Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 22
Filter
1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1833-1842, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915485

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTBackground: In vitro studies have shown that several oral antiseptics have virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2. Thus, mouthwashes have been proposed as an easy to implement strategy to reduce viral transmission. However, there are no data measuring SARS-CoV-2 viability after mouthwashes in vivo. METHODS: In this randomized double-blind, five-parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial, SARS-CoV-2 salivary viral load (by quantitative PCR) and its infectious capacity (incubating saliva in cell cultures) have been evaluated before and after four different antiseptic mouthwashes and placebo in 54 COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Contrary to in vitro evidence, salivary viral load was not affected by any of the four tested mouthwashes. Viral culture indicated that cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) significantly reduced viral infectivity, but only at 1-hour post-mouthwash. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that some of the mouthwashes currently used to reduce viral infectivity are not efficient in vivo and, furthermore, that this effect is not immediate, generating a false sense of security.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04707742..


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855636

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease pandemic has afforded dental professionals an opportunity to reconsider infection control during treatment. We investigated the efficacy of combining extraoral high-volume evacuators (eHVEs) with preprocedural mouth rinsing in reducing aerosol contamination by ultrasonic scalers. A double-masked, two-group, crossover randomized clinical trial was conducted over eight weeks. A total of 10 healthy subjects were divided into two groups; they received 0.5% povidone-iodine (PI), essential oil (EO), or water as preprocedural rinse. Aerosols produced during ultrasonic scaling were collected from the chest area (PC), dentist's mask, dentist's chest area (DC), bracket table, and assistant's area. Bacterial contamination was assessed using colony counting and adenosine triphosphate assays. With the eHVE 10 cm away from the mouth, bacterial contamination by aerosols was negligible. With the eHVE 20 cm away, more dental aerosols containing bacteria were detected at the DC and PC. Mouth rinsing decreased viable bacterial count by 31-38% (PI) and 22-33% (EO), compared with no rinsing. The eHVE prevents bacterial contamination when close to the patient's mouth. Preprocedural mouth rinsing can reduce bacterial contamination where the eHVE is positioned away from the mouth, depending on the procedure. Combining an eHVE with preprocedural mouth rinsing can reduce bacterial contamination in dental offices.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , Mouthwashes , Aerosols , Air Microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Humans , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Ultrasonics
4.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 33(1): 28-34, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494046

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Endophthamitis following intraocular surgery is rare using current antiseptic techniques, such as single application of 5% povidone-iodine to the ocular surface and adjuvant topical or intracameral antibiotics. Challenges remain, however, including increased multidrug-resistant bacterial endophthalmitis, increased fungal endophthalmitis, and the low but nonzero endophthalmitis rate attributable to the typical bacteria that colonize the ocular surface. RECENT FINDINGS: Povidone-iodine has a wide spectrum of activity, including activity against novel pathogens, such as SARS-CoV-2. Povidone-iodine alternatives, such as hypochlorous acid can have significantly less efficacy in vitro against endophthalmitis isolates. Repetitive application of dilute povidone-iodine has an excellent safety profile and strong evidence base for efficacy. SUMMARY: Povidone-iodine is widely available, inexpensive, and commonly used by ophthalmologists. The repetitive application of dilute povidone-iodine is a well studied, well tolerated, and efficacious way to transiently sterilize the ocular surface during intraocular surgery. Additional benefits include activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria, fungi, and lack of inducible resistance.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Endophthalmitis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Endophthalmitis/prevention & control , Humans , Postoperative Complications/drug therapy , Povidone-Iodine , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013333, 2020 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453528

