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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(10): e82, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742200

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) resulted in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 can result in fatal comorbidities, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Several reports suggest that children have milder illness, though severe cases have still been reported. We report a 9-year-old boy with ARDS caused by the SARS-CoV-2 delta (B.1.617.2) variant. He was admitted to our hospital and carefully observed due to underlying Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. He developed intractable seizures with a high fever. Although the seizures were controlled, his respiratory condition deteriorated to severe ARDS. High-dose methylprednisolone was administered with high positive end-expiratory pressure and low tidal volume. After ARDS treatment, oxygenation improved sufficiently to permit extubation. This case suggests that close observation is required in pediatric patients with neurologic comorbidities because of an increased risk for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lennox Gastaut Syndrome/complications , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Methylprednisolone/administration & dosage , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging
2.
Nature ; 603(7899): 25-27, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730273

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Repositioning , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/administration & dosage , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Alanine/administration & dosage , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/economics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Depsipeptides/pharmacology , Depsipeptides/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Drug Synergism , Esters/pharmacology , Esters/therapeutic use , Guanidines/pharmacology , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Internationality , Lactams/therapeutic use , Leucine/therapeutic use , Mice , National Institutes of Health (U.S.)/organization & administration , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Peptide Elongation Factor 1/antagonists & inhibitors , Peptides, Cyclic/pharmacology , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Proline/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(3): e221455, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729077

ABSTRACT

Importance: Current guidelines recommend use of dexamethasone, 6 mg/d, up to 10 days or until discharge for patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Whether patients who received less than 10 days of corticosteroids during hospitalization for COVID-19 benefit from continuing treatment at discharge has not been determined. Objective: To assess whether continuing dexamethasone treatment at discharge is associated with reduced all-cause readmissions or mortality postdischarge. Design, Setting, and Participants: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at 15 medical centers within Kaiser Permanente Southern California. The population included adults who received less than 10 days of dexamethasone, 6 mg/d, until discharge during hospitalization for COVID-19 and were discharged alive between May 1 and September 30, 2020. Exposures: Continued dexamethasone treatment at discharge. Main Outcomes and Measures: All-cause readmissions or mortality within 14 days from discharge. Results: A total of 1164 patients with a median age of 55 (IQR, 44-66) years were identified. Most patients were of Hispanic ethnicity (822 [70.6%]) and male (674 [57.9%]) and required oxygen support during hospitalization (1048 [90.0%]). Of the 1164 patients, 692 (59.5%) continued dexamethasone, 6 mg/d, at discharge. A balanced cohort was created using propensity score and inverse probability of treatment weighting. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for readmissions or mortality within 14 days was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.58-1.30) for patients who continued dexamethasone therapy at discharge compared with those who did not. Similar results were produced by a sensitivity analysis that restricted the treatment group to those who received exactly 10 days of dexamethasone (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.55-1.43) and by subgroup analyses stratified by the duration of dexamethasone treatment as an inpatient (1-3 days: OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.43-1.16; 4-9 days: OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.48-2.12), oxygen requirement at discharge (room air: OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.53-1.59; supplemental oxygen use: OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.42-1.37), and disease duration at discharge (≤10 days: OR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.49-1.33; >10 days: OR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.48-1.86). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of patients with COVID-19, continuing treatment with dexamethasone, 6 mg/d, at discharge was not associated with a reduction in 14-day all-cause readmission or mortality. This finding suggests that dexamethasone should not be routinely prescribed beyond discharge for individuals with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , California , Cohort Studies , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
4.
Pharm Biol ; 60(1): 509-524, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713414

