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1.
J Mater Chem B ; 10(45): 9349-9368, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117996

ABSTRACT

Undesirable adhesion of microbes such as bacteria, fungi and viruses onto surfaces affects many industries such as marine, food, textile, and healthcare. In particular in healthcare and food packaging, the effects of unwanted microbial contamination can be life-threatening. With the current global COVID-19 pandemic, interest in the development of surfaces with superior anti-viral and anti-bacterial activities has multiplied. Polymers carrying anti-microbial properties are extensively used to functionalize material surfaces to inactivate infection-causing and biocide-resistant microbes including COVID-19. This review aims to introduce the fabrication of polymer-based antimicrobial surfaces through physical and chemical modifications, followed by the discussion of the inactivation mechanisms of conventional biocidal agents and new-generation antimicrobial macromolecules in polymer-modified antimicrobial surfaces. The advanced applications of polymer-based antimicrobial surfaces on personal protective equipment against COVID-19, food packaging materials, biomedical devices, marine vessels and textiles are also summarized to express the research trend in academia and industry.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Polymers/pharmacology , Polymers/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Bacteria
2.
Molecules ; 27(19)2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066279

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major concern for the survival of mankind. COVID-19 accelerated another silent pandemic of AMR through the uncontrolled use of antibiotics and biocides. New generations of antimicrobial agents are needed to combat resistant pathogens. Crown ethers can be used as models for drug action because they are similar to antibiotics. Iodine is a well-known microbicide but is characterized by instability and short-term effectivity. Iodine can be stabilized in the form of polyiodides that have a rich topology but are dependent on their immediate surroundings. In addition, copper has been successfully used since the beginning of history as a biocidal agent. We, therefore, combined iodine and copper with the highly selective crown ether 1,4,7,10-tetraoxacyclododecane (12-crown-4). The morphology and composition of the new pentaiodide [Cu(12-crown-4)2]I5 was investigated. Its antimicrobial activities against a selection of 10 pathogens were studied. It was found that C. albicans WDCM 00054 is highly susceptible to [Cu(12-crown-4)2]I5. Additionally, the compound has good to intermediate antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacilli. The chain-like pentaiodide structure is V-shaped and consists of iodine molecules with very short covalent bonds connected to triiodides by halogen bonding. The single crystal structure is arranged across the lattice fringes in the form of ribbons or honeycombs. The susceptibility of microorganisms towards polyiodides depends on polyiodide bonding patterns with halogen-, covalent-, and non-covalent bonding.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Crown Ethers , Disinfectants , Iodine , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Copper/chemistry , Crown Ethers/chemistry , Halogens , Humans , Iodides , Iodine/chemistry
3.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023938

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report our success synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous extracts from the leaves and flowers of Calotropis gigantea growing in the geothermal manifestation Ie Seu-Um, Aceh Besar, Indonesia. C. gigantea aqueous extract can be used as a bio-reductant for Ag+→Ag0 conversion, obtained by 48h incubation of Ag+, and the extract mixture in a dark condition. UV-Vis characterization showed that the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks of AgNPs-leaf C. gigantea (AgNPs-LCg) and AgNPs-flower C. gigantea (AgNPs-FCg) appeared in the wavelength range of 410-460 nm. Scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) revealed the agglomeration and spherical shapes of AgNPs-LCg and AgNPs-FCg with diameters ranging from 87.85 to 256.7 nm. Zeta potentials were observed in the range of -41.8 to -25.1 mV. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay revealed AgNPs-FCg as the most potent antimicrobial agent with inhibition zones of 12.05 ± 0.58, 11.29 ± 0.45, and 9.02 ± 0.10 mm for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, respectively. In conclusion, aqueous extract from the leaves or flowers of Calotropis gigantea may be used in the green synthesis of AgNPs with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Calotropis , Metal Nanoparticles , Acetone/analogs & derivatives , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Escherichia coli , Green Chemistry Technology , Hydrazones , Indonesia , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Silver/chemistry
4.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994113

