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1.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 73(1): 74-85, mar. 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-20241999

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El síndrome metabólico (SM) aumenta el ingreso hospitalario y el riesgo de desarrollar COVID-19, los fármacos utilizados para su tratamiento ocasionan efectos secundarios por lo que se ha optado por la búsqueda de alternativas terapéuticas a base de compuestos bioactivos contenidos en plantas medicinales. La canela se utiliza como agente terapéutico debido a sus propiedades comprobadas con diversos mecanismos de acción reportados en el tratamiento de varias patologías. Objetivo. Documentar los estudios in vitro, in vivo, estudios clínicos y los mecanismos de acción reportados del efecto de la administración de extractos y polvo de canela en las comorbilidades relacionadas con el SM. Materiales y métodos. Revisión sistemàtica de artículos en bases de datos electrónicas, incluyendo estudios de canela en polvo, extractos acuosos, de acetato de etilo y metanol de la corteza de canela, período de 5 años, excluyendo todo artículo relacionado a su efecto antimicrobiano, antifúngico y aceite de canela. Resultados. Las evidencias de los principales compuestos bioactivos contenidos en la canela validan su potencial en el tratamiento de enfermedades relacionadas al SM, con limitados estudios que indagan en los mecanismos de acción correspondientes a sus actividades biológicas. Conclusiones. Las evidencias de las investigaciones validan su potencial en el tratamiento de estas patologías, debido a sus principales compuestos bioactivos: cinamaldehído, transcinamaldehído, ácido cinámico, eugenol y, antioxidantes del tipo proantocianidinas A y flavonoides, los cuales participan en diversos mecanismos de acción que activan e inhiben enzimas, con efecto hipoglucemiante (quinasa y fosfatasa), antiobesogénico (UPC1), antiinflamatorio (NOS y COX), hipolipemiante (HMG-CoA) y antihipertensivo (ECA)(AU)


Introduction. Metabolic syndrome (MS) increases hospital admission and the risk of developing COVID-19. Due to the side effects caused by the drugs used for its treatment, the search for therapeutic alternatives based on bioactive compounds contained in medicinal plants has been chosen. Cinnamon is used as a therapeutic agent due to its proven properties with various mechanisms of action reported in the treatment of various pathologies. Objective. To document the in vitro and in vivo studies, clinical studies and the mechanisms of action reported on the effect of the administration of cinnamon extracts and powder on comorbidities related to MS. Materials and methods. Systematic review of articles in electronic databases, including studies of cinnamon powder, aqueous extracts, ethyl acetate and methanol from cinnamon bark, over a period of 5 years, excluding all those articles related to its antimicrobial, antifungal and antimicrobial effect. cinnamon oil. Results. The evidence of the main bioactive compounds contained in cinnamon validates its potential in the treatment of diseases related to MS, with limited studies that investigate the mechanisms of action corresponding to its biological activities. Conclusions. Research evidence validates its potential in the treatment of these pathologies, due to its main bioactive compounds: cinnamaldehyde, transcinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, eugenol, and antioxidants of the proanthocyanidin A type and flavonoids, which participate in various mechanisms of action that activate and they inhibit enzymes, with hypoglycemic (kinase and phosphatase), antiobesogenic (UPC1), anti-inflammatory (NOS and COX), lipid-lowering (HMG-CoA) and antihypertensive (ACE) effects(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cinnamomum zeylanicum , Metabolic Syndrome , Diabetes Mellitus , Phytochemicals , Obesity , Body Weight , Hypoglycemic Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents
2.
N Engl J Med ; 388(21): 1931-1941, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether the antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids may decrease mortality among patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia is unclear. METHODS: In this phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned adults who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe community-acquired pneumonia to receive intravenous hydrocortisone (200 mg daily for either 4 or 7 days as determined by clinical improvement, followed by tapering for a total of 8 or 14 days) or to receive placebo. All the patients received standard therapy, including antibiotics and supportive care. The primary outcome was death at 28 days. RESULTS: A total of 800 patients had undergone randomization when the trial was stopped after the second planned interim analysis. Data from 795 patients were analyzed. By day 28, death had occurred in 25 of 400 patients (6.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 8.6) in the hydrocortisone group and in 47 of 395 patients (11.9%; 95% CI, 8.7 to 15.1) in the placebo group (absolute difference, -5.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -9.6 to -1.7; P = 0.006). Among the patients who were not undergoing mechanical ventilation at baseline, endotracheal intubation was performed in 40 of 222 (18.0%) in the hydrocortisone group and in 65 of 220 (29.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.86). Among the patients who were not receiving vasopressors at baseline, such therapy was initiated by day 28 in 55 of 359 (15.3%) of the hydrocortisone group and in 86 of 344 (25.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.82). The frequencies of hospital-acquired infections and gastrointestinal bleeding were similar in the two groups; patients in the hydrocortisone group received higher daily doses of insulin during the first week of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia being treated in the ICU, those who received hydrocortisone had a lower risk of death by day 28 than those who received placebo. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; CAPE COD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02517489.).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Community-Acquired Infections , Hydrocortisone , Pneumonia , Adult , Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
3.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238682

