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1.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238682

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a severe cytokine storm that may cause acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) with high clinical morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Cepharanthine (CEP) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated and extracted from Stephania cepharantha Hayata. It exhibits various pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, and antiviral activities. The low oral bioavailability of CEP can be attributed to its poor water solubility. In this study, we utilized the freeze-drying method to prepare dry powder inhalers (DPI) for the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) in rats via pulmonary administration. According to the powder properties study, the aerodynamic median diameter (Da) of the DPIs was 3.2 µm, and the in vitro lung deposition rate was 30.26; thus, meeting the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standard for pulmonary inhalation administration. We established an ALI rat model by intratracheal injection of hydrochloric acid (1.2 mL/kg, pH = 1.25). At 1 h after the model's establishment, CEP dry powder inhalers (CEP DPIs) (30 mg/kg) were sprayed into the lungs of rats with ALI via the trachea. Compared with the model group, the treatment group exhibited a reduced pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and significantly reduced content of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6 and total protein) in their lungs (p < 0.01), indicating that the main mechanism of CEP underlying the treatment of ALI is anti-inflammation. Overall, the dry powder inhaler can deliver the drug directly to the site of the disease, increasing the intrapulmonary utilization of CEP and improving its efficacy, making it a promising inhalable formulation for the treatment of ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Benzylisoquinolines , COVID-19 , Rats , Animals , Administration, Inhalation , Dry Powder Inhalers , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Particle Size , Powders/analysis
2.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 75(7): 898-909, 2023 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Saikosaponins (SSs) constitute a class of medicinal monomers characterised by a triterpene tricyclic structure. Despite their potential therapeutic effects for various pathological conditions, the underlying mechanisms of their actions have not been systematically analysed. Here, we mainly review the important anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral mechanisms underlying SS actions. METHODS: Information from multiple scientific databases, such as PubMed, the Web of Science, and Google Scholar, was collected between 2018 and 2023. The search term used was saikosaponin. KEY FINDINGS: Numerous studies have shown that Saikosaponin A exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid metabolism. Moreover, saikosaponin D exerts antitumor effects by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis and autophagy, and the antiviral mechanisms of SSs, especially against SARS-CoV-2, have been partially revealed. Interestingly, an increasing body of experimental evidence suggests that SSs show the potential for use as anti-addiction, anxiolytic, and antidepressant treatments, and therefore, the related molecular mechanisms warrant further study. CONCLUSIONS: An increasing amount of data have indicated diverse SS pharmacological properties, indicating crucial clues for future studies and the production of novel saikosaponin-based anti-inflammatory, efficacious anticancer, and anti-novel-coronavirus agents with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oleanolic Acid , Saponins , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/pharmacology , Saponins/therapeutic use , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Oleanolic Acid/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244543

ABSTRACT

Inflammation has been described for two millennia, but cellular aspects and the paradigm involving different mediators have been identified in the recent century. Two main groups of molecules, the prostaglandins (PG) and the cytokines, have been discovered and play a major role in inflammatory processes. The activation of prostaglandins PGE2, PGD2 and PGI2 results in prominent symptoms during cardiovascular and rheumatoid diseases. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds is nowadays a challenge for more targeted therapeutic approaches. The first cytokine was described more than a century ago and is now a part of different families of cytokines (38 interleukins), including the IL-1 and IL-6 families and TNF and TGFß families. Cytokines can perform a dual role, being growth promotors or inhibitors and having pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. The complex interactions between cytokines, vascular cells and immune cells are responsible for dramatic conditions and lead to the concept of cytokine storm observed during sepsis, multi-organ failure and, recently, in some cases of COVID-19 infection. Cytokines such as interferon and hematopoietic growth factor have been used as therapy. Alternatively, the inhibition of cytokine functions has been largely developed using anti-interleukin or anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of sepsis or chronic inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostaglandins , Humans , Prostaglandins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukins/therapeutic use , Prostaglandins, Synthetic , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Comput Biol Chem ; 105: 107898, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325654