ABSTRACT

Some new N- and C-modified biomolecular peptide analogues of both VV-hemorphin-5 and VV-hemorphin-7 with varied amino acids (Cys, Glu, His), 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid, and niacin (nicotinic acid) were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis-Fmoc (9-fluorenylmethoxy-carbonyl) chemistry and were characterized in water solutions with different pH using spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques. Basic physicochemical properties related to the elucidation of the peptide structure at physiological pH have been also studied. The results showed that the interaction of peptide compounds with light and electricity preserves the structural and conformational integrity of the compounds in the solutions. Moreover, textile cotton fibers were modified with the new compounds and the binding of the peptides to the surface of the material was proved by FTIR and SEM analysis. Washing the material with an alkaline soap solution did not show a violation of the modified structure of the cotton. Antiviral activity against the human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV-S2) and human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-5), the antimicrobial activity against B. cereus and P. aeruginosa used as model bacterial strains and cytotoxic effect of the peptide derivatives and modified cotton textile material has been evaluated. Antimicrobial tests showed promising activity of the newly synthesized compounds against the used Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The compounds C-V, H-V, AC-V, and AH-V were found slightly more active than NH7C and NCH7. The activity has been retained after the deposition of the compounds on cotton fibers.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Cotton Fiber , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Humans , Textiles
5.
J Inorg Biochem ; 236: 111953, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977520

ABSTRACT

A novel series of metal(II) complexes (1-5) [MII(L)2]{Where M = Cu (1), Co (2), Mn (3), Ni (4) and Zn (5)} constructed from 2-(4-morpholinobenzylideneamino)phenol Schiff base ligand (HL) in a 1:2 M ratio and the spectral and analytical results put forward square planar geometry. Spectro-electrochemical, hydrodynamic, gel electrophoresis, and DNA binding/cleavage results for all the compounds demonstrate that complex (1) had excellent DNA binding/cleavage properties compared to other compounds. The observation also suggests that test compounds could intercalate with DNA, and the biothermodynamic property more strongly supports the stabilizing of the double helix DNA with the complexes. BSA binding constant results show that complex (1) exposes the best binding property via a static mode, which is further confirmed by FRET calculations. The DFT calculations and docking results for all compounds towards DNA, BSA and SARS-CoV-19 main protease (3CLPro), reveal the binding energies were in the range of -7.8 to -9.4, -6.6 to -10.2 and - 6.1 - -8.2 kcal/mol for all test compounds respectively. In this case, complexes showed favorable binding energies compared to free ligand, which stimulates further studies aimed at validating the predicted activity as well as contributing to tackling the current and future viral pandemics. The in-vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anticancer results for all compounds revealed that copper complex (1) has better activity compared to others. This might result in an effective anticancer drug for future research, which is especially promising since the observed experimental results for all cases were in close agreement with the theoretical calculations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antineoplastic Agents , Coordination Complexes , SARS Virus , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Copper/chemistry , DNA/chemistry , DNA Cleavage , Ligands , Metals/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Morpholines/pharmacology , Peptide Hydrolases/metabolism , Phenols , SARS Virus/metabolism , Schiff Bases/chemistry
6.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 234: 112538, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966877

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) occasioned global economic and health systems collapse. Also, it raised several concerns about using conventional cotton fabrics for manufacturing personal protective equipment without the antimicrobial capacity to inactivate viruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its variants. Therefore, developing antimicrobial cotton fibers is crucial to avoid new global pandemics or the transmission of dangerous pathogens that remain on surfaces for long periods, especially in hospitals and medical clinics. Herein, we developed antimicrobial cotton fabrics with Ag, ZnO, and Ag/ZnO nanoparticles and evaluated their bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), photocatalytic activity, and antiviral activity against Delta SARS-CoV-2. Although the antimicrobial fabrics are effective against these bacteria, they only reduce part of the SARS-CoV-2 virions during the first 15 min of direct contact via damage only to biological structures on the viral surface particle while the viral RNA remains intact.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Zinc Oxide , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria , COVID-19/drug therapy , Escherichia coli , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcus aureus , Textiles , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/pharmacology
7.
Water Res ; 222: 118894, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956370