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a severe cytokine storm that may cause acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) with high clinical morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Cepharanthine (CEP) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated and extracted from Stephania cepharantha Hayata. It exhibits various pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, and antiviral activities. The low oral bioavailability of CEP can be attributed to its poor water solubility. In this study, we utilized the freeze-drying method to prepare dry powder inhalers (DPI) for the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) in rats via pulmonary administration. According to the powder properties study, the aerodynamic median diameter (Da) of the DPIs was 3.2 µm, and the in vitro lung deposition rate was 30.26; thus, meeting the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standard for pulmonary inhalation administration. We established an ALI rat model by intratracheal injection of hydrochloric acid (1.2 mL/kg, pH = 1.25). At 1 h after the model's establishment, CEP dry powder inhalers (CEP DPIs) (30 mg/kg) were sprayed into the lungs of rats with ALI via the trachea. Compared with the model group, the treatment group exhibited a reduced pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and significantly reduced content of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6 and total protein) in their lungs (p < 0.01), indicating that the main mechanism of CEP underlying the treatment of ALI is anti-inflammation. Overall, the dry powder inhaler can deliver the drug directly to the site of the disease, increasing the intrapulmonary utilization of CEP and improving its efficacy, making it a promising inhalable formulation for the treatment of ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Benzylisoquinolines , COVID-19 , Rats , Animals , Administration, Inhalation , Dry Powder Inhalers , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Particle Size , Powders/analysis
4.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 75(7): 898-909, 2023 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Saikosaponins (SSs) constitute a class of medicinal monomers characterised by a triterpene tricyclic structure. Despite their potential therapeutic effects for various pathological conditions, the underlying mechanisms of their actions have not been systematically analysed. Here, we mainly review the important anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral mechanisms underlying SS actions. METHODS: Information from multiple scientific databases, such as PubMed, the Web of Science, and Google Scholar, was collected between 2018 and 2023. The search term used was saikosaponin. KEY FINDINGS: Numerous studies have shown that Saikosaponin A exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid metabolism. Moreover, saikosaponin D exerts antitumor effects by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis and autophagy, and the antiviral mechanisms of SSs, especially against SARS-CoV-2, have been partially revealed. Interestingly, an increasing body of experimental evidence suggests that SSs show the potential for use as anti-addiction, anxiolytic, and antidepressant treatments, and therefore, the related molecular mechanisms warrant further study. CONCLUSIONS: An increasing amount of data have indicated diverse SS pharmacological properties, indicating crucial clues for future studies and the production of novel saikosaponin-based anti-inflammatory, efficacious anticancer, and anti-novel-coronavirus agents with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oleanolic Acid , Saponins , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/pharmacology , Saponins/therapeutic use , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Oleanolic Acid/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244543

