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1.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023939

ABSTRACT

Antrodia camphorata is an endemic mushroom in Taiwan. This study was designed to screen anti-inflammatory compounds from the methanolic extract of the mycelium of A. camphorata on nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells induced by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) known to be present in viral infection. A combination of bioactivity-guided isolation with an NMR-based identification led to the isolation of 4-acetylantroquinonol B (1), along with seven compounds. The structure of new compounds (4 and 5) was elucidated by spectroscopic experiments, including MS, IR, and NMR analysis. The anti-inflammatory activity of all isolated compounds was assessed at non-cytotoxic concentrations. 4-Acetylantroquinonol B (1) was the most potent compound against poly I:C-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 cells with an IC50 value of 0.57 ± 0.06 µM.


Subject(s)
Antrodia , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antrodia/chemistry , Mice , Nitric Oxide , Poly I-C/pharmacology , Polyporales , RAW 264.7 Cells
2.
Mar Drugs ; 19(2)2021 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969360

ABSTRACT

Inorganic polyphosphate (polyP) is a widely distributed polymer found from bacteria to animals, including marine species. This polymer exhibits morphogenetic as well as antiviral activity and releases metabolic energy after enzymatic hydrolysis also in human cells. In the pathogenesis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the platelets are at the frontline of this syndrome. Platelets release a set of molecules, among them polyP. In addition, the production of airway mucus, the first line of body defense, is impaired in those patients. Therefore, in this study, amorphous nanoparticles of the magnesium salt of polyP (Mg-polyP-NP), matching the size of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, were prepared and loaded with the secondary plant metabolite quercetin or with dexamethasone to study their effects on the respiratory epithelium using human alveolar basal epithelial A549 cells as a model. The results revealed that both compounds embedded into the polyP nanoparticles significantly increased the steady-state-expression of the MUC5AC gene. This mucin species is the major mucus glycoprotein present in the secreted gel-forming mucus. The level of gene expression caused by quercetin or with dexamethasone, if caged into polyP NP, is significantly higher compared to the individual drugs alone. Both quercetin and dexamethasone did not impair the growth-supporting effect of polyP on A549 cells even at concentrations of quercetin which are cytotoxic for the cells. A possible mechanism of the effects of the two drugs together with polyP on mucin expression is proposed based on the scavenging of free oxygen species and the generation of ADP/ATP from the polyP, which is needed for the organization of the protective mucin-based mucus layer.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Mucin 5AC/biosynthesis , Mucin 5AC/drug effects , Quercetin/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , COVID-19 , Dexamethasone/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Magnesium/chemistry , Mucin 5AC/genetics , Mucins/biosynthesis , Mucins/chemistry , Nanoparticles , Particle Size , Plants/chemistry , Polyphosphates/chemistry , Quercetin/chemistry , Reactive Oxygen Species
3.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686902

ABSTRACT

Sesquiterpene lactones (SL), characterized by their high prevalence in the Asteraceae family, are one of the major groups of secondary metabolites found in plants. Researchers from distinct research fields, including pharmacology, medicine, and agriculture, are interested in their biological potential. With new SL discovered in the last years, new biological activities have been tested, different action mechanisms (synergistic and/or antagonistic effects), as well as molecular structure-activity relationships described. The review identifies the main sesquiterpene lactones with interconnections between immune responses and anti-inflammatory actions, within different cellular models as well in in vivo studies. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability, as well as molecular structure-activity relationships are addressed. Additionally, plant metabolic engineering, and the impact of sesquiterpene lactone extraction methodologies are presented, with the perspective of biological activity enhancement. Sesquiterpene lactones derivatives are also addressed. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the therapeutic potential of sesquiterpene lactones within immune and inflammatory activities, highlighting trends and opportunities for their pharmaceutical/clinical use.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Lactones/pharmacology , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Asteraceae/chemistry , Drug Discovery , Humans , /isolation & purification , Lactones/chemistry , Lactones/isolation & purification , Sesquiterpenes/chemistry , Sesquiterpenes/isolation & purification
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674672