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobials like parabens, triclosan (TCS), and triclocarban (TCC) are of public health concern worldwide due to their endocrine-disrupting properties and ability to promote antimicrobial drug resistance in human pathogens. The overall use of antimicrobials presumably has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas TCS and TCC may have experienced reductions in use due to their recent ban from thousands of over-the-counter (OTC) personal care products by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). No quantitative data are available on the use of parabens or the impact the FDA ban had on TCC and TCS. Here, we use wastewater samples (n = 1514) from 10 different communities in Arizona to measure the presence of the six different antimicrobial products (TCS, TCC, and four alkylated parabens [methylparaben (MePb), ethylparaben (EtPb), propylparaben (PrPb), butylparaben (BuPb)]) collected before and during the COVID-19 pandemic using a combination of solid-phase extraction, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and isotope dilution for absolute quantitation. The average mass loadings of all antimicrobials combined (1,431 ± 22 mg/day per 1,000 people) after the onset of the local epidemic (March 2020 - October 2020) were significantly higher (945 ± 62 mg/day per 1,000 people; p < 0.05) than before the pandemic (January 2019 - February 2020). Overall, parabens (∑Pbs = 999 ± 16 mg/day per 1,000 people) were the most used antimicrobials, followed by TCS (117 ± 14 mg/day per 1,000 people) and TCC (117 ± 14 mg/day per 1,000 people). After the 2017 U.S. FDA ban, we found a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in the mass loadings of TCS (-89%) and TCC (-80%) but a rise in paraben use (+72%). Mass flows of 3 of a total of 4 parabens (MePb, EtPb, and PrPb) in wastewater were significantly higher upon the onset of the epidemic locally (p < 0.05). This is the first longitudinal study investigating the use of antimicrobials during the COVID-19 pandemic by employing wastewater-based epidemiology. Whereas an overall increase in the use of antimicrobials was evident from analyzing Arizona wastewater, a notable reduction in the use of TCS and TCC was evident during the pandemic, triggered by the U.S. FDA ban.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Carbanilides , Triclosan , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Arizona/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chromatography, Liquid , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Parabens , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration , Waste Water/chemistry
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(10)2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1953480

ABSTRACT

In the context of the new life-threatening COVID-19 pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, finding new antiviral and antimicrobial compounds is a priority in current research. Pyridine is a privileged nucleus among heterocycles; its compounds have been noted for their therapeutic properties, such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer's, anti-ulcer or antidiabetic. It is known that a pyridine compound, which also contains a heterocycle, has improved therapeutic properties. The singular presence of the pyridine nucleus, or its one together with one or more heterocycles, as well as a simple hydrocarbon linker, or grafted with organic groups, gives the key molecule a certain geometry, which determines an interaction with a specific protein, and defines the antimicrobial and antiviral selectivity for the target molecule. Moreover, an important role of pyridine in medicinal chemistry is to improve water solubility due to its poor basicity. In this article, we aim to review the methods of synthesis of pyridine compounds, their antimicrobial and antiviral activities, the correlation of pharmaceutical properties with various groups present in molecules as well as the binding mode from Molecular Docking Studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Pyridines/chemistry , Pyridines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911488

ABSTRACT

One-step direct unimolar valeroylation of methyl α-D-galactopyranoside (MDG) mainly furnished the corresponding 6-O-valeroate. However, DMAP catalyzed a similar reaction that produced 2,6-di-O-valeroate and 6-O-valeroate, with the reactivity sequence as 6-OH > 2-OH > 3-OH,4-OH. To obtain novel antimicrobial agents, 6-O- and 2,6-di-O-valeroate were converted into several 2,3,4-tri-O- and 3,4-di-O-acyl esters, respectively, with other acylating agents in good yields. The PASS activity spectra along with in vitro antimicrobial evaluation clearly indicated that these MDG esters had better antifungal activities than antibacterial agents. To rationalize higher antifungal potentiality, molecular docking was conducted with sterol 14α-demethylase (PDB ID: 4UYL, Aspergillus fumigatus), which clearly supported the in vitro antifungal results. In particular, MDG ester 7-12 showed higher binding energy than the antifungal drug, fluconazole. Additionally, these compounds were found to have more promising binding energy with the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (6LU7) than tetracycline, fluconazole, and native inhibitor N3. Detailed investigation of Ki values, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET), and the drug-likeness profile indicated that most of these compounds satisfy the drug-likeness evaluation, bioavailability, and safety tests, and hence, these synthetic novel MDG esters could be new antifungal and antiviral drugs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Esters/chemistry , Fluconazole , Galactose , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892926