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, researchers have been working on finding ways to prevent viral entry and pathogenesis. Drug development from naturally-sourced pharmacological constituents may be a fruitful approach to COVID-19 therapy. OBJECTIVE: Most of the published literature has focussed on medicinal plants, while less attention has been given to biodiverse sources such as animal, marine, and microbial products. This review focuses on highlighting natural products and their derivatives that have been evaluated for antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties. METHODS: We searched electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Springer Link to gather raw data from publications up to March 2021, using terms such as 'natural products', marine, micro-organism, and animal, COVID-19. We extracted a number of documented clinical trials of products that were tested in silico, in vitro, and in vivo which paid specific attention to chemical profiles and mechanisms of action. RESULTS: Various classes of flavonoids, 2 polyphenols, peptides and tannins were found, which exhibit inhibitory properties against viral and host proteins, including 3CLpro, PLpro, S, hACE2, and NF-κB, many of which are in different phases of clinical trials. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic effects of logical combinations with different mechanisms of action emphasizes their value in COVID19 management, such as iota carrageenan nasal spray, ermectin oral drops, omega-3 supplementation, and a quadruple treatment of zinc, quercetin, bromelain, and vitamin C. Though in vivo efficacy of these compounds has yet to be established, these bioproducts are potentially useful in counteracting the effects of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Biological Products/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Drug Development/methods , Drug Synergism , Humans , /isolation & purification , /pharmacology
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 148: 112753, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707727

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a lethal disease caused by the pandemic SARS-CoV-2, which continues to be a public health threat. COVID-19 is principally a respiratory disease and is often associated with sputum retention and cytokine storm, for which there are limited therapeutic options. In this regard, we evaluated the use of BromAc®, a combination of Bromelain and Acetylcysteine (NAC). Both drugs present mucolytic effect and have been studied to treat COVID-19. Therefore, we sought to examine the mucolytic and anti-inflammatory effect of BromAc® in tracheal aspirate samples from critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring mechanical ventilation. METHOD: Tracheal aspirate samples from COVID-19 patients were collected following next of kin consent and mucolysis, rheometry and cytokine analysis using Luminex kit was performed. RESULTS: BromAc® displayed a robust mucolytic effect in a dose dependent manner on COVID-19 sputum ex vivo. BromAc® showed anti-inflammatory activity, reducing the action of cytokine storm, chemokines including MIP-1alpha, CXCL8, MIP-1b, MCP-1 and IP-10, and regulatory cytokines IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 IL-1Ra and total reduction for IL-9 compared to NAC alone and control. BromAc® acted on IL-6, demonstrating a reduction in G-CSF and VEGF-D at concentrations of 125 and 250 µg. CONCLUSION: These results indicate robust mucolytic and anti-inflammatory effect of BromAc® ex vivo in tracheal aspirates from critically ill COVID-19 patients, indicating its potential to be further assessed as pharmacological treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bromelains/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , Chemokines/drug effects , Cytokines/drug effects , Sputum/cytology , Acetylcysteine/administration & dosage , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Bromelains/administration & dosage , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Down-Regulation , Drug Combinations , Expectorants/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Rheology , SARS-CoV-2 , Trachea/pathology , Young Adult
6.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(2): 102395, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the latest evidence on the association between colchicine and mortality in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive literature search from the PubMed, Scopus, Embase, EuropePMC, and Clinicaltrials.gov up until 02 January 2022. We include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies reporting colchicine use in patients with COVID-19 and mortality within 30 days. The intervention group was patients given colchicine during the course of treatment. The control group was patients given placebo or standard of care at the respective institutions. The outcome was mortality. The effect estimate was reported as risk ratio (RR). RESULTS: There were 12 studies comprising of 6953 patients included in this meta-analysis. Mortality rate was 0.18 [95%CI 0.10, 0.26] in the colchicine group and 0.26 [95%CI 0.15, 0.38] in the control group. Colchicine was associated with reduction in mortality (RR 0.66 [95%CI 0.53, 0.83], p < 0.001; I2: 42%). Sensitivity analysis using fixed-effect model (RR 0.73 [95%CI 0.63, 0.83], p < 0.001; I2: 42%. Subgroup analysis on the four RCTs showed non-significant result (RR 0.81 [95%CI 0.54, 1.20], p = 0.29; I2: 10%). Meta-regression showed that the association between colchicine and reduced mortality was not affected by age (p = 0.613) [Fig. 3], sex (p = 0.915), diabetes (p = 0.795), and hypertension (p = 0.403). CONCLUSION: Though the meta-analysis showed decreased mortality with colchicine in patients with COVID-19, the meta-analysis of randomized trials did not show any significant effect of colchicine on mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Colchicine/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Virus Replication/drug effects
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 198: 101-110, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587672