ABSTRACT

The inflammatory protease caspase-1 is associated with the release of cytokines. An excessive number of cytokines (a "cytokine storm") is a dangerous consequence of COVID-19 infection and has been indicated as being among the causes of death by COVID-19. The anti-inflammatory drug colchicine (which is reported in the literature to be a caspase-1 inhibitor) and the corticosteroid drugs, dexamethasone and methylprednisolone, are among the most effective active compounds for COVID-19 treatment. The SERM raloxifene has also been used as a repurposed drug in COVID-19 therapy. In this study, inhibition of caspase-1 by these four compounds was analyzed using computational methods. Our aim was to see if the inhibition of caspase-1, an important biomolecule in the inflammatory response that triggers cytokine release, could shed light on how these drugs help to alleviate excessive cytokine production. We also measured the antioxidant activities of dexamethasone and colchicine when scavenging the superoxide radical using cyclic voltammetry methods. The experimental findings are associated with caspase-1 active site affinity towards these compounds. In evaluating our computational and experimental results, we here formulate a mechanism for caspase-1 inhibition by these drugs, which involves the active site amino acid Cys285 residue and is mediated by a transfer of protons, involving His237 and Ser339. It is proposed that the molecular moiety targeted by all of these drugs is a carbonyl group which establishes a S(Cys285)-C(carbonyl) covalent bond.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caspase 1/drug effects , Caspase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/metabolism , Caspase 1/chemistry , Caspase 1/metabolism , Caspase Inhibitors/chemistry , Colchicine/chemistry , Colchicine/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pentacyclic Triterpenes/pharmacology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/chemistry , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/pharmacology , Viral Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Viral Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 769011, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650341

ABSTRACT

Asthma patients may increase their susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the poor prognosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, anti-COVID-19/asthma comorbidity approaches are restricted on condition. Existing evidence indicates that luteolin has antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and immune regulation capabilities. We aimed to evaluate the possibility of luteolin evolving into an ideal drug and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. We used system pharmacology and bioinformatics analysis to assess the physicochemical properties and biological activities of luteolin and further analyze the binding activities, targets, biological functions, and mechanisms of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. We found that luteolin may exert ideal physicochemical properties and bioactivity, and molecular docking analysis confirmed that luteolin performed effective binding activities in COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction network of 538 common targets between drug and disease was constructed and 264 hub targets were obtained. Then, the top 6 hub targets of luteolin against COVID-19/asthma comorbidity were identified, namely, TP53, AKT1, ALB, IL-6, TNF, and VEGFA. Furthermore, the enrichment analysis suggested that luteolin may exert effects on virus defense, regulation of inflammation, cell growth and cell replication, and immune responses, reducing oxidative stress and regulating blood circulation through the Toll-like receptor; MAPK, TNF, AGE/RAGE, EGFR, ErbB, HIF-1, and PI3K-AKT signaling pathways; PD-L1 expression; and PD-1 checkpoint pathway in cancer. The possible "dangerous liaison" between COVID-19 and asthma is still a potential threat to world health. This research is the first to explore whether luteolin could evolve into a drug candidate for COVID-19/asthma comorbidity. This study indicated that luteolin with superior drug likeness and bioactivity has great potential to be used for treating COVID-19/asthma comorbidity, but the predicted results still need to be rigorously verified by experiments.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Luteolin/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Comorbidity , Computational Biology/methods , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Immunologic Factors/chemistry , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Luteolin/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Serum Albumin, Human/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
6.
Chem Biodivers ; 19(1): e202100668, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611203

ABSTRACT

Forsyqinlingines C (1) and D (2), two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids bearing a rare skeleton, were isolated from the ripe fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were fully elucidated by extensive spectroscopic data and ECD experiments. The plausible biogenetic pathway for compounds 1 and 2 was also proposed. In vitro, two C9 -monoterpenoid alkaloids showed anti-inflammatory activity performed by the inhibitory effect on the release of ß-glucuronidase in rat polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), as well as antiviral activity against influenza A (H1N1) virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Forsythia/chemistry , Monoterpenes/chemistry , Alkaloids/isolation & purification , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Forsythia/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Fruit/metabolism , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Neutrophils/cytology , Neutrophils/drug effects , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/pharmacology , Rats , Respiratory Syncytial Viruses/drug effects
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7327, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585856

ABSTRACT

The global disruption caused by the 2020 coronavirus pandemic stressed the supply chain of many products, including pharmaceuticals. Multiple drug repurposing studies for COVID-19 are now underway. If a winning therapeutic emerges, it is unlikely that the existing inventory of the medicine, or even the chemical raw materials needed to synthesize it, will be available in the quantities required. Here, we utilize retrosynthetic software to arrive at alternate chemical supply chains for the antiviral drug umifenovir, as well as eleven other antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs. We have experimentally validated four routes to umifenovir and one route to bromhexine. In one route to umifenovir the software invokes conversion of six C-H bonds into C-C bonds or functional groups. The strategy we apply of excluding known starting materials from search results can be used to identify distinct starting materials, for instance to relieve stress on existing supply chains.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Indoles/chemistry , Software , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Indoles/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
8.
Biomolecules ; 11(12)2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554985

