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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608662

ABSTRACT

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Photochemotherapy/methods , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580689

ABSTRACT

Global reports on multidrug resistance (MDR) and life-threatening pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 and Candida cruris have stimulated researchers to explore new antimicrobials that are eco-friendly and economically viable. In this context, biodegradable polymers such as nisin, chitin, and pullulan play an important role in solving the problem. Pullulan is an important edible, biocompatible, water-soluble polymer secreted by Aureobasidium pullulans that occurs ubiquitously. It consists of maltotriose units linked with α-1,6 glycosidic bonds and is classed as Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA. Pullulan is known for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antitumor activities when incorporated with other additives such as antibiotics, drugs, nanoparticles, and so on. Considering the importance of its antimicrobial activities, this polymer can be used as a potential antimicrobial agent against various pathogenic microorganisms including the multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Moreover, pullulan has ability to synthesize biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are remarkably efficacious against pathogenic microbes. The pullulan-based nanocomposites can be applied for wound healing, food packaging, and also enhancing the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. In this review, we have discussed biosynthesis of pullulan and its role as antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal agent. Pullulan-based films impregnated with different antimicrobials such as AgNPs, chitosan, essential oils, and so on, forming nanocomposites have also been discussed as natural alternatives to combat the problems posed by pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Glucans/biosynthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents , COVID-19 , Chitin/pharmacology , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Multiple/physiology , Food Packaging , Glucans/metabolism , Glucans/pharmacology , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nisin/pharmacology , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17891-17909, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483091

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens threatens the healthcare systems world-wide. Recent advances in phototherapy (PT) approaches mediated by photo-antimicrobials (PAMs) provide new opportunities for the current serious antibiotic resistance. During the PT treatment, reactive oxygen species or heat produced by PAMs would react with the cell membrane, consequently leaking cytoplasm components and effectively eradicating different pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and even parasites. This Perspective will concentrate on the development of different organic photo-antimicrobials (OPAMs) and their application as practical therapeutic agents into therapy for local infections, wound dressings, and removal of biofilms from medical devices. We also discuss how to design highly efficient OPAMs by modifying the chemical structure or conjugating with a targeting component. Moreover, this Perspective provides a discussion of the general challenges and direction for OPAMs and what further needs to be done. It is hoped that through this overview, OPAMs can prosper and will be more widely used for microbial infections in the future, especially at a time when the global COVID-19 epidemic is getting more serious.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Drug Design , Phototherapy/methods , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/radiation effects , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Coloring Agents/pharmacology , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Equipment and Supplies/virology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/physiology , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/pathology , Fungi/drug effects , Graphite/chemistry , Light , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Quantum Theory , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Viruses/drug effects
5.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463767

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance was one of the top priorities for global public health before the start of the 2019 coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). Moreover, in this changing medical landscape due to COVID-19, finding new organic structures with antimicrobial and antiviral properties is a priority in current research. The Biginelli synthesis that mediates the production of pyrimidine compounds has been intensively studied in recent decades, especially due to the therapeutic properties of the resulting compounds, such as calcium channel blockers, anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antioxidant compounds. In this review we aim to review the Biginelli syntheses reported recently in the literature that mediates the synthesis of antimicrobial compounds, the spectrum of their medicinal properties, and the structure-activity relationship in the studied compounds.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Pyrimidines/chemical synthesis , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemistry Techniques, Synthetic/methods , Drug Discovery , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Humans , Models, Molecular , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463764

ABSTRACT

Due to their large possibility of the structure modification, alkylammonium gemini surfactants are a rapidly growing class of compounds. They exhibit significant surface, aggregation and antimicrobial properties. Due to the fact that, in order to achieve the desired utility effect, the minimal concentration of compounds are used, they are in line with the principle of greenolution (green evolution) in chemistry. In this study, we present innovative synthesis of the homologous series of gemini surfactants modified at the spacer by the ether group, i.e., 3-oxa-1,5-pentane-bis(N-alkyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromides). The critical micelle concentrations were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the synthesized compounds were determined against bacteria Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538; yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231; and molds Aspergillus niger ATCC 16401 and Penicillium chrysogenum ATCC 60739. We also investigated the relationship between antimicrobial activity and alkyl chain length or the nature of the spacer. The obtained results indicate that the synthesized compounds are effective microbicides with a broad spectrum of biocidal activity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Green Chemistry Technology , Micelles , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Penicillium chrysogenum/drug effects , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
7.
Curr Drug Discov Technol ; 17(1): 30-44, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453168