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infected by COVID-19 represents a major global health problem at moment even after recovery from virus corona. Since, the lung lesions for infected patients are still sufferings from acute respiratory distress syndrome including alveolar septal edema, pneumonia, hyperplasia, and hyaline membranes Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify additional candidates having ability to overcome inflammatory process and can enhance efficacy in the treatment of COVID-19. The polypenolic extracts were integrated into moeties of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and then were coated by chitosan as a mucoadhesion polymer. The results of interleukin-6, and c-reactive protein showed significant reduction in group treated by Encap. SIL + CUR (64 ± 0.8 Pg/µL & 6 ± 0.5 µg/µL) compared to group treated by Cham. + CUR (102 ± 0.8 Pg/µL & 7 ± 0.5 µg/µL) respectively and free capsules (with no any drug inside) (148 ± 0.6 Pg/µL & 10 ± 0.6 µg/µL) respectively. Histopathology profile was improved completely. Additionally, encapsulating silymarin showed anti-viral activity in vitro COVID-19 experiment. It can be summarized that muco-inhalable delivery system (MIDS) loaded by silymarin can be used to overcome inflammation induced by oleic acid and to overcome COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Curcumin/pharmacology , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silymarin/pharmacology , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Chamomile/chemistry , Chitosan/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Curcumin/administration & dosage , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Flavonoids/analysis , Flavonoids/chemistry , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung Injury/blood , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/pathology , Male , Mice , Milk Thistle/chemistry , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , Oleic Acid/toxicity , Silymarin/administration & dosage , Vero Cells , Viral Plaque Assay
9.
Pharmacol Rep ; 74(1): 229-240, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Corticosteroids are commonly used in the treatment of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The goals of the present study were to compare the efficacy and safety of different doses of dexamethasone in the treatment of patients with a diagnosis of moderate to severe COVID-19. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of moderate to severe COVID-19 were assigned to intravenous low-dose (8 mg once daily), intermediate-dose (8 mg twice daily) or high-dose (8 mg thrice daily) dexamethasone for up to 10 days or until hospital discharge. Clinical response, 60-day survival and adverse effects were the main outcomes of the study. RESULTS: In the competing risk survival analysis, patients in the low-dose group had a higher clinical response than the high-dose group when considering death as a competing risk (HR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.23-3.33, p = 0.03). Also, the survival was significantly longer in the low-dose group than the high-dose group (HR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.15-0.83, p = 0.02). Leukocytosis and hyperglycemia were the most common side effects of dexamethasone. Although the incidence was not significantly different between the groups, some adverse effects were numerically higher in the intermediate-dose and high-dose groups than in the low-dose group. CONCLUSIONS: Higher doses of dexamethasone not only failed to improve efficacy but also resulted in an increase in the number of adverse events and worsen survival in hospitalized patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 compared to the low-dose dexamethasone. (IRCT20100228003449N31).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperglycemia/chemically induced , Incidence , Leukocytosis/chemically induced , Male , Middle Aged , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
12.
Cell Cycle ; 20(22): 2321-2336, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442952