ABSTRACT

Inflammation has been described for two millennia, but cellular aspects and the paradigm involving different mediators have been identified in the recent century. Two main groups of molecules, the prostaglandins (PG) and the cytokines, have been discovered and play a major role in inflammatory processes. The activation of prostaglandins PGE2, PGD2 and PGI2 results in prominent symptoms during cardiovascular and rheumatoid diseases. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds is nowadays a challenge for more targeted therapeutic approaches. The first cytokine was described more than a century ago and is now a part of different families of cytokines (38 interleukins), including the IL-1 and IL-6 families and TNF and TGFß families. Cytokines can perform a dual role, being growth promotors or inhibitors and having pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. The complex interactions between cytokines, vascular cells and immune cells are responsible for dramatic conditions and lead to the concept of cytokine storm observed during sepsis, multi-organ failure and, recently, in some cases of COVID-19 infection. Cytokines such as interferon and hematopoietic growth factor have been used as therapy. Alternatively, the inhibition of cytokine functions has been largely developed using anti-interleukin or anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of sepsis or chronic inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostaglandins , Humans , Prostaglandins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukins/therapeutic use , Prostaglandins, Synthetic , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
6.
Comput Biol Chem ; 105: 107898, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325654

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease is caused by the pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) known as COVID-19. COVID-19 has caused the deaths of 6,541,936 people worldwide as of September 27th, 2022. SARS-CoV-2 severity is determined by a cytokine storm condition, in which the innate immune system creates an unregulated and excessive production of pro-inflammatory such IL-1, IL-6, NF Kappa B, and TNF alpha signaling molecules known as cytokines. The patient died due to respiratory organ failure and an acute complication because of the hyper-inflammation phenomenon. Green tea, soybean, and guava bioactive substances are well-known to act as anti-inflammation, and antioxidants become prospective COVID-19 illness candidates to overcome the cytokine storm. Our research aims to discover the bioactivity, bioavailability, and protein targets of green tea, soybean, and guava bioactive compounds as anti-inflammatory agents via the TNF inhibition pathway. The experiment uses in silico methods and harnesses the accessible datasets. Samples of 3D structure and SMILE identity of bioactive compounds were retrieved from the KNApSAck and Dr Duke databases. The QSAR analysis was done by WAY2DRUG web server, while the ADME prediction was performed using SWISSADME web server, following the Lipinsky rules of drugs. The target protein and protein-protein interaction were analyzed using STRING DB and Cytoscape software. Lastly, molecular docking was performed using Autodock 4.2 and visualization with BioVia Discovery Studio 2019. The identified study showed the potential of green tea, soybean, and guava's bioactive compounds have played an important role as anti-inflammation agents through TNF inhibitor pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psidium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Soybeans , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Tea , Molecular Docking Simulation , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Gut Microbes ; 14(1): 2073131, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321505

ABSTRACT

Protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and associated clinical sequelae requires well-coordinated metabolic and immune responses that limit viral spread and promote recovery of damaged systems. However, the role of the gut microbiota in regulating these responses has not been thoroughly investigated. In order to identify mechanisms underpinning microbiota interactions with host immune and metabolic systems that influence coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes, we performed a multi-omics analysis on hospitalized COVID-19 patients and compared those with the most severe outcome (i.e. death, n = 41) to those with severe non-fatal disease (n = 89), or mild/moderate disease (n = 42), that recovered. A distinct subset of 8 cytokines (e.g. TSLP) and 140 metabolites (e.g. quinolinate) in sera identified those with a fatal outcome to infection. In addition, elevated levels of multiple pathobionts and lower levels of protective or anti-inflammatory microbes were observed in the fecal microbiome of those with the poorest clinical outcomes. Weighted gene correlation network analysis (WGCNA) identified modules that associated severity-associated cytokines with tryptophan metabolism, coagulation-linked fibrinopeptides, and bile acids with multiple pathobionts, such as Enterococcus. In contrast, less severe clinical outcomes are associated with clusters of anti-inflammatory microbes such as Bifidobacterium or Ruminococcus, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and IL-17A. Our study uncovered distinct mechanistic modules that link host and microbiome processes with fatal outcomes to SARS-CoV-2 infection. These features may be useful to identify at risk individuals, but also highlight a role for the microbiome in modifying hyperinflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 and other infectious agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Cytokines , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 61(5): 7-10, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316322

ABSTRACT

The immune system is central to brain health and longevity, yet with age, infection, injury, or chronic stress, the immune system can trigger persistent central nervous system inflammation that impairs brain functioning. This brief review investigates psychopharmacological treatments that have anti-inflammatory effects in the context of immune system dysregulation in the aging brain. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 61(5), 7-10.].