ABSTRACT

The anti-infective potentials of the natural products are very well known for centuries and are a part of traditional healing. The foremost therapeutic classes include flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanidins, chalcones, and aurones. The chalcone or 1,3-diphenyl-2E-propene-1-one represents the class of natural products which are comprised of benzylideneacetophenone function; i.e. two aromatic moieties linked together by an α, ß-unsaturated carbonyl bridge comprising three-carbons. At present, chalcone is one of the privileged scaffolds that can be synthesized in the laboratory to derive different pharmacologically active compounds. This article is the continued form of the previously published work on anti-infective perspectives of chalcones (highlighted till 2015). The current work emphasizes on the discovery process of the chalcone in the period of 2016 to 2017 on malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, filaria, tuberculosis, netamodes, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and miscellaneous conditions. This review comprehensively focuses on the latest progress related with the anti-infective chalcones. The content includes the crucial structural features of chalcone scaffold including structure-activity relationship(s) along with their plausible mechanism of action(s) from the duration Jan 2016 to Dec 2017. This literature will be of prime interest to medicinal chemists in getting ideas and concepts for better rational development of potential anti-infective inhibitors.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Chalcones/pharmacology , Drug Discovery/trends , Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/therapeutic use , Humans , Structure-Activity Relationship
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390656

ABSTRACT

Transparent materials used for facial protection equipment provide protection against microbial infections caused by viruses and bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. However, transparent materials used for this type of application are made of materials that do not possess antimicrobial activity. They just avoid direct contact between the person and the biological agent. Therefore, healthy people can become infected through contact of the contaminated material surfaces and this equipment constitute an increasing source of infectious biological waste. Furthermore, infected people can transmit microbial infections easily because the protective equipment do not inactivate the microbial load generated while breathing, sneezing or coughing. In this regard, the goal of this work consisted of fabricating a transparent face shield with intrinsic antimicrobial activity that could provide extra-protection against infectious agents and reduce the generation of infectious waste. Thus, a single-use transparent antimicrobial face shield composed of polyethylene terephthalate and an antimicrobial coating of benzalkonium chloride has been developed for the next generation of facial protective equipment. The antimicrobial coating was analyzed by atomic force microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis. This is the first facial transparent protective material capable of inactivating enveloped viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in less than one minute of contact, and the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Bacterial infections contribute to severe pneumonia associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their resistance to antibiotics is increasing. Our extra protective broad-spectrum antimicrobial composite material could also be applied for the fabrication of other facial protective tools such as such as goggles, helmets, plastic masks and space separation screens used for counters or vehicles. This low-cost technology would be very useful to combat the current pandemic and protect health care workers from multidrug-resistant infections in developed and underdeveloped countries.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Personal Protective Equipment , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Benzalkonium Compounds/chemistry , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Polyethylene Terephthalates/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Staphylococcus epidermidis/drug effects
9.
Molecules ; 26(2)2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389464