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Demodex blepharitis is a chronic condition commonly associated with recalcitrant dry eye symptoms though many people with Demodex mites are asymptomatic. The primary cause of this condition in humans is two types of Demodex mites: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis. There are varying reports of the prevalence of Demodex blepharitis among adults, and it affects both men and women equally. While Demodex mites are commonly treated with tea tree oil, the effectiveness of tea tree oil for treating Demodex blepharitis is not well documented. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of tea tree oil on ocular Demodex infestation in people with Demodex blepharitis. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2019, Issue 6); Ovid MEDLINE; Embase.com; PubMed; LILACS; ClinicalTrials.gov; and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP). We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the databases on 18 June 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared treatment with tea tree oil (or its components) versus another treatment or no treatment for people with Demodex blepharitis. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts and then full text of records to determine their eligibility. The review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias using Covidence. A third review author resolved any conflicts at all stages. MAIN RESULTS: We included six RCTs (1124 eyes of 562 participants; 17 to 281 participants per study) from the US, Korea, China, Australia, Ireland, and Turkey. The RCTs compared some formulation of tea tree oil to another treatment or no treatment. Included participants were both men and women, ranging from 39 to 55 years of age. All RCTs were assessed at unclear or high risk of bias in one or more domains. We also identified two RCTs that are ongoing or awaiting publications. Data from three RCTs that reported a short-term mean change in the number of Demodex mites per eight eyelashes contributed to a meta-analysis. We are uncertain about the mean reduction for the groups that received the tea tree oil intervention (mean difference [MD] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24 to 1.16) at four to six weeks as compared to other interventions. Only one RCT reported data for long-term changes, which found that the group that received intense pulse light as the treatment had complete eradication of Demodex mites at three months. We graded the certainty of the evidence for this outcome as very low. Three RCTs reported no evidence of a difference for participant reported symptoms measured on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) between the tea tree oil group and the group receiving other forms of intervention. Mean differences in these studies ranged from -10.54 (95% CI - 24.19, 3.11) to 3.40 (95% CI -0.70 7.50). We did not conduct a meta-analysis for this outcome given substantial statistical heterogeneity and graded the certainty of the evidence as low. One RCT provided information concerning visual acuity but did not provide sufficient data for between-group comparisons. The authors noted that mean habitual LogMAR visual acuity for all study participants improved post-treatment (mean LogMAR 1.16, standard deviation 0.26 at 4 weeks). We graded the certainty of evidence for this outcome as low. No RCTs provided data on mean change in number of cylindrical dandruff or the proportion of participants experiencing conjunctival injection or experiencing meibomian gland dysfunction. Three RCTs provided information on adverse events. One reported no adverse events. The other two described a total of six participants randomized to treatment with tea tree oil who experienced ocular irritation or discomfort that resolved with re-educating the patient on application techniques and continuing use of the tea tree oil. We graded the certainty of the evidence for this outcome as very low. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current review suggests that there is uncertainty related to the effectiveness of 5% to 50% tea tree oil for the short-term treatment of Demodex blepharitis; however, if used, lower concentrations may be preferable in the eye care arena to avoid induced ocular irritation. Future studies should be better controlled, assess outcomes at long term (e.g. 10 to 12 weeks or beyond), account for patient compliance, and study the effects of different tea tree oil concentrations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Blepharitis/drug therapy , Mite Infestations/drug therapy , Tea Tree Oil/therapeutic use , Adult , Blepharitis/parasitology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mite Infestations/complications , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 119-130, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389070

ABSTRACT

A review of nasal sprays and gargles with antiviral properties suggests that a number of commonly used antiseptics including povidone-iodine, Listerine®, iota-carrageenan and chlorhexidine should be studied in clinical trials to mitigate both the progression and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Several of these antiseptics have demonstrated the ability to cut the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 by 3-4 log10 in 15-30 s in vitro. In addition, hypertonic saline targets viral replication by increasing hypochlorous acid inside the cell. A number of clinical trials are in process to study these interventions both for prevention of transmission, prophylaxis after exposure, and to diminish progression by reduction of viral load in the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/transmission , Carrageenan/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use , Nasal Sprays , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , Salicylates/therapeutic use , Terpenes/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects
9.
Asia Pac J Ophthalmol (Phila) ; 10(2): 142-145, 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165516

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Ophthalmologists and patients have an inherent increased risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The human ocular surface expresses receptors and enzymes facilitating transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Personal protective equipment alone provides incomplete protection. Adjunctive topical ocular, nasal, and oral antisepsis with povidone iodine bolsters personal protective equipment in prevention of provider-patient transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in ophthalmology.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , COVID-19/transmission , Disinfection/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Ophthalmic , Humans , Ophthalmic Solutions , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Examination
11.
Trop Biomed ; 37(4): 1141-1145, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058756

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has infected more than 8 million people globally since its discovery in December 2019. For COVID-19 prevention, the World Health Organization recommended regular handwashing with soap, cough etiquette, mask wearing and social distancing. However, COVID-19 is rather difficult to contain because of its high transmissibility property. Gargling is effective for reducing infection in the respiratory tract. Most antiseptic gargles have antimicrobial properties against common respiratory pathogens. No published study on the effectiveness of antiseptic gargling among COVID-19 patients has been available to date. This article reviewed available literature on methods and solutions available for gargling and their effect on respiratory tract infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Chlorhexidine/administration & dosage , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Humans , Povidone-Iodine/administration & dosage , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use
12.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 119-130, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034857

ABSTRACT

A review of nasal sprays and gargles with antiviral properties suggests that a number of commonly used antiseptics including povidone-iodine, Listerine®, iota-carrageenan and chlorhexidine should be studied in clinical trials to mitigate both the progression and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Several of these antiseptics have demonstrated the ability to cut the viral load of SARS-CoV-2 by 3-4 log10 in 15-30 s in vitro. In addition, hypertonic saline targets viral replication by increasing hypochlorous acid inside the cell. A number of clinical trials are in process to study these interventions both for prevention of transmission, prophylaxis after exposure, and to diminish progression by reduction of viral load in the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/transmission , Carrageenan/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use , Nasal Sprays , Oils, Volatile/therapeutic use , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , Salicylates/therapeutic use , Terpenes/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects
13.
Infection ; 49(2): 305-311, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-973708