Subject(s)
Immunosenescence , Psychiatry , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Aging , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320397

ABSTRACT

We have previously published research on the anti-viral properties of an alkaloid mixture extracted from Nuphar lutea, the major components of the partially purified mixture found by NMR analysis. These are mostly dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids called thiobinupharidines and thiobinuphlutidines against the negative strand RNA measles virus (MV). We have previously reported that this extract inhibits the MV as well as its ability to downregulate several MV proteins in persistently MV-infected cells, especially the P (phospho)-protein. Based on our observation that the Nuphar extract is effective in vitro against the MV, and the immediate need that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created, we tested here the ability of 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine DTBN, an active small molecule, isolated from the Nuphar lutea extract, on COVID-19. As shown here, DTBN effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 production in Vero E6 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The short-term daily administration of DTBN to infected mice delayed the occurrence of severe clinical outcomes, lowered virus levels in the lungs and improved survival with minimal changes in lung histology. The viral load on lungs was significantly reduced in the treated mice. DTBN is a pleiotropic small molecule with multiple targets. Its anti-inflammatory properties affect a variety of pathogens including SARS-CoV-2 as shown here. Its activity appears to target both pathogen specific (as suggested by docking analysis) as well as cellular proteins, such as NF-κB, PKCs, cathepsins and topoisomerase 2, that we have previously identified in our work. Thus, this combined double action of virus inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity may enhance the overall effectivity of DTBN. The promising results from this proof-of-concept in vitro and in vivo preclinical study should encourage future studies to optimize the use of DTBN and/or its molecular derivatives against this and other related viruses.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , COVID-19 , Nuphar , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Nuphar/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Alkaloids/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Mice, Transgenic
10.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 110(5): 1101-1108, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320830

ABSTRACT

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) play a crucial role in delivering messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics for clinical applications, including COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. While mRNA can be chemically modified to become immune-silent and increase protein expression, LNPs can still trigger innate immune responses and cause inflammation-related adverse effects. Inflammation can in turn suppress mRNA translation and reduce the therapeutic effect. Dexamethasone (Dex) is a widely used anti-inflammatory corticosteroid medication that is structurally similar to cholesterol, a key component of LNPs. Here, we developed LNP formulations with anti-inflammatory properties by partially substituting cholesterol with Dex as a means to reduce inflammation. We demonstrated that Dex-incorporated LNPs effectively abrogated the induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-ɑ) in vitro and significantly reduced its expression in vivo. Reduction of inflammation using this strategy improved in vivo mRNA expression in mice by 1.5-fold. Thus, we envision that our Dex-incorporated LNPs could potentially be used to broadly to reduce the inflammatory responses of LNPs and enhance protein expression of a range of mRNA therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Liposomes , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
11.
Phytomedicine ; 116: 154858, 2023 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myricetin (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-tri hydroxyphenyl)-4-benzopyrone) is a common flavonol extracted from many natural plants and Chinese herb medicines and has been demonstrated to have multiple pharmacological activities, such as anti-microbial, anti-thrombotic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, myricetin was reported to target Mpro and 3CL-Pro-enzymatic activity to SARS-CoV-2. However, the protective value of myricetin on SARS-Cov-2 infection through viral-entry facilitators has not yet been comprehensively understood. PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the pharmacological efficacy and the mechanisms of action of myricetin against SARS-CoV-2 infection both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The inhibitory effects of myricetin on SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication were assessed on Vero E6 cells. Molecular docking analysis and bilayer interferometry (BLI) assays, immunocytochemistry (ICC), and pseudoviruses assays were performed to evaluate the roles of myricetin in the intermolecular interaction between the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The anti-inflammatory potency and mechanisms of myricetin were examined in THP1 macrophages in vitro, as well as in carrageenan-induced paw edema, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) induced auricle edema, and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) animal models. RESULTS: The results showed that myricetin was able to inhibit binding between the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and ACE2 through molecular docking analysis and BLI assay, demonstrating its potential as a viral-entry facilitator blocker. Myricetin could also significantly inhibit SASR-CoV-2 infection and replication in Vero E6 cells (EC50 55.18 µM), which was further validated with pseudoviruses containing the RBD (wild-type, N501Y, N439K, Y453F) and an S1 glycoprotein mutant (S-D614G). Moreover, myricetin exhibited a marked suppressive action on the receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-driven inflammation and NF-kappa B signaling in THP1 macrophages. In animal model studies, myricetin notably ameliorated carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, DTH induced auricle edema in mice, and LPS-induced ALI in mice. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that myricetin inhibited HCoV-229E and SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, blocked SARS-CoV-2 virus entry facilitators and relieved inflammation through the RIPK1/NF-κB pathway, suggesting that this flavonol has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mice , Rats , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Carrageenan , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Flavonols/pharmacology
12.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1030879, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309368