ABSTRACT

Peptides are fragments of proteins that carry out biological functions. They act as signaling entities via all domains of life and interfere with protein-protein interactions, which are indispensable in bio-processes. Short peptides include fundamental molecular information for a prelude to the symphony of life. They have aroused considerable interest due to their unique features and great promise in innovative bio-therapies. This work focusing on the current state-of-the-art short peptide-based therapeutical developments is the first global review written by researchers from all continents, as a celebration of 100 years of peptide therapeutics since the commencement of insulin therapy in the 1920s. Peptide "drugs" initially played only the role of hormone analogs to balance disorders. Nowadays, they achieve numerous biomedical tasks, can cross membranes, or reach intracellular targets. The role of peptides in bio-processes can hardly be mimicked by other chemical substances. The article is divided into independent sections, which are related to either the progress in short peptide-based theranostics or the problems posing challenge to bio-medicine. In particular, the SWOT analysis of short peptides, their relevance in therapies of diverse diseases, improvements in (bio)synthesis platforms, advanced nano-supramolecular technologies, aptamers, altered peptide ligands and in silico methodologies to overcome peptide limitations, modern smart bio-functional materials, vaccines, and drug/gene-targeted delivery systems are discussed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use , Amino Acids/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Cosmeceuticals/chemistry , Cosmeceuticals/therapeutic use , Dietary Supplements , Gene Transfer Techniques , Humans , Lactoferrin/chemistry , Lipid Bilayers , Nanostructures/administration & dosage , Nanostructures/chemistry , Peptides/administration & dosage , Stem Cells , Vaccines, Subunit/chemistry , Vaccines, Subunit/pharmacology
10.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(38): 7878-7908, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373457

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, and fungi and their global spread pose a great threat to human health. The 2019 World Health Organization report predicted that infection-related mortality will be similar to cancer mortality by 2050. Particularly, the global cumulative numbers of the recent outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) have reached 110.7 million cases and over 2.4 million deaths as of February 23, 2021. Moreover, the crisis of these infectious diseases exposes the many problems of traditional diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, such as time-consuming and unselective detection methods, the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria, serious side effects, and poor drug delivery. There is an urgent need for rapid and sensitive diagnosis as well as high efficacy and low toxicity treatments. The emergence of nanomedicine has provided a promising strategy to greatly enhance detection methods and drug treatment efficacy. Owing to their unique optical, magnetic, and electrical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) have great potential for the fast and selective detection of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. NPs exhibit remarkable antibacterial activity by releasing reactive oxygen species and metal ions, exerting photothermal effects, and causing destruction of the cell membrane. Nano-based delivery systems can further improve drug permeability, reduce the side effects of drugs, and prolong systemic circulation time and drug half-life. Moreover, effective drugs against COVID-19 are still lacking. Recently, nanomedicine has shown great potential to accelerate the development of safe and novel anti-COVID-19 drugs. This article reviews the fundamental mechanisms and the latest developments in the treatment and diagnosis of bacteria, viruses, and fungi and discusses the challenges and perspectives in the application of nanomedicine.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Nanomedicine , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Communicable Diseases/microbiology , Communicable Diseases/virology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Humans , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(7): 5471-5484, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337090

ABSTRACT

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) warns the use of one-way valves or vents in face masks for potential threat of spreading COVID-19 through expelled respiratory droplets. Here, we have developed a nanoceutical cotton fabric duly sensitized with non-toxic zinc oxide nanomaterial for potential use as a membrane filter in the one-way valve for the ease of breathing without the threat of COVID-19 spreading. A detailed computational study revealed that zinc oxide nanoflowers (ZnO NFs) with almost two-dimensional petals trap SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, responsible to attach to ACE-2 receptors in human lung epithelial cells. The study also confirmed significant denaturation of the spike proteins on the ZnO surface, revealing removal of the virus upon efficient trapping. Following the computational study, we have synthesized ZnO NF on a cotton matrix using a hydrothermal-assisted strategy. Electron-microscopic, steady-state, and picosecond-resolved spectroscopic studies confirm attachment of ZnO NF to the cotton (i.e., cellulose) matrix at the atomic level to develop the nanoceutical fabric. A detailed antimicrobial assay using Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (model SARS-CoV-2 mimic) reveals excellent antimicrobial efficiency of the developed nanoceutical fabric. To our understanding, the nanoceutical fabric used in the one-way valve of a face mask would be the choice to assure breathing comfort along with source control of COVID-19 infection. The developed nanosensitized cloth can also be used as an antibacterial/anti CoV-2 washable dress material in general.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nanostructures/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cotton Fiber/analysis , Humans , Masks , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism , Recycling , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zinc Oxide/chemistry
12.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(7): 5485-5493, 2021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327183