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease is caused by the pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) known as COVID-19. COVID-19 has caused the deaths of 6,541,936 people worldwide as of September 27th, 2022. SARS-CoV-2 severity is determined by a cytokine storm condition, in which the innate immune system creates an unregulated and excessive production of pro-inflammatory such IL-1, IL-6, NF Kappa B, and TNF alpha signaling molecules known as cytokines. The patient died due to respiratory organ failure and an acute complication because of the hyper-inflammation phenomenon. Green tea, soybean, and guava bioactive substances are well-known to act as anti-inflammation, and antioxidants become prospective COVID-19 illness candidates to overcome the cytokine storm. Our research aims to discover the bioactivity, bioavailability, and protein targets of green tea, soybean, and guava bioactive compounds as anti-inflammatory agents via the TNF inhibition pathway. The experiment uses in silico methods and harnesses the accessible datasets. Samples of 3D structure and SMILE identity of bioactive compounds were retrieved from the KNApSAck and Dr Duke databases. The QSAR analysis was done by WAY2DRUG web server, while the ADME prediction was performed using SWISSADME web server, following the Lipinsky rules of drugs. The target protein and protein-protein interaction were analyzed using STRING DB and Cytoscape software. Lastly, molecular docking was performed using Autodock 4.2 and visualization with BioVia Discovery Studio 2019. The identified study showed the potential of green tea, soybean, and guava's bioactive compounds have played an important role as anti-inflammation agents through TNF inhibitor pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psidium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Soybeans , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Tea , Molecular Docking Simulation , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
5.
J Biomed Mater Res A ; 110(5): 1101-1108, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320830

ABSTRACT

Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) play a crucial role in delivering messenger RNA (mRNA) therapeutics for clinical applications, including COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. While mRNA can be chemically modified to become immune-silent and increase protein expression, LNPs can still trigger innate immune responses and cause inflammation-related adverse effects. Inflammation can in turn suppress mRNA translation and reduce the therapeutic effect. Dexamethasone (Dex) is a widely used anti-inflammatory corticosteroid medication that is structurally similar to cholesterol, a key component of LNPs. Here, we developed LNP formulations with anti-inflammatory properties by partially substituting cholesterol with Dex as a means to reduce inflammation. We demonstrated that Dex-incorporated LNPs effectively abrogated the induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-ɑ) in vitro and significantly reduced its expression in vivo. Reduction of inflammation using this strategy improved in vivo mRNA expression in mice by 1.5-fold. Thus, we envision that our Dex-incorporated LNPs could potentially be used to broadly to reduce the inflammatory responses of LNPs and enhance protein expression of a range of mRNA therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Liposomes , Mice , Nanoparticles/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320397

ABSTRACT

We have previously published research on the anti-viral properties of an alkaloid mixture extracted from Nuphar lutea, the major components of the partially purified mixture found by NMR analysis. These are mostly dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids called thiobinupharidines and thiobinuphlutidines against the negative strand RNA measles virus (MV). We have previously reported that this extract inhibits the MV as well as its ability to downregulate several MV proteins in persistently MV-infected cells, especially the P (phospho)-protein. Based on our observation that the Nuphar extract is effective in vitro against the MV, and the immediate need that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created, we tested here the ability of 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine DTBN, an active small molecule, isolated from the Nuphar lutea extract, on COVID-19. As shown here, DTBN effectively inhibits SARS-CoV-2 production in Vero E6 cells at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The short-term daily administration of DTBN to infected mice delayed the occurrence of severe clinical outcomes, lowered virus levels in the lungs and improved survival with minimal changes in lung histology. The viral load on lungs was significantly reduced in the treated mice. DTBN is a pleiotropic small molecule with multiple targets. Its anti-inflammatory properties affect a variety of pathogens including SARS-CoV-2 as shown here. Its activity appears to target both pathogen specific (as suggested by docking analysis) as well as cellular proteins, such as NF-κB, PKCs, cathepsins and topoisomerase 2, that we have previously identified in our work. Thus, this combined double action of virus inhibition and anti-inflammatory activity may enhance the overall effectivity of DTBN. The promising results from this proof-of-concept in vitro and in vivo preclinical study should encourage future studies to optimize the use of DTBN and/or its molecular derivatives against this and other related viruses.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , COVID-19 , Nuphar , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Nuphar/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Alkaloids/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Mice, Transgenic
7.
Phytomedicine ; 116: 154858, 2023 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310275