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is an unmet medical need for effective anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of acute and post-acute lung inflammation caused by respiratory viruses. The semi-synthetic polysaccharide, Pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), an inhibitor of NF-kB activation, was investigated for its systemic and local anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of influenza virus A/PR8/1934 (PR8 strain) mediated infection. Methods: Immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice were infected intranasally with a sublethal dose of PR8 and treated subcutaneously with 3 or 6 mg/kg PPS or vehicle. Disease was monitored and tissues were collected at the acute (8 days post-infection; dpi) or post-acute (21 dpi) phase of disease to assess the effect of PPS on PR8-induced pathology. Results: In the acute phase of PR8 infection, PPS treatment was associated with a reduction in weight loss and improvement in oxygen saturation when compared to vehicle-treated mice. Associated with these clinical improvements, PPS treatment showed a significant retention in the numbers of protective SiglecF+ resident alveolar macrophages, despite uneventful changes in pulmonary leukocyte infiltrates assessed by flow cytometry. PPS treatment in PR8- infected mice showed significant reductions systemically but not locally of the inflammatory molecules, IL-6, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-12p70 and CCL2. In the post-acute phase of infection, PPS demonstrated a reduction in the pulmonary fibrotic biomarkers, sICAM-1 and complement factor C5b9. Discussion: The systemic and local anti-inflammatory actions of PPS may regulate acute and post-acute pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodeling mediated by PR8 infection, which warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Influenzavirus A , Pneumonia , Mice , Animals , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/pharmacology , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal
13.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295031

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection and vaccination offer disparate levels of defense against reinfection and breakthrough infection. This study was designed to examine the effects of curcumin supplementation, specifically HydroCurc (CURC), versus placebo (CON) on circulating inflammatory biomarkers in adults who had previously been diagnosed with COVID-19 and subsequently received a primary series of monovalent vaccine doses. This study was conducted between June 2021 and May 2022. Participants were randomized to receive CURC (500 mg) or CON capsules twice daily for four weeks. Blood sampling was completed at baseline and week-4 and analyzed for biomarkers. Linear regression was utilized to examine the between-group differences in post-trial inflammatory biomarker levels, adjusting for baseline and covariates including age, sex, race/ethnicity, and interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and trial enrollment. The sample (n = 31) was 71% female (Age 27.6 ± 10.4 y). The CURC group exhibited significantly lower post-trial concentrations of proinflammatory IL-6 (ß = -0.52, 95%CI: -1.03, -0.014, p = 0.046) and MCP-1 (ß = -0.12, 95%CI: -0.23, -0.015, p = 0.027) compared to CON, adjusting for baseline and covariates. Curcumin intake confers anti-inflammatory activity and may be a promising prophylactic nutraceutical strategy for COVID-19. These results suggest that 4 weeks of curcumin supplementation resulted in significantly lower concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in adults who recovered from COVID-19 infection and were subsequently vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Humans , Adult , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Male , Curcumin/pharmacology , COVID-19 Testing , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers
14.
Rev Med Virol ; 33(4): e2445, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291182

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic in 2020 with high patient mortality due to acute respiratory distress syndrome which is possibly induced by a Cytokine release syndrome and more specifically through an interleukin-6 (IL-6) booster. Currently, IL-6/IL-6R inhibitors indicated an effective function in reducing the inflammatory markers in severe COVID-19 patients. In this comprehensively narrative review, we searched online academic databases including (Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Pub Med), the relevant literature was extracted from the databases by using search terms of COVID-19, IL-6, and IL6 inhibitor as free-text words and also with the combination with OR/AND to summarise the latest discoveries on the inhibitors of IL-6 and its receptor's especially focussing on the role of natural product, Naringin (NAR) as a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, with considerable anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties in COVID-19 treatments. Our data Therefore in comparison with other synthetic monoclonal antibodies NAR may provide a good qualification for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents, especially against Covid 19 based on recent studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(18): e2301775120, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305928