ABSTRACT

Attachment of microbial bodies including the corona virus on the surface of personal protective equipment (PPE) is found to be potential threat of spreading infection. Here, we report the development of a triboelectroceutical fabric (TECF) consisting of commonly available materials, namely, nylon and silicone rubber (SR), for the fabrication of protective gloves on the nitrile platform as model wearable PPE. A small triboelectric device (2 cm × 2 cm) consisting of SR and nylon on nitrile can generate more than 20 V transient or 41 µW output power, which is capable of charging a capacitor up to 65 V in only ∼50 s. The importance of the present work relies on the TECF-led antimicrobial activity through the generation of an electric current in saline water. The fabrication of TECF-based functional prototype gloves can generate hypochlorite ions through the formation of electrolyzed water upon rubbing them with saline water. Further, computational modelling has been employed to reveal the optimum structure and mechanistic pathway of antimicrobial hypochlorite generation. Detailed antimicrobial assays have been performed to establish effectiveness of such TECF-based gloves to reduce the risk from life-threatening pathogen spreading. The present work provides the rationale to consider the studied TECF, or other materials with comparable properties, as a material of choice for the development of self-sanitizing PPE in the fight against microbial infections including COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Electricity , Personal Protective Equipment , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Biomimetic Materials/chemistry , Biomimetic Materials/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nylons/chemistry , Personal Protective Equipment/microbiology , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism , Recycling , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Silicone Elastomers/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304665

ABSTRACT

The paper presents a synthesis of poly(l-lactide) with bacteriostatic properties. This polymer was obtained by ring-opening polymerization of the lactide initiated by selected low-toxic zinc complexes, Zn[(acac)(L)H2O], where L represents N-(pyridin-4-ylmethylene) tryptophan or N-(2-pyridin-4-ylethylidene) phenylalanine. These complexes were obtained by reaction of Zn[(acac)2 H2O] and Schiff bases, the products of the condensation of amino acids and 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde. The composition, structure, and geometry of the synthesized complexes were determined by NMR and FTIR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and molecular modeling. Both complexes showed the geometry of a distorted trigonal bipyramid. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of both complexes were found to be much stronger than those of the primary Schiff bases. The present study showed a higher efficiency of polymerization when initiated by the obtained zinc complexes than when initiated by the zinc(II) acetylacetonate complex. The synthesized polylactide showed antibacterial properties, especially the product obtained by polymerization initiated by a zinc(II) complex with a ligand based on l-phenylalanine. The polylactide showed a particularly strong antimicrobial effect against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aspergillus brasiliensis. At the same time, this polymer does not exhibit fibroblast cytotoxicity.


Subject(s)
Polyesters/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Zinc/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus/drug effects , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304661

ABSTRACT

Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) belong to a well-known class of cationic biocides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They are used as essential components in surfactants, personal hygiene products, cosmetics, softeners, dyes, biological dyes, antiseptics, and disinfectants. Simple but varied in their structure, QACs are divided into several subclasses: Mono-, bis-, multi-, and poly-derivatives. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a significant amount of work has been dedicated to the advancement of this class of biocides. Thus, more than 700 articles on QACs were published only in 2020, according to the modern literature. The structural variability and diverse biological activity of ionic liquids (ILs) make them highly prospective for developing new types of biocides. QACs and ILs bear a common key element in the molecular structure-quaternary positively charged nitrogen atoms within a cyclic or acyclic structural framework. The state-of-the-art research level and paramount demand in modern society recall the rapid development of a new generation of tunable antimicrobials. This review focuses on the main QACs exhibiting antimicrobial and antifungal properties, commercial products based on QACs, and the latest discoveries in QACs and ILs connected with biocide development.