ABSTRACT

Multifunctional nature of phytochemicals and their chemical diversity has attracted attention to develop leads originated from nature to fight COVID-19. Pharmacological activities of chelerythrine and its congeners have been studied and reported in the literature. This compound simultaneously has two key therapeutic effects for the treatment of COVID-19, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. Chelerythrine can prevent hyper-inflammatory immune response through regulating critical signaling pathways involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as alteration in Nrf2, NF-κB, and p38 MAPK activities. In addition, chelerythrine has a strong protein kinase C-α/-ß inhibitory activity suitable for cerebral vasospasm prevention and eryptosis reduction, as well as beneficial effects in suppressing pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. In terms of antiviral activity, chelerythrine can fight with SARS-CoV-2 through various mechanisms, such as direct-acting mechanism, viral RNA-intercalation, and regulation of host-based antiviral targets. Although chelerythrine is toxic in vitro, the in vivo toxicity is significantly reduced due to its structural conversion to alkanolamine. Its multifunctional action makes chelerythrine a prominent compound for the treatment of COVID-19. Considering precautions related to the toxicity at higher doses, it is expected that this compound is useful in combination with proper antivirals to reduce the severity of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Benzophenanthridines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant/trends , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(8): 924-932, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests a role for excessive inflammation in COVID-19 complications. Colchicine is an oral anti-inflammatory medication beneficial in gout, pericarditis, and coronary disease. We aimed to investigate the effect of colchicine on the composite of COVID-19-related death or hospital admission. METHODS: The present study is a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, adaptive, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. The study was done in Brazil, Canada, Greece, South Africa, Spain, and the USA, and was led by the Montreal Heart Institute. Patients with COVID-19 diagnosed by PCR testing or clinical criteria who were not being treated in hospital were eligible if they were at least 40 years old and had at least one high-risk characteristic. The randomisation list was computer-generated by an unmasked biostatistician, and masked randomisation was centralised and done electronically through an automated interactive web-response system. The allocation sequence was unstratified and used a 1:1 ratio with a blocking schema and block sizes of six. Patients were randomly assigned to receive orally administered colchicine (0·5 mg twice per day for 3 days and then once per day for 27 days thereafter) or matching placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of death or hospital admission for COVID-19. Vital status at the end of the study was available for 97·9% of patients. The analyses were done according to the intention-to-treat principle. The COLCORONA trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04322682) and is now closed to new participants. FINDINGS: Trial enrolment began in March 23, 2020, and was completed in Dec 22, 2020. A total of 4488 patients (53·9% women; median age 54·0 years, IQR 47·0-61·0) were enrolled and 2235 patients were randomly assigned to colchicine and 2253 to placebo. The primary endpoint occurred in 104 (4·7%) of 2235 patients in the colchicine group and 131 (5·8%) of 2253 patients in the placebo group (odds ratio [OR] 0·79, 95·1% CI 0·61-1·03; p=0·081). Among the 4159 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19, the primary endpoint occurred in 96 (4·6%) of 2075 patients in the colchicine group and 126 (6·0%) of 2084 patients in the placebo group (OR 0·75, 0·57-0·99; p=0·042). Serious adverse events were reported in 108 (4·9%) of 2195 patients in the colchicine group and 139 (6·3%) of 2217 patients in the placebo group (p=0·051); pneumonia occurred in 63 (2·9%) of 2195 patients in the colchicine group and 92 (4·1%) of 2217 patients in the placebo group (p=0·021). Diarrhoea was reported in 300 (13·7%) of 2195 patients in the colchicine group and 161 (7·3%) of 2217 patients in the placebo group (p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: In community-treated patients including those without a mandatory diagnostic test, the effect of colchicine on COVID-19-related clinical events was not statistically significant. Among patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19, colchicine led to a lower rate of the composite of death or hospital admission than placebo. Given the absence of orally administered therapies to prevent COVID-19 complications in community-treated patients and the benefit of colchicine in patients with PCR-proven COVID-19, this safe and inexpensive anti-inflammatory agent could be considered for use in those at risk of complications. Notwithstanding these considerations, replication in other studies of PCR-positive community-treated patients is recommended. FUNDING: The Government of Quebec, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the US National Institutes of Health, the Montreal Heart Institute Foundation, the NYU Grossman School of Medicine, the Rudin Family Foundation, and philanthropist Sophie Desmarais.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colchicine , Administration, Oral , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Colchicine/administration & dosage , Colchicine/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intention to Treat Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 109866, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386296

ABSTRACT

Zinc Iodide and Dimethyl Sulfoxide compositions are proposed as therapeutic agents to treat and prevent chronic and acute viral infections including SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. The therapeutic combinations have a wide range of virucidal effects on DNA and RNA containing viruses. The combinations also exhibit anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, antifibrotic, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidative effects. Given the fact that Zinc Iodide has been used as an oral antiseptic agent and DMSO has been already proven as a safe pharmaceutical solvent and therapeutic agent, we hypothesize that the combination of these two agents can be applied as an effective, safe and inexpensive treatment for SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infection. The therapeutic compound can be applied as both etiological and pathogenesis therapy and used as an effective and safe antiseptic (disinfectant) for human and animals as well.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Dimethyl Sulfoxide/administration & dosage , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Iodides/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Zinc Compounds/administration & dosage , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Solvents , Virus Diseases/drug therapy
15.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(8): 2035-2039, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333113

