPO. rMPO, like native MPO, was capable of killing a broad spectrum of microorganisms, including Gram-negative and -positive bacteria and fungi, at low nM levels. Interestingly, rMPO could kill antibiotic-resistant bacteria, making it very useful for treatment of nosocomial infections and mixed infections. The administration of rMPO significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of murine lung infections induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In animal safety tests, the administration of 100 nM rMPO via tail vein did not result in any sign of toxic effects. Taken together, the data suggest that rMPO purified from a stably expressing human cell line is a new class of antimicrobial agents with the ability to kill a broad spectrum of pathogens, including bacteria and fungi with or without drug resistance. IMPORTANCE Over the past 2 decades, more than 20 new infectious diseases have emerged. Unfortunately, novel antimicrobial therapeutics are discovered at much lower rates. Infections caused by resistant microorganisms often fail to respond to conventional treatment, resulting in prolonged illness, greater risk of death, and high health care costs. Currently, this is best seen with the lack of a cure for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To combat such untreatable microorganisms, there is an urgent need to discover new classes of antimicrobial agents. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in host defense. The difficulty of producing MPO on a large scale hinders its study and utilization. We have produced recombinant MPO at a large scale and have characterized its antimicrobial activities. Most importantly, recombinant MPO significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of murine pneumonia induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Our data suggest that recombinant MPO from human cells is a new class of antimicrobials with a broad spectrum of activity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Peroxidase/pharmacology , Acute Disease , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/classification , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents/toxicity , Candida albicans/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Peroxidase/genetics , Peroxidase/therapeutic use , Peroxidase/toxicity , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pseudomonas Infections/drug therapy , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/pharmacology , Recombinant Proteins/therapeutic use , Recombinant Proteins/toxicity , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
17.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613909

ABSTRACT

Conducted studies indicate the relationship between oral health and systemic diseases. Moreover, the latest research indicated that cariogenic bacteria may severely influence the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and increase risk of COVID-19 complications. This article aims to review various applications of propolis and pay attention to a healthy diet rich in polyphenols, which may allow the reduction of dental plaque accumulation. A literature review has been conducted from June until November 2021. It showed that propolis could be a useful agent in decreasing the accumulation of dental plaque. Moreover, a diet rich in polyphenols prevents cariogenic bacteria and reduces the accumulation of dental plaque. A reduction of a dental plaque may influence the risk of a severe course of COVID-19. Therefore, propolis and a diet rich in polyphenols may play an important role in prophylaxis of systemic diseases. Recently, it has been proven that oral infection may affect cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, respiratory system, nervous system, as well as may be a risk factor for diabetes mellitus. These aspects should stimulate clinicians to further research about polyphenols.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Dental Plaque/drug therapy , Diet , Propolis/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Oral Health
18.
J Hazard Mater ; 428: 128239, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1610835

ABSTRACT

Face mask has become an essential and effective apparatus to protect human beings from air pollution, especially the air-borne pathogens. However, most commercial face masks can hardly achieve good particulate matters (PMs) and high bactericidal efficacy concurrently. Herein, a bilayer structured composite filter medium with built-in antimicrobial activities was constructed by combining cotton woven modified by magnetron sputtered Ag/Zn coatings and electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride)/polystyrene (PVDF/PS) nanofibers. With the benefit of external moisture, an electrical stimulation was generated inside the composite fabric and thus endowed the fabric antimicrobial function. The resultant composite fabric presented conspicuous performance for integrated air pollution control, high filtration performance towards PM0.3 (99.1%, 79.2 Pa) and exceptional interception ratio against Escherichia coli (99.64%) and Staphylococcus aureus (98.75%) within 20 min contact. The high efficiency contact sterilization function of the bilayer fabric could further potentially promote disinfection and reuse of the filter media. This work may provide a new perspective on designing high-performance face mask media for public health protection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Nanofibers , Fluorocarbon Polymers , Humans , Masks , Polyvinyls , Zinc
19.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608662

ABSTRACT

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Photochemotherapy/methods , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
20.
J Appl Microbiol ; 132(4): 3375-3386, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605231

ABSTRACT

AIMS: This study evaluated the residual efficacy of commercially available antimicrobial coatings or films against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on non-porous surfaces. METHODS AND RESULTS: Products were applied to stainless steel or ABS plastic coupons and dried overnight. Coupons were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of 5% soil load. Recovered infectious SARS-CoV-2 was quantified by TCID50 assay. Tested product efficacies ranged from <1.0 to >3.0 log10 reduction at a 2-h contact time. The log10 reduction in recovered infectious SARS-CoV-2 ranged from 0.44 to 3 log10 reduction on stainless steel and 0.25 to >1.67 log10 on ABS plastic. The most effective products tested contained varying concentrations (0.5%-1.3%) of the same active ingredient: 3-(trihydroxysilyl) propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride. Products formulated with other quaternary ammonium compounds were less effective against SARS-CoV-2 in this test. CONCLUSIONS: The residual antimicrobial products tested showed varied effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 as a function of product tested. Several products were identified as efficacious against SARS-CoV-2 on both stainless steel and ABS plastic surfaces under the conditions evaluated. Differences in observed efficacy may be due to variation in active ingredient formulation; efficacy is, therefore, difficult to predict based upon listed active ingredient and its concentration. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT: This study highlights the formulation-specific efficacy of several products against SARS-CoV-2 and may inform future development of residual antiviral products for use on non-porous surfaces. The identification of antimicrobial coatings or films showing promise to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 suggests that these products may be worth future testing and consideration.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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