ABSTRACT

Withania aristata (Aiton) Pauquy, a medicinal plant endemic to North African Sahara, is widely employed in traditional herbal pharmacotherapy. In the present study, the chemical composition, antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal potencies of extract from the roots of Withania aristata (Aiton) Pauquy (RWA) against drug-resistant microbes were investigated. Briefly, RWA was obtained by maceration with hydro-ethanol and its compounds were identified by use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antioxidant activity of RWA was determined by use of ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The evaluation of the antimicrobial potential of RWA was performed against drug-resistant pathogenic microbial strains of clinical importance by use of the disc diffusion agar and microdilution assays. Seven compounds were identified in RWA according to HPLC analysis, including cichoric acid, caffeic acid, apigenin, epicatechin, luteolin, quercetin, and p-catechic acid. RWA had excellent antioxidant potency with calculated values of 14.0 ± 0.8 µg/mL (DPPH), 0.37 ± 0.08 mg/mL (FRAP), 760 ± 10 mg AAE/g (TAC), and 81.4% (ß-carotene). RWA demonstrated good antibacterial potential against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 15.24 ± 1.31 to 19.51 ± 0.74 mm, while all antibiotics used as drug references were infective, except for Oxacillin against S. aureus. Results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay against bacteria showed that RWA had MIC values ranging from 2.13 to 4.83 mg/mL compared to drug references, which had values ranging from 0.031 ± 0.003 to 0.064 ± 0.009 mg/mL. Similarly, respectable antifungal potency was recorded against the fungal strains with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 25.65 ± 1.14 to 29.00 ± 1.51 mm compared to Fluconazole, used as a drug reference, which had values ranging from 31.69 ± 1.92 to 37.74 ± 1.34 mg/mL. Results of MIC assays against fungi showed that RWA had MIC values ranging from 2.84 ± 0.61 to 5.71 ± 0.54 mg/mL compared to drug references, which had values ranging from 2.52 ± 0.03 to 3.21 ± 0.04 mg/mL. According to these outcomes, RWA is considered a promising source of chemical compounds with potent biological properties that can be beneficial as natural antioxidants and formulate a valuable weapon in the fight against a broad spectrum of pathogenic microbes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Withania , Anti-Bacterial Agents/analysis , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Staphylococcus aureus , Withania/chemistry
11.
Chem Biol Drug Des ; 100(6): 1086-1121, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891512

ABSTRACT

Due to the emergence of drug-resistant microbial strains, different research groups are continuously developing novel drug molecules against already exploited and unexploited targets. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole derivatives exhibited noteworthy antimicrobial activities. The presence of 1,3,4-oxadiazole moiety in antimicrobial agents can modify their polarity and flexibility, which significantly improves biological activities due to various bonded and non-bonded interactions viz. hydrogen bond, steric, electrostatic, and hydrophobic with target sites. The present review elaborates the therapeutic targets and mode of interaction of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles as antimicrobial agents. 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives target enoyl reductase (InhA), 14α-demethylase in the mycobacterial cell; GlcN-6-P synthase, thymidylate synthase, peptide deformylase, RNA polymerase, dehydrosqualene synthase in bacterial strains; ergosterol biosynthesis pathway, P450-14α demethylase, protein-N-myristoyltransferase in fungal strains; FtsZ protein, interfere with purine and functional protein synthesis in plant bacteria. The present review also summarizes the effect of different moieties and functional groups on the antimicrobial activity of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Oxadiazoles , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Oxadiazoles/pharmacology , Oxadiazoles/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacteria , Structure-Activity Relationship , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
12.
Molecules ; 27(10)2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875714