Subject(s)
Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Ionic Liquids/chemistry , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship
15.
Pharmacol Rep ; 73(6): 1765-1780, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was identified at the end of 2019. Despite growing understanding of SARS-CoV-2 in virology as well as many molecular studies, except remdesivir, no specific anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug has been officially approved. METHODS: In the present study molecular docking technique was applied to test binding affinity of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin-two commercially available fluoroquinolones, to SARS-CoV-2 S-, E- and TMPRSS2 proteins, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and papain-like protease (PLPRO). Chloroquine and dexamethasone were used as reference positive controls. RESULTS: When analyzing the molecular docking data it was noticed that ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin possess lower binding energy with S protein as compared to the references. In the case of TMPRSS2 protein and PLPRO protease the best docked ligand was levofloxacin and in the case of E proteins and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase the best docked ligands were levofloxacin and dexamethasone. Moreover, a molecular dynamics study also reveals that ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin form a stable complex with E- and TMPRSS2 proteins, RNA polymerase and papain-like protease (PLPRO). CONCLUSIONS: The revealed data indicate that ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin could interact and potentially inhibit crucial SARS-CoV-2 proteins.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Ciprofloxacin/chemistry , Levofloxacin/chemistry , Viral Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , Computer Simulation , Coronavirus Papain-Like Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Endopeptidases
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(5): 4757-4765, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240047

ABSTRACT

Recently, special attention has been paid to marine origin compounds such as carbohydrates, peptides, lipids, and carotenoids, which are extracted from microalgae and have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial (e.g., anti-COVID-19 activity), and antioxidant properties in biomedicine and pharmaceutical biotechnology. In addition, these photosynthetic marine microorganisms have several applications in biotechnology and are suitable hosts for the production of recombinant proteins/peptides, such as monoclonal antibodies and vaccines. Silica-based nanoparticles obtained from diatoms (a microalgae group) are used as drug delivery carriers owing to their biodegradability, easy functionalization, low cost, and simple features compared to synthetics, which make these agents proper alternatives for synthetic silica nanoparticles. Therefore, diatom-based nanoparticles are a viable option for the delivery of anti-cancer drugs and reducing the side-effects of cancer chemotherapy.


Subject(s)
Biological Factors/pharmacology , Microalgae/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Biological Factors/chemistry , Drug Carriers , Nanoparticles , Photosynthesis
17.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238921

ABSTRACT

Chitosan has many useful intrinsic properties (e.g., non-toxicity, antibacterial properties, and biodegradability) and can be processed into high-surface-area nanofiber constructs for a broad range of sustainable research and commercial applications. These nanofibers can be further functionalized with bioactive agents. In the food industry, for example, edible films can be formed from chitosan-based composite fibers filled with nanoparticles, exhibiting excellent antioxidant and antimicrobial properties for a variety of products. Processing 'pure' chitosan into nanofibers can be challenging due to its cationic nature and high crystallinity; therefore, chitosan is often modified or blended with other materials to improve its processability and tailor its performance to specific needs. Chitosan can be blended with a variety of natural and synthetic polymers and processed into fibers while maintaining many of its intrinsic properties that are important for textile, cosmeceutical, and biomedical applications. The abundance of amine groups in the chemical structure of chitosan allows for facile modification (e.g., into soluble derivatives) and the binding of negatively charged domains. In particular, high-surface-area chitosan nanofibers are effective in binding negatively charged biomolecules. Recent developments of chitosan-based nanofibers with biological activities for various applications in biomedical, food packaging, and textiles are discussed herein.


Subject(s)
Chitosan/chemistry , Cosmeceuticals/chemistry , Food Packaging , Textiles , Amines/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Crystallization , Edible Films , Humans , Nanofibers/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polymers , Regeneration , Skin/pathology , Skin, Artificial , Solubility , Tissue Engineering , Wound Healing
18.
Biomolecules ; 11(4)2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206298