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing global health concern, and effective antiviral reagents are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine theory-driven natural drug research and development (TCMT-NDRD) is a feasible method to address this issue as the traditional Chinese medicine formulae have been shown effective in the treatment of COVID-19. Huashi Baidu decoction (Q-14) is a clinically approved formula for COVID-19 therapy with antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, an integrative pharmacological strategy was applied to identify the antiviral and anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds from Q-14. Overall, a total of 343 chemical compounds were initially characterized, and 60 prototype compounds in Q-14 were subsequently traced in plasma using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Among the 60 compounds, six compounds (magnolol, glycyrrhisoflavone, licoisoflavone A, emodin, echinatin, and quercetin) were identified showing a dose-dependent inhibition effect on the SARS-CoV-2 infection, including two inhibitors (echinatin and quercetin) of the main protease (Mpro), as well as two inhibitors (glycyrrhisoflavone and licoisoflavone A) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Meanwhile, three anti-inflammatory components, including licochalcone B, echinatin, and glycyrrhisoflavone, were identified in a SARS-CoV-2-infected inflammatory cell model. In addition, glycyrrhisoflavone and licoisoflavone A also displayed strong inhibitory activities against cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4). Crystal structures of PDE4 in complex with glycyrrhisoflavone or licoisoflavone A were determined at resolutions of 1.54 Å and 1.65 Å, respectively, and both compounds bind in the active site of PDE4 with similar interactions. These findings will greatly stimulate the study of TCMT-NDRD against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Quercetin/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
16.
Phytother Res ; 37(5): 2168-2186, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305109

ABSTRACT

In the search for compounds that inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, isoquinoline-containing alkaloids have been identified as compounds with high potential to fight the disease. In addition to having strong antiviral activities, most of these alkaloids have significant anti-inflammatory effects which are often manifested through the inhibition of a promising host-based anti-COVID-19 target, the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In the present review, our pharmacological and medicinal chemistry evaluation resulted in highlighting the potential of anti-SARS-CoV-2 isoquinoline-based alkaloids for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Considering critical parameters of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, mechanism of action, as well as toxicity/safety profile, we introduce the alkaloids emetine, cephaeline, and papaverine as high-potential therapeutic agents for use in the treatment of COVID-19. Although preclinical studies confirm that some isoquinoline-based alkaloids reviewed in this study have a high potential to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2, their entry into drug regimens of COVID-19 patients requires further clinical trial studies and toxicity evaluation.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , COVID-19 , Humans , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Isoquinolines/therapeutic use , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 disease is a serious global health problem. Few treatments have been shown to reduce mortality and accelerate time to recovery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of a food supplement (probiotics, prebiotics, vitamin D, zinc and selenium) in patients admitted with COVID-19. METHODS: A prospective randomized non-blinded clinical trial was conducted in a sample of 162 hospitalized patients diagnosed with COVID-19 recruited over eight months. All patients received standard treatment, but the intervention group (n = 67) was given one food supplement stick daily during their admission. After collecting the study variables, a statistical analysis was performed comparing the intervention and control groups and a multivariate analysis controlling for variables that could act as confounding factors. RESULTS: ROC curve analysis with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.840 (p < 0.001; 95%CI: 0.741-0.939) of the food supplement administration vs. recovery indicated good predictive ability. Moreover, the intervention group had a shorter duration of digestive symptoms compared with the control group: 2.6 ± 1.3 vs. 4.3 ± 2.2 days (p = 0.001); patients with non-severe disease on chest X-ray had shorter hospital stays: 8.1 ± 3.9 vs. 11.6 ± 7.4 days (p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: In this trial, the administration of a food supplement (Gasteel Plus®) was shown to be a protective factor in the group of patients with severe COVID-19 and allowed early recovery from digestive symptoms and a shorter hospital stay in patients with a normal-mild-moderate chest X-ray at admission (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04666116).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antioxidants , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , Dietary Supplements , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Treatment Outcome
18.
Immunol Lett ; 256-257: 34-41, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302009