ABSTRACT

Natural origin molecules represent reliable and excellent sources to overcome some medicinal problems. The study of anticancer, anticoagulant, and antimicrobial activities of Thevetia peruviana latex were the aim of the current research. An investigation using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed that the major content of the flavonoids are rutin (11.45 µg/mL), quersestin (7.15 µg/mL), naringin (5.25 µg/mL), and hisperdin (6.07 µg/mL), while phenolic had chlorogenic (12.39 µg/mL), syringenic (7.45 µg/mL), and ferulic (5.07 µg/mL) acids in latex of T. peruviana. Via 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, the experiment demonstrated that latex had a potent antioxidant activity with the IC50 43.9 µg/mL for scavenging DPPH. Hemolysis inhibition was 58.5% at 1000 µg/mL of latex compared with 91.0% at 200 µg/mL of indomethacin as positive control. Negligible anticoagulant properties of latex were reported where the recorded time was 11.9 s of prothrombin time (PT) and 29.2 s of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at 25 µg/mL, compared with the same concentration of heparin (PT 94.6 s and APPT 117.7 s). The anticancer potential of latex was recorded against PC-3 (97.11% toxicity) and MCF-7 (96.23% toxicity) at 1000 µg/mL with IC50 48.26 µg/mL and 40.31 µg/mL, respectively. Disc diffusion assessment for antimicrobial activity recorded that the most sensitive tested microorganisms to latex were Bacillus subtilis followed by Escherichia coli, with an inhibition zone (IZ) of 31 mm with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (10.2 µg/mL) and 30 mm (MIC, 12.51 µg/mL), respectively. Moreover, Candida albicans was sensitive (IZ, 28 mm) to latex, unlike black fungus (Mucor circinelloides). TEM examination exhibited ultrastructure changes in cell walls and cell membranes of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa treated with latex. Energy scores of the molecular docking of chlorogenic acid with E. coli DNA (7C7N), and Rutin with human prostate-specific antigen (3QUM) and breast cancer-associated protein (1JNX), result in excellent harmony with the experimental results. The outcome of research recommended that the latex is rich in constituents and considered a promising source that contributes to fighting cancer and pathogenic microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Thevetia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Escherichia coli , Humans , Latex , Molecular Docking Simulation , Rutin
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785729

ABSTRACT

The development of affordable, effective, and environmentally friendly barrier fabrics is a current goal in antimicrobial textile development. The discovery of new routes to achieve non-toxic naturally occurring molecules with antimicrobial activity is of interest in the development of materials that promote wound healing, improve hygiene, and offer protection against nosocomial infection. Highly cleaned and sterile unbleached cotton has constituents that produce hydrogen peroxide at levels commensurate with those that favor cell signaling in wound healing. Here, we show the antimicrobial and antiviral properties of spunlaced griege cotton-containing nonwovens treated with ascorbic acid formulations. The mechanism of action occurs through the promotion of enhanced hydrogen peroxide activity. The levels of hydrogen peroxide activity afford antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria and antiviral activity against MS2 bacteriophages. Spun-bond nonwoven unbleached cotton was treated with ascorbic acid using traditional pad-dry-cure methods. An assessment of antibacterial and antiviral activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and MS2 bacteriophages with the AATCC 100 test method showed a 99.99% inhibitory activity. An approach to the covalent attachment of ascorbic to cellulose through citric acid crosslinking chemistry is also discussed. Thus, a simple, low-cost approach to antimicrobial and antiviral cotton-based nonwovens applicable to dressings, nosocomial barrier fabrics, and face masks can be adopted by combining ascorbic acid with spunlace greige cotton nonwoven fabrics.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Cotton Fiber , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Gossypium , Hydrogen Peroxide , Textiles
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 2803, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735270