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myricetin (3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(3,4,5-tri hydroxyphenyl)-4-benzopyrone) is a common flavonol extracted from many natural plants and Chinese herb medicines and has been demonstrated to have multiple pharmacological activities, such as anti-microbial, anti-thrombotic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory effects. Previously, myricetin was reported to target Mpro and 3CL-Pro-enzymatic activity to SARS-CoV-2. However, the protective value of myricetin on SARS-Cov-2 infection through viral-entry facilitators has not yet been comprehensively understood. PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the pharmacological efficacy and the mechanisms of action of myricetin against SARS-CoV-2 infection both in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: The inhibitory effects of myricetin on SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication were assessed on Vero E6 cells. Molecular docking analysis and bilayer interferometry (BLI) assays, immunocytochemistry (ICC), and pseudoviruses assays were performed to evaluate the roles of myricetin in the intermolecular interaction between the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The anti-inflammatory potency and mechanisms of myricetin were examined in THP1 macrophages in vitro, as well as in carrageenan-induced paw edema, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) induced auricle edema, and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) animal models. RESULTS: The results showed that myricetin was able to inhibit binding between the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and ACE2 through molecular docking analysis and BLI assay, demonstrating its potential as a viral-entry facilitator blocker. Myricetin could also significantly inhibit SASR-CoV-2 infection and replication in Vero E6 cells (EC50 55.18 µM), which was further validated with pseudoviruses containing the RBD (wild-type, N501Y, N439K, Y453F) and an S1 glycoprotein mutant (S-D614G). Moreover, myricetin exhibited a marked suppressive action on the receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)-driven inflammation and NF-kappa B signaling in THP1 macrophages. In animal model studies, myricetin notably ameliorated carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, DTH induced auricle edema in mice, and LPS-induced ALI in mice. CONCLUSION: Our findings showed that myricetin inhibited HCoV-229E and SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro, blocked SARS-CoV-2 virus entry facilitators and relieved inflammation through the RIPK1/NF-κB pathway, suggesting that this flavonol has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mice , Rats , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Carrageenan , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Protein Binding , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Flavonols/pharmacology
8.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1030879, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309368

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is an unmet medical need for effective anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of acute and post-acute lung inflammation caused by respiratory viruses. The semi-synthetic polysaccharide, Pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), an inhibitor of NF-kB activation, was investigated for its systemic and local anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of influenza virus A/PR8/1934 (PR8 strain) mediated infection. Methods: Immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice were infected intranasally with a sublethal dose of PR8 and treated subcutaneously with 3 or 6 mg/kg PPS or vehicle. Disease was monitored and tissues were collected at the acute (8 days post-infection; dpi) or post-acute (21 dpi) phase of disease to assess the effect of PPS on PR8-induced pathology. Results: In the acute phase of PR8 infection, PPS treatment was associated with a reduction in weight loss and improvement in oxygen saturation when compared to vehicle-treated mice. Associated with these clinical improvements, PPS treatment showed a significant retention in the numbers of protective SiglecF+ resident alveolar macrophages, despite uneventful changes in pulmonary leukocyte infiltrates assessed by flow cytometry. PPS treatment in PR8- infected mice showed significant reductions systemically but not locally of the inflammatory molecules, IL-6, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-12p70 and CCL2. In the post-acute phase of infection, PPS demonstrated a reduction in the pulmonary fibrotic biomarkers, sICAM-1 and complement factor C5b9. Discussion: The systemic and local anti-inflammatory actions of PPS may regulate acute and post-acute pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodeling mediated by PR8 infection, which warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Influenzavirus A , Pneumonia , Mice , Animals , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/pharmacology , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal
9.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295031

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection and vaccination offer disparate levels of defense against reinfection and breakthrough infection. This study was designed to examine the effects of curcumin supplementation, specifically HydroCurc (CURC), versus placebo (CON) on circulating inflammatory biomarkers in adults who had previously been diagnosed with COVID-19 and subsequently received a primary series of monovalent vaccine doses. This study was conducted between June 2021 and May 2022. Participants were randomized to receive CURC (500 mg) or CON capsules twice daily for four weeks. Blood sampling was completed at baseline and week-4 and analyzed for biomarkers. Linear regression was utilized to examine the between-group differences in post-trial inflammatory biomarker levels, adjusting for baseline and covariates including age, sex, race/ethnicity, and interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and trial enrollment. The sample (n = 31) was 71% female (Age 27.6 ± 10.4 y). The CURC group exhibited significantly lower post-trial concentrations of proinflammatory IL-6 (ß = -0.52, 95%CI: -1.03, -0.014, p = 0.046) and MCP-1 (ß = -0.12, 95%CI: -0.23, -0.015, p = 0.027) compared to CON, adjusting for baseline and covariates. Curcumin intake confers anti-inflammatory activity and may be a promising prophylactic nutraceutical strategy for COVID-19. These results suggest that 4 weeks of curcumin supplementation resulted in significantly lower concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in adults who recovered from COVID-19 infection and were subsequently vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Humans , Adult , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Male , Curcumin/pharmacology , COVID-19 Testing , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers
10.
Phytother Res ; 37(5): 2168-2186, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305109