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes CoronaVirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has resulted in a worldwide pandemic and currently represents a major public health crisis. It has caused outbreaks of illness through person-to-person transmission of the virus mainly via close contacts, and droplets produced by an infected person's cough or sneeze. Aerosolised inhaled therapy is the mainstay for treating obstructive airway diseases at home and in healthcare settings, but there is heightened particular concern about the potential risk for transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in the form of aerosolised respiratory droplets during the nebulised treatment of patients with COVID-19. As a consequence of this concern, the use of hand-held inhalers, especially pressurised metered dose inhalers, has risen considerably as an alternative to nebulisers, and this switch has led to inadequate supplies of inhalers in some countries. However, there is no evidence supporting an increased risk of viral transmission during nebulisation in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, some patients may be unable to adequately use their new device and may not benefit fully from the switch to treatment via hand-held inhalers. Thus, there is no compelling reason to alter aerosol delivery devices for patients with established nebuliser-based regimens. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the current evidence and understanding of the use of aerosolised inhaled therapies during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to provide some guidance on the measures to be taken to minimise the risk of transmitting infection, if any, during aerosol therapies.


Subject(s)
Aerosols/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Bronchodilator Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Lung Diseases, Obstructive/drug therapy , Nebulizers and Vaporizers/standards , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Folia Neuropathol ; 59(2): 113-120, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319810

ABSTRACT

The majority of COVID-19 cases are only mildly or moderately symptomatic, but in some patients excessive inflammatory response becomes the dominant factor of disease progression to the advanced stage, with high mortality. Treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs either does not prevent disease progression (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], colchicine), or is recommended only at the advanced disease stage (dexamethasone). Fluvoxamine and amantadine are drugs used to treat neurological and psychiatric diseases. Fluvoxamine is a selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, whereas amantadine is an old antiviral variably influencing brain neurotransmitter systems, and repurposed to Parkinson's disease. Both drugs are agonists of sigma-1 receptors located in the endoplasmic reticulum, which effect seems responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity. Moreover, amantadine was found to dampen the expression of cathepsin-L, a lysosomal enzyme implicated in SARS-CoV-2 virus entry to target cells. In two small controlled clinical trials, early treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected persons with fluvoxamine fully prevented COVID-19 symptoms. Anecdotal evidence shows that amantadine may be similarly effective. Both drugs are easily available, inexpensive and have favorable safety profiles. Clinical trials evaluating their efficacy as much-needed post-exposure prophylaxis and early treatment of COVID-19 are ongoing.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Central Nervous System Agents/administration & dosage , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Treatment Outcome
19.
Can J Cardiol ; 37(10): 1665-1667, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265654

ABSTRACT

Vaccination plays an important role in the fight against SARS-CoV-2 to minimie the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its life-threatening complications. Myocarditis has been reported as a possible and rare adverse consequence of different vaccines, and its clinical presentation can range from influenza-like symptoms to acute heart failure. We report a case of a 30-year-old man who presented progressive dyspnea and constrictive retrosternal pain after receiving SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Cardiac magnetic resonance and laboratory data revealed typical findings of acute myopericarditis.


Subject(s)
Aspirin/administration & dosage , Bisoprolol/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Adrenergic beta-1 Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , /adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Creatine Kinase, MB Form/blood , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine/methods , Male , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Troponin I/blood
20.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111794, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263229

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) is the causative agent of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Lower production of type I and III interferons and higher levels of inflammatory mediators upon SARS-CoV2 infection contribute to COVID-19 pathogenesis. Optimal interferon production and controlled inflammation are essential to limit COVID-19 pathogenesis. However, the aggravated inflammatory response observed in COVID-19 patients causes severe damage to the host and frequently advances to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Toll-like receptor 7 and 8 (TLR7/8) signaling pathways play a central role in regulating induction of interferons (IFNs) and inflammatory mediators in dendritic cells. Controlled inflammation is possible through regulation of TLR mediated response without influencing interferon production to reduce COVID-19 pathogenesis. This review focuses on inflammatory mediators that contribute to pathogenic effects and the role of TLR pathways in the induction of interferon and inflammatory mediators and their contribution to COVID-19 pathogenesis. We conclude that potential TLR7/8 agonists inducing antiviral interferon response and controlling inflammation are important therapeutic options to effectively eliminate SARS-CoV2 induced pathogenesis. Ongoing and future studies may provide additional evidence on their safety and efficacy to treat COVID-19 pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interferons/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 7/physiology , Toll-Like Receptor 8/physiology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Interferons/immunology , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 8/agonists
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