ABSTRACT

Inflammation involves a complex biological response of the body tissues to damaging stimuli. When dysregulated, inflammation led by biomolecular mediators such as caspase-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) can play a detrimental role in the progression of different medical conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, autoimmune diseases, and cytokine storms caused by viral infections such as COVID-19. Computational approaches can accelerate the search for dual-target drugs able to simultaneously inhibit the aforementioned proteins, enabling the discovery of wide-spectrum anti-inflammatory agents. This work reports the first multicondition model based on quantitative structure-activity relationships and a multilayer perceptron neural network (mtc-QSAR-MLP) for the virtual screening of agency-regulated chemicals as versatile anti-inflammatory therapeutics. The mtc-QSAR-MLP model displayed accuracy higher than 88%, and was interpreted from a physicochemical and structural point of view. When using the mtc-QSAR-MLP model as a virtual screening tool, we could identify several agency-regulated chemicals as dual inhibitors of caspase-1 and TNF-alpha, and the experimental information later retrieved from the scientific literature converged with our computational results. This study supports the capabilities of our mtc-QSAR-MLP model in anti-inflammatory therapy with direct applications to current health issues such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Caspase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning/methods , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/drug therapy , Caspase 1/metabolism , Caspase Inhibitors/chemistry , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
9.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542693

ABSTRACT

Bromelain is a major sulfhydryl proteolytic enzyme found in pineapple plants, having multiple activities in many areas of medicine. Due to its low toxicity, high efficiency, high availability, and relative simplicity of acquisition, it is the object of inexhaustible interest of scientists. This review summarizes scientific reports concerning the possible application of bromelain in treating cardiovascular diseases, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis disorders, infectious diseases, inflammation-associated diseases, and many types of cancer. However, for the proper application of such multi-action activities of bromelain, further exploration of the mechanism of its action is needed. It is supposed that the anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and anti-coagulatory activity of bromelain may become a complementary therapy for COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 patients. During the irrepressible spread of novel variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, such beneficial properties of this biomolecule might help prevent escalation and the progression of the COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Bromelains/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cardiotonic Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Plant Proteins/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Ananas/enzymology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Bromelains/chemistry , Cardiotonic Agents/chemistry , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Humans , Plant Proteins/chemistry
10.
Mar Drugs ; 19(10)2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485164

ABSTRACT

Inflammation is the body's defense reaction in response to stimulations and is the basis of various physiological and pathological processes. However, chronic inflammation is undesirable and closely related to the occurrence and development of diseases. The ocean gives birth to unique and diverse bioactive substances, which have gained special attention and been a focus for anti-inflammatory drug development. So far, numerous promising bioactive substances have been obtained from various marine organisms such as marine bacteria and fungi, sponges, algae, and coral. This review covers 71 bioactive substances described during 2015-2020, including the structures (65 of which), species sources, evaluation models and anti-inflammatory activities of these substances. This review aims to provide some reference for the research progress of marine-organism-derived anti-inflammatory metabolites and give more research impetus for their conversion to novel anti-inflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Aquatic Organisms , Biological Products , Animals , Anthozoa , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , Microalgae , Porifera , Research
11.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480885

ABSTRACT

In our in vitro and in vivo studies, we used Acalypha indica root methanolic extract (AIRME), and investigated their free radical scavenging/antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Primarily, phytochemical analysis showed rich content of phenols (70.92 mg of gallic acid/g) and flavonoids (16.01 mg of rutin/g) in AIRME. We then performed HR-LC-MS and GC-MS analyses, and identified 101 and 14 phytochemical compounds, respectively. Among them, ramipril glucuronide (1.563%), antimycin A (1.324%), swietenine (1.134%), quinone (1.152%), oxprenolol (1.118%), choline (0.847%), bumetanide (0.847%) and fenofibrate (0.711%) are the predominant phytomolecules. Evidence from in vitro studies revealed that AIRME scavenges DPPH and hydroxyl radicals in a concentration dependent manner (10-50 µg/mL). Similarly, hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation were also remarkably inhibited by AIRME as concentration increases (20-100 µg/mL). In vitro antioxidant activity of AIRME was comparable to ascorbic acid treatment. For in vivo studies, carrageenan (1%, sub-plantar) was injected to rats to induce localized inflammation. Acute inflammation was represented by paw-edema, and significantly elevated (p < 0.05) WBC, platelets and C-reactive protein (CRP). However, AIRME pretreatment (150/300 mg/kg bodyweight) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased edema volume. This was accompanied by a significant (p < 0.05) reduction of WBC, platelets and CRP with both doses of AIRME. The decreased activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase in paw tissue were restored (p < 0.05 / p < 0.01) with AIRME in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AIRME attenuated carrageenan-induced neutrophil infiltrations and vascular dilation in paw tissue. For the first time, our findings demonstrated the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of AIRME, which could be considered to develop novel anti-inflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
Acalypha/chemistry , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Disease Models, Animal , Edema/drug therapy , Edema/enzymology , Edema/pathology , Free Radical Scavengers/chemistry , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Roots/chemistry , Rats , Rats, Wistar
12.
Mar Drugs ; 19(10)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480860