ABSTRACT

In the search for compounds that inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, isoquinoline-containing alkaloids have been identified as compounds with high potential to fight the disease. In addition to having strong antiviral activities, most of these alkaloids have significant anti-inflammatory effects which are often manifested through the inhibition of a promising host-based anti-COVID-19 target, the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In the present review, our pharmacological and medicinal chemistry evaluation resulted in highlighting the potential of anti-SARS-CoV-2 isoquinoline-based alkaloids for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Considering critical parameters of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, mechanism of action, as well as toxicity/safety profile, we introduce the alkaloids emetine, cephaeline, and papaverine as high-potential therapeutic agents for use in the treatment of COVID-19. Although preclinical studies confirm that some isoquinoline-based alkaloids reviewed in this study have a high potential to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2, their entry into drug regimens of COVID-19 patients requires further clinical trial studies and toxicity evaluation.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , COVID-19 , Humans , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Isoquinolines/therapeutic use , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Rev Med Virol ; 33(4): e2445, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291182

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic in 2020 with high patient mortality due to acute respiratory distress syndrome which is possibly induced by a Cytokine release syndrome and more specifically through an interleukin-6 (IL-6) booster. Currently, IL-6/IL-6R inhibitors indicated an effective function in reducing the inflammatory markers in severe COVID-19 patients. In this comprehensively narrative review, we searched online academic databases including (Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Pub Med), the relevant literature was extracted from the databases by using search terms of COVID-19, IL-6, and IL6 inhibitor as free-text words and also with the combination with OR/AND to summarise the latest discoveries on the inhibitors of IL-6 and its receptor's especially focussing on the role of natural product, Naringin (NAR) as a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, with considerable anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties in COVID-19 treatments. Our data Therefore in comparison with other synthetic monoclonal antibodies NAR may provide a good qualification for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents, especially against Covid 19 based on recent studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(18): e2301775120, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305928

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is an ongoing global health concern, and effective antiviral reagents are urgently needed. Traditional Chinese medicine theory-driven natural drug research and development (TCMT-NDRD) is a feasible method to address this issue as the traditional Chinese medicine formulae have been shown effective in the treatment of COVID-19. Huashi Baidu decoction (Q-14) is a clinically approved formula for COVID-19 therapy with antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, an integrative pharmacological strategy was applied to identify the antiviral and anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds from Q-14. Overall, a total of 343 chemical compounds were initially characterized, and 60 prototype compounds in Q-14 were subsequently traced in plasma using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Among the 60 compounds, six compounds (magnolol, glycyrrhisoflavone, licoisoflavone A, emodin, echinatin, and quercetin) were identified showing a dose-dependent inhibition effect on the SARS-CoV-2 infection, including two inhibitors (echinatin and quercetin) of the main protease (Mpro), as well as two inhibitors (glycyrrhisoflavone and licoisoflavone A) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Meanwhile, three anti-inflammatory components, including licochalcone B, echinatin, and glycyrrhisoflavone, were identified in a SARS-CoV-2-infected inflammatory cell model. In addition, glycyrrhisoflavone and licoisoflavone A also displayed strong inhibitory activities against cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4). Crystal structures of PDE4 in complex with glycyrrhisoflavone or licoisoflavone A were determined at resolutions of 1.54 Å and 1.65 Å, respectively, and both compounds bind in the active site of PDE4 with similar interactions. These findings will greatly stimulate the study of TCMT-NDRD against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Quercetin/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Molecular Docking Simulation
13.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 323(3): L372-L389, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266192