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated the real need for mechanisms to control the spread of airborne respiratory pathogens. Thus, preventing the spread of disease from pathogens has come to the forefront of the public consciousness. This has brought an increasing demand for novel technologies to prioritise clean air. In this study we report on the efficacy of novel biocide treated filters and their antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi and viruses. The antimicrobial filters reported here are shown to kill pathogens, such as Candida albicans, Escherichia coli and MRSA in under 15 min and to destroy SARS-CoV-2 viral particles in under 30 s following contact with the filter. Through air flow rate testing, light microscopy and SEM, the filters are shown to maintain their structure and filtration function. Further to this, the filters are shown to be extremely durable and to maintain antimicrobial activity throughout the operational lifetime of the product. Lastly, the filters have been tested in field trials onboard the UK rail network, showing excellent efficacy in reducing the burden of microbial species colonising the air conditioning system.


Subject(s)
Air Filters/microbiology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Air Filters/virology , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/chemistry , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Time Factors
15.
ChemistryOpen ; 11(2): e202100260, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704277

ABSTRACT

Cationic conjugated oligoelectrolytes (COEs) are a class of compounds that can be tailored to achieve relevant in vitro antimicrobial properties with relatively low cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Three distyrylbenzene-based COEs were designed containing amide functional groups on the side chains. Their properties were compared to two representative COEs with only quaternary ammonium groups. The optimal compound, COE2-3C-C3-Apropyl, has an antimicrobial efficacy against Escherichia coli with an MIC=2 µg mL-1 , even in the presence of human serum albumin low cytotoxicity (IC50 =740 µg mL-1 ) and minimal hemolytic activity. Moreover, we find that amide groups increase interactions between COEs and a bacterial lipid mimic based on calcein leakage assay and allow COEs to readily permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli. These findings suggest that hydrogen bond forming moieties can be further applied in the molecular design of antimicrobial COEs to further improve their selectivity towards bacteria.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Escherichia coli , Amides/analysis , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacteria , Cell Membrane , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Mammals
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(7): 8718-8727, 2022 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683917

ABSTRACT

Transparent antimicrobial coatings can maintain the aesthetic appeal of surfaces and the functionality of a touch-screen while adding the benefit of reducing disease transmission. We fabricated an antimicrobial coating of silver oxide particles in a silicate matrix on glass. The matrix was grown by a modified Stöber sol-gel process with vapor-phase water and ammonia. A coating on glass with 2.4 mg of Ag2O per mm2 caused a reduction of 99.3% of SARS-CoV-2 and >99.5% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared to the uncoated glass after 1 h. We envisage that screen protectors with transparent antimicrobial coatings will find particular application to communal touch-screens, such as in supermarkets and other check-out or check-in facilities where a number of individuals utilize the same touch-screen in a short interval.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Oxides/chemistry , Silver Compounds/chemistry , Ammonia/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Glass/chemistry , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Oxides/pharmacology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Silicates/chemistry , Silver Compounds/pharmacology , Water/chemistry
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650511

ABSTRACT

International interest in metal-based antimicrobial coatings to control the spread of bacteria, fungi, and viruses via high contact human touch surfaces are growing at an exponential rate. This interest recently reached an all-time high with the outbreak of the deadly COVID-19 disease, which has already claimed the lives of more than 5 million people worldwide. This global pandemic has highlighted the major role that antimicrobial coatings can play in controlling the spread of deadly viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and scientists and engineers are now working harder than ever to develop the next generation of antimicrobial materials. This article begins with a review of three discrete microorganism-killing phenomena of contact-killing surfaces, nanoprotrusions, and superhydrophobic surfaces. The antimicrobial properties of metals such as copper (Cu), silver (Ag), and zinc (Zn) are reviewed along with the effects of combining them with titanium dioxide (TiO2) to create a binary or ternary contact-killing surface coatings. The self-cleaning and bacterial resistance of purely structural superhydrophobic surfaces and the potential of physical surface nanoprotrusions to damage microbial cells are then considered. The article then gives a detailed discussion on recent advances in attempting to combine these individual phenomena to create super-antimicrobial metal-based coatings with binary or ternary killing potential against a broad range of microorganisms, including SARS-CoV-2, for high-touch surface applications such as hand rails, door plates, and water fittings on public transport and in healthcare, care home and leisure settings as well as personal protective equipment commonly used in hospitals and in the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Metals/chemistry , Touch , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/transmission , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemical synthesis , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Humans , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/microbiology , Personal Protective Equipment/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Surface Properties , Viruses/drug effects
18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 49-56, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608662