ABSTRACT

To discover the new medical entity from edible marine algae, our continuously natural product investigation focused on endophytes from marine macroalgae Grateloupia sp. Two new azaphilones, 8a-epi-hypocrellone A (1), 8a-epi-eupenicilazaphilone C (2), together with five known azaphilones, hypocrellone A (3), eupenicilazaphilone C (4), ((1E,3E)-3,5-dimethylhepta-1,3-dien-1-yl)-2,4-dihydroxy-3-methylbenzaldehyde (5), sclerotiorin (6), and isochromophilone IV (7) were isolated from the alga-derived fungus Penicillium sclerotiorum. The structures of isolated azaphilones (1-7) were elucidated by spectrometric identification, especially HRESIMS, CD, and NMR data analyses. Concerning bioactivity, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrosis activities of those isolates were evaluated. As a result, compound 1 showed selective toxicity toward neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y among seven cancer and one fibroblast cell lines. 20 µM of compounds 1, 3, and 7 inhibited the TNF-α-induced NFκB phosphorylation but did not change the NFκB activity. Compounds 2 and 6 respectively promoted and inhibited SMAD-mediated transcriptional activities stimulated by TGF-ß.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Benzopyrans/pharmacology , Microalgae , Penicillium , Pigments, Biological/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Aquatic Organisms , Benzopyrans/chemistry , Benzopyrans/therapeutic use , Cell Line, Tumor/drug effects , Fibroblasts/drug effects , Functional Food , Neuroblastoma/drug therapy , Pigments, Biological/chemistry , Pigments, Biological/therapeutic use , Structure-Activity Relationship
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 714177, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444042

ABSTRACT

Sepsis continues to be a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and post-recovery disability in patients with a wide range of non-infectious and infectious inflammatory disorders, including COVID-19. The clinical onset of sepsis is often marked by the explosive release into the extracellular fluids of a multiplicity of host-derived cytokines and other pro-inflammatory hormone-like messengers from endogenous sources ("cytokine storm"). In patients with sepsis, therapies to counter the pro-inflammatory torrent, even when administered early, typically fall short. The major focus of our proposed essay is to promote pre-clinical studies with hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy for sepsis.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Chorionic Gonadotropin/therapeutic use , Peptides/therapeutic use , Sepsis/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Bacteria/metabolism , Chorionic Gonadotropin/chemistry , Chorionic Gonadotropin/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Glycoproteins/chemistry , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/metabolism
14.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438676

ABSTRACT

In response to the urgent need to control Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), this study aims to explore potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents from natural sources. Moreover, cytokine immunological responses to the viral infection could lead to acute respiratory distress which is considered a critical and life-threatening complication associated with the infection. Therefore, the anti-viral and anti-inflammatory agents can be key to the management of patients with COVID-19. Four bioactive compounds, namely ferulic acid 1, rutin 2, gallic acid 3, and chlorogenic acid 4 were isolated from the leaves of Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr (ethyl acetate extract) and identified using spectroscopic evidence. Furthermore, molecular docking and dynamics simulations were performed for the isolated and identified compounds (1-4) against SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) as a proposed mechanism of action. Furthermore, all compounds were tested for their half-maximal cytotoxicity (CC50) and SARS-CoV-2 inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Additionally, lung toxicity was induced in rats by mercuric chloride and the effects of treatment with P. dioca aqueous extract, ferulic acid 1, rutin 2, gallic acid 3, and chlorogenic acid 4 were recorded through measuring TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-10, G-CSF, and genetic expression of miRNA 21-3P and miRNA-155 levels to assess their anti-inflammatory effects essential for COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, rutin 2, gallic acid 3, and chlorogenic acid 4 showed remarkable anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities with IC50 values of 31 µg/mL, 108 µg/mL, and 360 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects were found to be better in ferulic acid 1 and rutin 2 treatments. Our results could be promising for more advanced preclinical and clinical studies especially on rutin 2 either alone or in combination with other isolates for COVID-19 management.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chlorogenic Acid/isolation & purification , Chlorogenic Acid/pharmacology , Coumaric Acids/isolation & purification , Coumaric Acids/pharmacology , Gallic Acid/isolation & purification , Gallic Acid/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Rats , Rutin/isolation & purification , Rutin/pharmacology , Vero Cells
15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 225: 113818, 2021 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385491