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD), a rare multisystem inflammatory condition that predominantly affects children under six years of age, is the leading cause of childhood-acquired heart disease in developed countries. The pathogenesis is unknown, but studies support that an infectious stimulus triggers an autoimmune reaction in a genetically susceptible child. Recent studies demonstrated an association with autoantibody response to Del-1 (also known as EDIL3) in children with KD. Del-1 is an extracellular matrix protein that is expressed both in macrophages and vascular endothelium. Del-1 has an anti-inflammatory role by preventing leucocyte migration to inflammatory sites. Del-1 has two expression variants and genetic variants of Del-1 have been associated with the risk of intracranial aneurysms. Due to the physiologic plausibility for a role during KD, we chose to assess if autoantibodies against DEL-1 are seen in a larger cohort of children with KD and to assess if responses correlated to aneurysm formation. Contrary to prior findings, in comparison to febrile controls, autoantibodies were not overall higher in children with KD. Elevation in Post-IVIG samples in comparison to pre-IVIG and convalescent samples supports the commonality of anti-Del-1 antibodies. Autoantibodies were notably lower in children with KD who had coronary Z score elevations in comparison to those who did not.


Subject(s)
Coronary Aneurysm , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Autoantibodies , Coronary Aneurysm/complications , Coronary Aneurysm/prevention & control , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium-Binding Proteins , Cell Adhesion Molecules
19.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1147991, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306631

ABSTRACT

Commonly used clinical strategies against coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), including the potential role of monoclonal antibodies for site-specific targeted drug delivery, are discussed here. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) tailored with tocilizumab (TCZ) and loading cannabidiol (CBD) are proposed for the treatment of COVID-19 by oral route. TCZ, as a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor agonist, can attenuate cytokine storm in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. CBD (an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid and TCZ agonist) alleviates anxiety, schizophrenia, and depression. CBD, obtained from Cannabis sativa L., is known to modulate gene expression and inflammation and also shows anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. It has also been recognized to modulate angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) expression in SARS-CoV-2 target tissues. It has already been proven that immunosuppressive drugs targeting the IL-6 receptor may ameliorate lethal inflammatory responses in COVID-19 patients. TCZ, as an immunosuppressive drug, is mainly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, although several attempts have been made to use it in the active hyperinflammatory phase of COVID-19, with promising outcomes. TCZ is currently administered intravenously. It this review, we discuss the potential advances on the use of SLN for oral administration of TCZ-tailored CBD-loaded SLN, as an innovative platform for managing SARS-CoV-2 and related infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabidiol , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents
20.
Rhinology ; 61(2): 161-169, 2023 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disruption of the nasal epithelial barrier is believed to play a role in Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) outcomes. Fluticasone propionate has been shown to restore the nasal epithelial barrier in allergic rhinitis to the level of healthy controls. The therapeutic potential of nasal steroid sprays in COVID-19 has recently been reported. However, further insight into the mode of action is warranted. OBJECTIVES: To explore the in vitro mechanisms of the preventive potential of fluticasone propionate in SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Human air liquid interface cultures of Calu-3 cells and primary nasal epithelial cells isolated from healthy donors were used to investigate the preventive effect of fluticasone propionate on SARS-CoV-2 induced barrier disruption, virus replication and ACE2 expression. RESULTS: 48 hours pre-treatment with fluticasone propionate prevented the SARS-CoV-2 induced increase in fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran 4 kDa permeability and reduced infection with SARS-CoV-2. Pre-treatment with fluticasone propionate also decreased ACE2 expression in SARS-CoV-2 infected Calu-3 cells. CONCLUSION: Fluticasone propionate pre-treatment prevented SARS-CoV-2 increased epithelial permeability, reduced ACE2 expression and SARS-CoV-2 infection, underscoring the therapeutic potential of fluticasone propionate in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Fluticasone/pharmacology , Fluticasone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Androstadienes/pharmacology , Androstadienes/therapeutic use , Nasal Sprays , Permeability
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