ABSTRACT

Podophyllotoxin, along with its various derivatives and congeners are widely recognized as broad-spectrum pharmacologically active compounds. Etoposide, for instance, is the frontline chemotherapeutic drug used against various cancers due to its superior anticancer activity. It has recently been redeveloped for the purpose of treating cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. Podophyllotoxin and its naturally occurring congeners have low bioavailability and almost all these initially discovered compounds cause systemic toxicity and development of drug resistance. Moreover, the production of synthetic derivatives that could suffice for the clinical limitations of these naturally occurring compounds is not economically feasible. These challenges demanded continuous devotions towards improving the druggability of these drugs and continue to seek structure-optimization strategies. The discovery of renewable sources including microbial origin for podophyllotoxin is another possible approach. This review focuses on the exigency of innovation and research required in the global R&D and pharmaceutical industry for podophyllotoxin and related compounds based on recent scientific findings and market predictions.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/pharmacology , Podophyllotoxin/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Podophyllotoxin/analogs & derivatives , Podophyllotoxin/therapeutic use , Podophyllum/chemistry
19.
Bioorg Chem ; 112: 104925, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198631

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance and emerging viral pandemics have posed an urgent need for new anti-infective drugs. By screening our microbial extract library against the main protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the notorious ESKAPE pathogens, an active fraction was identified and purified, leading to an initial isolation of adipostatins A (1) and B (2). In order to diversify the chemical structures of adipostatins toward enhanced biological activities, a type III polyketide synthase was identified from the native producer, Streptomyces davawensis DSM101723, and was subsequently expressed in an E. coli host, resulting in the isolation of nine additional adipostatins 3-11, including two new analogs (9 and 11). The structures of 1-11 were established by HRMS, NMR, and chemical derivatization, including using a microgram-scale meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid epoxidation-MS/MS analysis to unambiguously determine the double bond position in the alkyl chain. The present study discovered SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitory activity for the class of adipostatins for the first time. Several of the adipostatins isolated also exhibited antimicrobial activity against selected ESKAPE pathogens.


Subject(s)
Acyltransferases/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Resorcinols/chemistry , Acyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Acyltransferases/classification , Acyltransferases/genetics , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/classification , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Conformation , Phylogeny , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Resorcinols/isolation & purification , Resorcinols/metabolism , Resorcinols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Streptomyces/enzymology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 990-1002, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188608

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). We succeeded in preparing disinfectant cellulose-based wipes treated with antimicrobial and antiviral silver nanoparticles to be used for prevention of contamination and transmission of several pathogenic viruses and microbes to human in critical areas such as hospitals and healthcare centers especially coronavirus. In this work, the antimicrobial and antiviral activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) prepared with four different techniques were investigated for the utilization as a disinfectant for cellulose-based wipes. These four methods are namely; 1) trisodium citrate with cotton yarn as a reducing agent, 2) preparing AgNP's using aqueous solution of PVA in the presence of glucose, 3) trisodium citrate with cotton fabric as a reducing agent, and 4) photochemical reaction of polyacrylic acid and silver nitrate solution. Polyester/viscose blended spunlace nonwoven fabrics as cellulose based fabrics were treated with the prepared silver nanoparticles to be used as surfaces disinfection wipes. The properties of the nonwoven fabrics were examined including thickness, tensile strength in dry and wet conditions in both machine direction (MD) and cross-machine direction (CMD), bursting strength, air permeability, water permeability and surface wettability. Characterization of the AgNPs was carried out in terms of UV-VIS spectroscopy, TEM, SEM, and Zeta potential analysis. The assessment of AgNPs active solutions for antimicrobial and antiviral activities was evaluated. The results obtained from the analyses of the AgNPs samples prepared with different techniques showed good uniformity and stability of the particles, as well uniform coating of the AgNPs on the fibers. Additionally, there is a significant effect of the AgNPs preparation method on their disinfectant performance that proved its effectiveness against coronavirus (MERS-CoV), S. aureus and B. subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria, E. coli and P. mirabilis as Gram-negative bacteria, A. niger and C. albicans fungi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cellulose/chemistry , Coronavirus/drug effects , Disinfectants/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silver/chemistry , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Citrates/chemistry , Cotton Fiber , Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Green Chemistry Technology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Silver Nitrate/chemistry
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