ABSTRACT

The development of low-cost, non-toxic, scalable antimicrobial textiles is needed to address the spread of deadly pathogens. Here, we report a polysiloxane textile coating that possesses two modes of antimicrobial inactivation, passive contact inactivation through amine/imine functionalities and active photodynamic inactivation through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This material can be coated and cross-linked onto natural and synthetic textiles through a simple soak procedure, followed by UV cure to afford materials exhibiting no aqueous leaching and only minimal leaching in organic solvents. This coating minimally impacts the mechanical properties of the fabric while also imparting hydrophobicity. Passive inactivation of Escherichia coli (E. coli) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is achieved with >98% inactivation after 24 h, with a 23× and 3× inactivation rate increase against E. coli and MRSA, respectively, when green light is used to generate ROS. Up to 90% decrease in the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2 after 2 h of irradiated incubation with the material is demonstrated. These results show that modifying textiles with dual-functional polymers results in robust and highly antimicrobial materials that are expected to find widespread use in combating the spread of deadly pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Textiles/analysis , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Humans , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Photochemotherapy/methods , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Textiles/toxicity , Ultraviolet Rays
19.
Mol Divers ; 26(5): 2967-2980, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1602841

ABSTRACT

Most of the currently marketed drugs consist of heterocyclic scaffolds containing nitrogen and or oxygen as heteroatoms in their structures. Several research groups have synthesized diversely substituted 1,2,4-oxadiazoles as anti-infective agents having anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-leishmanial, etc. activities. For the first time, the present review article will provide the coverage of synthetic account of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles as anti-infective agents along with their potential for SAR, activity potential, promising target for mode of action. The efforts have been made to provide the chemical intuitions to the reader to design new chemical entity with potential of anti-infective activity. This review will mark the impact as the valuable, comprehensive and pioneered work along with the library of synthetic strategies for the organic and medicinal chemists for further refinement of 1,2,4-oxadiazole as anti-infective agents.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Oxadiazoles , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Nitrogen , Oxadiazoles/chemistry , Oxadiazoles/pharmacology , Oxygen , Structure-Activity Relationship
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580689

ABSTRACT

Global reports on multidrug resistance (MDR) and life-threatening pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2 and Candida cruris have stimulated researchers to explore new antimicrobials that are eco-friendly and economically viable. In this context, biodegradable polymers such as nisin, chitin, and pullulan play an important role in solving the problem. Pullulan is an important edible, biocompatible, water-soluble polymer secreted by Aureobasidium pullulans that occurs ubiquitously. It consists of maltotriose units linked with α-1,6 glycosidic bonds and is classed as Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA. Pullulan is known for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, and antitumor activities when incorporated with other additives such as antibiotics, drugs, nanoparticles, and so on. Considering the importance of its antimicrobial activities, this polymer can be used as a potential antimicrobial agent against various pathogenic microorganisms including the multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens. Moreover, pullulan has ability to synthesize biogenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), which are remarkably efficacious against pathogenic microbes. The pullulan-based nanocomposites can be applied for wound healing, food packaging, and also enhancing the shelf-life of fruits and vegetables. In this review, we have discussed biosynthesis of pullulan and its role as antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal agent. Pullulan-based films impregnated with different antimicrobials such as AgNPs, chitosan, essential oils, and so on, forming nanocomposites have also been discussed as natural alternatives to combat the problems posed by pathogens.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple/drug effects , Glucans/biosynthesis , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents , COVID-19 , Chitin/pharmacology , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Resistance, Multiple/physiology , Food Packaging , Glucans/metabolism , Glucans/pharmacology , Humans , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Nisin/pharmacology , Polymers/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2
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