ABSTRACT

The redox status of the cysteine-rich SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (SARS-2-S) is important for the binding of SARS-2-S to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), suggesting that drugs with a functional thiol group ("thiol drugs") may cleave cystines to disrupt SARS-CoV-2 cell entry. In addition, neutrophil-induced oxidative stress is a mechanism of COVID-19 lung injury, and the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of thiol drugs, especially cysteamine, may limit this injury. To first explore the antiviral effects of thiol drugs in COVID-19, we used an ACE-2 binding assay and cell entry assays utilizing reporter pseudoviruses and authentic SARS-CoV-2 viruses. We found that multiple thiol drugs inhibit SARS-2-S binding to ACE2 and virus infection. The most potent drugs were effective in the low millimolar range, and IC50 values followed the order of their cystine cleavage rates and lower thiol pKa values. To determine if thiol drugs have antiviral effects in vivo and to explore any anti-inflammatory effects of thiol drugs in COVID-19, we tested the effects of cysteamine delivered intraperitoneally to hamsters infected with SARS-CoV-2. Cysteamine did not decrease lung viral infection, but it significantly decreased lung neutrophilic inflammation and alveolar hemorrhage. We speculate that the concentration of cysteamine achieved in the lungs with intraperitoneal delivery was insufficient for antiviral effects but sufficient for anti-inflammatory effects. We conclude that thiol drugs decrease SARS-CoV-2 lung inflammation and injury, and we provide rationale for future studies to test if direct (aerosol) delivery of thiol drugs to the airways might also result in antiviral effects.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cysteamine/pharmacology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pharmaceutical Preparations , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology
14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9354555, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258876

ABSTRACT

C. camphora is a renowned traditional Unani medicinal herb and belongs to the family Lauraceae. It has therapeutic applications in various ailments and prophylactic properties to prevent flu-like epidemic symptoms and COVID-19. This comprehensive appraisal is to familiarize the reader with the traditional, broad applications of camphor both in Unani and modern medicine and its effects on bioactive molecules. Electronic databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Research Gate were searched for bioactive molecules, and preclinical/clinical research and including 59 research and review papers up to 2022 were retrieved. Additionally, 21 classical Unani and English herbal pharmacopeia books with ethnomedicinal properties and therapeutic applications were explored. Oxidative stress significantly impacts aging, obesity, diabetes mellitus, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases. The polyphenolic bioactive compounds such as linalool, borneol, and nerolidol of C. camphora have antioxidant activity and have the potential to remove free radicals. Its other major bioactive molecules are camphor, cineole, limelol, safrole, limonene, alpha-pinene, and cineole with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anxiolytic, analgesic, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic, and many other pharmacological properties have been established in vitro or in vivo preclinical research. Natural bioactive molecules and their mechanisms of action and applications in diseases have been highlighted, with future prospects, gaps, and priorities that need to be addressed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Cinnamomum camphora , Analgesics , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Camphor , Ethnopharmacology , Eucalyptol , Hypolipidemic Agents , Limonene , Phytochemicals , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Safrole
15.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(6): 2003-2016, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250759

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a global diastrophic disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Covid-19 leads to inflammatory, immunological, and oxidative changes, by which SARS-CoV-2 leads to endothelial dysfunction (ED), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and multi-organ failure (MOF). Despite evidence illustrating that some drugs and vaccines effectively manage and prevent Covid-19, complementary herbal medicines are urgently needed to control this pandemic disease. One of the most used herbal medicines is berberine (BBR), which has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, and immune-regulatory effects; thus, BBR may be a prospective candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review found that BBR has anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects with mitigation of associated inflammatory changes. BBR also reduces the risk of ALI/ARDS in Covid-19 patients by inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory signaling pathways. In conclusion, BBR has potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral effects. Therefore, it can be utilized as a possible anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent. BBR inhibits the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 and attenuates the associated inflammatory disorders linked by the activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. Indeed, BBR can alleviate ALI/ARDS in patients with severe Covid-19. In this sense, clinical trials and prospective studies are suggested to illustrate the potential role of BBR in treating Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Berberine , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Berberine/pharmacology , Berberine/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Rev Med Virol ; 32(5): e2348, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2250094

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), characterised by high levels of inflammation and oxidative stress (OS). Oxidative stress induces oxidative damage to lipids, proteins, and DNA, causing tissue damage. Both inflammation and OS contribute to multi-organ failure in severe cases. Magnesium (Mg2+ ) regulates many processes, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as the proper functioning of other micronutrients such as vitamin D. In addition, Mg2+ participates as a second signalling messenger in the activation of T cells. Therefore, Mg2+ deficiency can cause immunodeficiency, exaggerated acute inflammatory response, decreased antioxidant response, and OS. Supplementation with Mg2+ has an anti-inflammatory response by reducing the levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interleukin (IL) -6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Furthermore, Mg2+ supplementation improves mitochondrial function and increases the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) content, reducing OS. Therefore, Mg2+ supplementation is a potential way to reduce inflammation and OS, strengthening the immune system to manage COVID-19. This narrative review will address Mg2+ deficiency associated with a worse disease prognosis, Mg2+ supplementation as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapy during and after COVID-19 disease, and suggest that randomised controlled trials are indicated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Humans , Inflammation , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270802

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. A prominent feature of severe respiratory infections, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is the cytokine release syndrome. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop different approaches both against viral replication and against the consequent inflammation. N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a glucosamine (GlcN) derivative, has been developed as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory inexpensive and non-toxic drug for non-communicable disease treatment and/or prevention. Recent studies have suggested that GlcN, due to its anti-inflammatory activity, could be potentially useful for the control of respiratory virus infections. Our present study aimed to evaluate in two different immortalized cell lines whether GlcNAc could inhibit or reduce both viral infectivity and the inflammatory response to viral infection. Two different viruses, frequent cause of upper and lower respiratory tract infections, were used: the H1N1 Influenza A virus (IAV) (as model of enveloped RNA virus) and the Human adenovirus type 2 (Adv) (as model of naked DNA virus). Two forms of GlcNAc have been considered, bulk GlcNAc and GlcNAc in nanoform to overcome the possible pharmacokinetic limitations of GlcNAc. Our study suggests that GlcNAc restricts IAV replication but not Adv infection, whereas nano-GlcNAc inhibits both viruses. Moreover, GlcNAc and mainly its nanoformulation were able to reduce the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion stimulated by viral infection. The correlation between inflammatory and infection inhibition is discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza A virus , Pneumonia , Respiratory Tract Infections , Virus Diseases , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Acetylglucosamine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Glucosamine/pharmacology , Adenoviridae
19.
Phytother Res ; 37(3): 1115-1135, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283713

ABSTRACT

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a main active component of propolis and a flavonoid, is one of the natural products that has attracted attention in recent years. CAPE, which has many properties such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and anti-fungal, has shown many pharmacological potentials, including protective effects on multiple organs. Interestingly, molecular docking studies showed the possibility of binding of CAPE with replication enzyme. In addition, it was seen that in order to increase the binding security of the replication enzyme and CAPE, modifications can be made at three sites on the CAPE molecule, which leads to the possibility of the compound working more powerfully and usefully to prevent the proliferation of cancer cells and reduce its rate. Also, it was found that CAPE has an inhibitory effect against the main protease enzyme and may be effective in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. This review covers in detail the importance of CAPE in alternative medicine, its pharmacological value, its potential as a cancer anti-proliferative agent, its dual role in radioprotection and radiosensitization, and its use against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Phenylethyl Alcohol , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Phenylethyl Alcohol/chemistry , Phenylethyl Alcohol/metabolism , Phenylethyl Alcohol/pharmacology , Caffeic Acids/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Free Radicals
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263449

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids have been shown to have anti-oxidative effects, as well as other health benefits (e.g., anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor functions). Luteolin (3', 4', 5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid found in vegetables, fruits, flowers, and herbs, including celery, broccoli, green pepper, navel oranges, dandelion, peppermint, and rosemary. Luteolin has multiple useful effects, especially in regulating inflammation-related symptoms and diseases. In this paper, we summarize the studies about the immunopharmacological activity of luteolin on anti-inflammatory, anti-cardiovascular, anti-cancerous, and anti-neurodegenerative diseases published since 2018 and available in PubMed or Google Scholar. In this review, we also introduce some additional formulations of luteolin to improve its solubility and bioavailability.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Luteolin , Humans , Luteolin/pharmacology , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Vegetables , Chronic Disease
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