ABSTRACT

Cathepsin C, an important lysosomal cysteine protease, mediates the maturation process of neutrophil serine proteases, and participates in the inflammation and immune regulation process associated with polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Therefore, cathepsin C is considered to be an attractive target for treating inflammatory diseases. With INS1007 (trade name: brensocatib) being granted a breakthrough drug designation by FDA for the treatment of Adult Non-cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis and Coronavirus Disease 2019, the development of cathepsin C inhibitor will attract attentions from medicinal chemists in the future soon. Here, we summarized the research results of cathepsin C as a therapeutic target, focusing on the development of cathepsin C inhibitor, and provided guidance and reference opinions for the upcoming development boom of cathepsin C inhibitor.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Cathepsin C/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cathepsin C/genetics , Cathepsin C/metabolism , Humans , Papillon-Lefevre Disease/genetics , Papillon-Lefevre Disease/pathology , Protease Inhibitors/metabolism , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374420

ABSTRACT

For the treatment of severe COVID-19, supplementation with human plasma-purified α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) to patients is currently considered. AAT inhibits host proteases that facilitate viral entry and possesses broad anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Researchers have demonstrated that an interaction between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) enhances pro-inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo. Hence, we wanted to understand the potential anti-inflammatory activities of plasma-derived and recombinant AAT (recAAT) in a model of human total peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) exposed to a combination of CHO expressed trimeric spike protein and LPS, ex vivo. We confirmed that cytokine production was enhanced in PBMCs within six hours when low levels of LPS were combined with purified spike proteins ("spike"). In the presence of 0.5 mg/mL recAAT, however, LPS/spike-induced TNF-α and IL-1ß mRNA expression and protein release were significantly inhibited (by about 46-50%) relative to LPS/spike alone. Although without statistical significance, recAAT also reduced production of IL-6 and IL-8. Notably, under the same experimental conditions, the plasma-derived AAT preparation Respreeza (used in native and oxidized forms) did not show significant effects. Our findings imply that an early pro-inflammatory activation of human PBMCs is better controlled by the recombinant version of AAT than the human plasma-derived AAT used here. Considering the increasing clinical interest in AAT therapy as useful to ameliorate the hyper-inflammation seen during COVID-19 infection, different AAT preparations require careful evaluation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/therapy , Cells, Cultured , Cricetulus , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/drug effects , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/immunology , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/chemistry , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/immunology
17.
Bioorg Chem ; 115: 105265, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356144

ABSTRACT

In spite of possessing a wide range of pharmacological properties the anti-inflammatory activities of isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones were rarely known or explored earlier. PDE4 inhibitors on the other hand in addition to their usefulness in treating inflammatory diseases have been suggested to attenuate the cytokine storm in COVID-19 especially TNF-α. In our effort, a new class of isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones derivatives containing an aminosulfonyl moiety were designed and explored as potential inhibitors of PDE4. Accordingly, for the first time a CuCl2-catalyzed inexpensive, faster and ligand/additive free approach has been developed for the synthesis of these predesigned isoquinolin-1(2H)-one derivatives via the coupling-cyclization strategy. Thus, the CuCl2-catalyzed reaction of 2-iodobenzamides with appropriate terminal alkynes proceeded with high chemo and regioselectivity affording the desired compounds in 77-84% yield within 1-1.5 h. The methodology also afforded simpler isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones devoid of aminosulfonyl moiety showing a broader generality and scope of this approach. Several of the synthesized compounds especially 3c, 3k and 3s showed impressive inhibition (83-90%) of PDE4B when tested at 10 µM in vitro whereas compounds devoid of aminosulfonyl moiety was found to be less active. In spite of high inhibition showed at 10 µM these compounds did not show proper concertation dependent inhibition below 1 µM that was reflected in their IC50 values e.g. 2.43 ± 0.32, 3.26 ± 0.24 and 3.63 ± 0.80 µM for 3k, 3o and 3s respectively. The anti-inflammatory potential of these compounds was indicated by their TNF-α inhibition (60-50% at 10 µM). The in silico docking studies of these molecules suggested good interactions with PDE4B and selective inhibition of PDE4B by 3k over PDE4D that was supported by in vitro assay results. These observations together with the favorable ADME and safety predicted for 3kin silico not only suggested 3k as an interesting hit molecule for further studies but also reveal the first example of isoquinolin-1(2H)-one based inhibitor of PDE4B.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Copper/chemistry , Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 4/chemistry , Isoquinolines/chemistry , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemical synthesis , Catalysis , Cyclization , Enzyme Assays , Humans , Isoquinolines/chemical synthesis , Mice , Molecular Structure , Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , RAW 264.7 Cells , Structure-Activity Relationship , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors
18.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346513

ABSTRACT

Prunus mahaleb L. fruit has long been used in the production of traditional liqueurs. The fruit also displayed scavenging and reducing activity, in vitro. The present study focused on unravelling peripheral and central protective effects, antimicrobial but also anti-COVID-19 properties exerted by the water extract of P. mahaleb. Anti-inflammatory effects were studied in isolated mouse colons exposed to lipopolysaccharide. Neuroprotection, measured as a blunting effect on hydrogen-peroxide-induced dopamine turnover, was investigated in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells. Antimicrobial effects were tested against different Gram+ and Gram- bacterial strains. Whereas anti-COVID-19 activity was studied in lung adenocarcinoma H1299 cells, where the gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 was measured after extract treatment. The bacteriostatic effects induced on Gram+ and Gram- strains, together with the inhibition of COX-2, TNFα, HIF1α, and VEGFA in the colon, suggest the potential of P. mahaleb water extract in contrasting the clinical symptoms related to ulcerative colitis. The inhibition of the hydrogen peroxide-induced DOPAC/DA ratio indicates promising neuroprotective effects. Finally, the downregulation of the gene expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in H1299 cells, suggests the potential to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 virus entry in the human host. Overall, the results support the valorization of the local cultivation of P. mahaleb.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Colon/drug effects , Neuroprotection , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dopamine/metabolism , Fruit/chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , HCT116 Cells , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Male , Mice , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Prunus/chemistry , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
19.
Biochimie ; 179: 281-284, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1326920

ABSTRACT

Poxytrins (Pufa Oxygenated Trienes) are dihydroxy derivatives from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) with adjacent hydroxyl groups to a conjugated triene having the specific E,Z,E geometry. They are made by the double action of one lipoxygenase or the combined actions of two lipoxygenases, followed by reduction of the resulting hydroperoxides with glutathione peroxidase. Because of their E,Z,E conjugated triene, poxytrins may inhibit inflammation associated with cyclooxygenase (COX) activities, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. In addition of inhibiting COX activities, at least one poxytrin, namely protectin DX (PDX) from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), has also been reported as able to inhibit influenza virus replication by targeting its RNA metabolism.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Docosahexaenoic Acids/pharmacology , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/pharmacology , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Docosahexaenoic Acids/chemistry , Fatty Acids, Unsaturated/chemistry , Humans , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1325685

ABSTRACT

Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a well-known transcription factor best recognised as one of the main regulators of the oxidative stress response. Beyond playing a crucial role in cell defence by transactivating cytoprotective genes encoding antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, Nrf2 is also implicated in a wide network regulating anti-inflammatory response and metabolic reprogramming. Such a broad spectrum of actions renders the factor a key regulator of cell fate and a strategic player in the control of cell transformation and response to viral infections. The Nrf2 protective roles in normal cells account for its anti-tumour and anti-viral functions. However, Nrf2 overstimulation often occurs in tumour cells and a complex correlation of Nrf2 with cancer initiation and progression has been widely described. Therefore, if on one hand, Nrf2 has a dual role in cancer, on the other hand, the factor seems to display a univocal function in preventing inflammation and cytokine storm that occur under viral infections, specifically in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). In such a variegate context, the present review aims to dissect the roles of Nrf2 in both cancer and COVID-19, two widespread diseases that represent a cause of major concern today. In particular, the review describes the molecular aspects of Nrf2 signalling in both pathological situations and the most recent findings about the advantages of Nrf2 inhibition or activation as possible strategies for cancer and COVID-19 treatment respectively.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/metabolism , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/chemistry , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Signal Transduction
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