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: One of the key approaches to minimize the risk of COVID-19 transmission would be to reduce the titres of SARS-CoV-2 in the saliva of infected COVID-19 patients. This is particularly important in high-risk procedures like dental treatment. The present randomized control trial evaluated the efficacy of three commercial mouth-rinse viz. povidone-iodine (PI), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), in reducing the salivary SARS-CoV-2 viral load in COVID-19 patients compared with water. METHODS: A total of 36 SARS-CoV-2-positive patients were recruited, of which 16 patients were randomly assigned to four groups-PI group (n = 4), CHX group (n = 6), CPC group (n = 4) and water as control group (n = 2). Saliva samples were collected from all patients at baseline and at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h post-application of mouth-rinses/water. The samples were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Comparison of salivary Ct values of patients within each group of PI, CHX, CPC and water at 5 min, 3 h and 6 h time points did not show any significant differences. However, when the Ct value fold change of each of the mouth-rinse group patients were compared with the fold change of water group patients at the respective time points, a significant increase was observed in the CPC group patients at 5 min and 6 h and in the PI group patients at 6 h. CONCLUSION: The effect of decreasing salivary load with CPC and PI mouth-rinsing was observed to be sustained at 6 h time point. Within the limitation of the current study, as number of the samples analyzed, the use of CPC and PI formulated that commercial mouth-rinses may be useful as a pre-procedural rinse to help reduce the transmission of COVID-19. ISRCTN (ISRCTN95933274), 09/09/20, retrospectively registered.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saliva/virology , Viral Load/drug effects , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Cetylpyridinium/analysis , Cetylpyridinium/therapeutic use , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/analysis , Chlorhexidine/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mouthwashes/chemistry , Povidone-Iodine/analysis , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , Singapore , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
17.
Am J Rhinol Allergy ; 35(1): 122-131, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Viral respiratory tract infections are associated with a significant burden of disease and represent one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide. The current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlights the devastating toll that respiratory viruses have on humanity and the desperate need to understand the biological characteristics that define them in order to develop efficacious treatments and vaccines. To date, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected nearly 600 times more people and resulted in 200 times more deaths relative to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) combined. OBJECTIVE: Through this review, we aim to summarize the key characteristics of respiratory viruses that hold global significance, with a focus on SARS-CoV-2. Our goal is to disseminate our current knowledge of these infectious agents to otolaryngologists, in particular rhinologists, practicing in the COVID-19 era. METHODS: The general and clinical characteristics of selected respiratory viruses along with available viral treatments and vaccines are reviewed. RESULTS: There has been significant progress in our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of various respiratory viruses. However, despite the advancement in knowledge, efficacious vaccines and antiviral treatments remain elusive for most respiratory viruses. The dire need for these scientific discoveries is highlighted by the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which has prompted investigators worldwide to conduct clinical trials at an accelerated timeline in an effort to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rhinologists will continue to remain on the front-lines of pandemics associated with respiratory viruses. CONCLUSION: In light of these unprecedented times, the need to understand the nuances of these viral respiratory pathogens, especially SARS-CoV-2, cannot be overemphasized. This knowledge base is of particular importance to otolaryngologists, whose expertise in the upper airway coincides with the anatomic tropism of these infectious agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Otolaryngologists , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Otolaryngologists/standards , Otolaryngologists/trends , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Respiratory Tract Diseases/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Diseases/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity
18.
Ear Nose Throat J ; 99(9): 586-593, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592139

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Approaches to nasal and oral decontamination with povidone-iodine (PVP-I) have been published to reduce nosocomial spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The safety of PVP-I topically applied to the nasal and oral cavity is addressed by a literature review. The specific efficacy of PVP-I against coronaviruses and its potential efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 is discussed. METHODS: A review was performed utilizing PubMed and Cochrane Databases. All citations in protocols for nasal and oral PVP-I use regarding COVID-19 were independently reviewed. RESULTS: Povidone-iodine has been safely administered for up to 5 months in the nasal cavity and 6 months in the oral cavity. Concentrations less than 2.5% in vitro do not reduce ciliary beat frequency or cause pathological changes in ciliated nasal epithelium, upper respiratory, or mucosal cells. Adverse events with oral use have not been reported in conscious adults or children. Allergy and contact sensitivity is rare. Chronic mucosal use up to 5% has not been shown to result in clinical thyroid disease. PVP-I is rapidly virucidal and inactivates coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). CONCLUSIONS: Povidone-iodine can safely be used in the nose at concentrations up to 1.25% and in the mouth at concentrations up to 2.5% for up to 5 months. Povidone-iodine rapidly inactivates coronaviruses, including SARS and MERS, when applied for as little as 15 seconds. There is optimism that PVP-I can inactivate SARS-CoV-2, but in vitro efficacy has not yet been demonstrated.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local/adverse effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , Mouth , Nasal Cavity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Paranasal Sinuses , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Povidone-Iodine/adverse effects , Administration, Topical , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Povidone-Iodine/pharmacology , Povidone-Iodine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL