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1.
N Engl J Med ; 388(21): 1931-1941, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether the antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids may decrease mortality among patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia is unclear. METHODS: In this phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned adults who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe community-acquired pneumonia to receive intravenous hydrocortisone (200 mg daily for either 4 or 7 days as determined by clinical improvement, followed by tapering for a total of 8 or 14 days) or to receive placebo. All the patients received standard therapy, including antibiotics and supportive care. The primary outcome was death at 28 days. RESULTS: A total of 800 patients had undergone randomization when the trial was stopped after the second planned interim analysis. Data from 795 patients were analyzed. By day 28, death had occurred in 25 of 400 patients (6.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 8.6) in the hydrocortisone group and in 47 of 395 patients (11.9%; 95% CI, 8.7 to 15.1) in the placebo group (absolute difference, -5.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -9.6 to -1.7; P = 0.006). Among the patients who were not undergoing mechanical ventilation at baseline, endotracheal intubation was performed in 40 of 222 (18.0%) in the hydrocortisone group and in 65 of 220 (29.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.86). Among the patients who were not receiving vasopressors at baseline, such therapy was initiated by day 28 in 55 of 359 (15.3%) of the hydrocortisone group and in 86 of 344 (25.0%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.82). The frequencies of hospital-acquired infections and gastrointestinal bleeding were similar in the two groups; patients in the hydrocortisone group received higher daily doses of insulin during the first week of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia being treated in the ICU, those who received hydrocortisone had a lower risk of death by day 28 than those who received placebo. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health; CAPE COD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02517489.).


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Community-Acquired Infections , Hydrocortisone , Pneumonia , Adult , Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/mortality , Double-Blind Method , Hydrocortisone/adverse effects , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Treatment Outcome
2.
Molecules ; 28(11)2023 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238682

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a severe cytokine storm that may cause acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) with high clinical morbidity and mortality in infected individuals. Cepharanthine (CEP) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated and extracted from Stephania cepharantha Hayata. It exhibits various pharmacological effects, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, and antiviral activities. The low oral bioavailability of CEP can be attributed to its poor water solubility. In this study, we utilized the freeze-drying method to prepare dry powder inhalers (DPI) for the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) in rats via pulmonary administration. According to the powder properties study, the aerodynamic median diameter (Da) of the DPIs was 3.2 µm, and the in vitro lung deposition rate was 30.26; thus, meeting the Chinese Pharmacopoeia standard for pulmonary inhalation administration. We established an ALI rat model by intratracheal injection of hydrochloric acid (1.2 mL/kg, pH = 1.25). At 1 h after the model's establishment, CEP dry powder inhalers (CEP DPIs) (30 mg/kg) were sprayed into the lungs of rats with ALI via the trachea. Compared with the model group, the treatment group exhibited a reduced pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, and significantly reduced content of inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6 and total protein) in their lungs (p < 0.01), indicating that the main mechanism of CEP underlying the treatment of ALI is anti-inflammation. Overall, the dry powder inhaler can deliver the drug directly to the site of the disease, increasing the intrapulmonary utilization of CEP and improving its efficacy, making it a promising inhalable formulation for the treatment of ALI.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Benzylisoquinolines , COVID-19 , Rats , Animals , Administration, Inhalation , Dry Powder Inhalers , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Aerosols and Droplets , Lung/metabolism , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Benzylisoquinolines/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/analysis , Particle Size , Powders/analysis
3.
J Pharm Pharmacol ; 75(7): 898-909, 2023 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245412

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Saikosaponins (SSs) constitute a class of medicinal monomers characterised by a triterpene tricyclic structure. Despite their potential therapeutic effects for various pathological conditions, the underlying mechanisms of their actions have not been systematically analysed. Here, we mainly review the important anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antiviral mechanisms underlying SS actions. METHODS: Information from multiple scientific databases, such as PubMed, the Web of Science, and Google Scholar, was collected between 2018 and 2023. The search term used was saikosaponin. KEY FINDINGS: Numerous studies have shown that Saikosaponin A exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating cytokine and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid metabolism. Moreover, saikosaponin D exerts antitumor effects by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis and autophagy, and the antiviral mechanisms of SSs, especially against SARS-CoV-2, have been partially revealed. Interestingly, an increasing body of experimental evidence suggests that SSs show the potential for use as anti-addiction, anxiolytic, and antidepressant treatments, and therefore, the related molecular mechanisms warrant further study. CONCLUSIONS: An increasing amount of data have indicated diverse SS pharmacological properties, indicating crucial clues for future studies and the production of novel saikosaponin-based anti-inflammatory, efficacious anticancer, and anti-novel-coronavirus agents with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Oleanolic Acid , Saponins , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saponins/pharmacology , Saponins/therapeutic use , Oleanolic Acid/pharmacology , Oleanolic Acid/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(11)2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244543

ABSTRACT

Inflammation has been described for two millennia, but cellular aspects and the paradigm involving different mediators have been identified in the recent century. Two main groups of molecules, the prostaglandins (PG) and the cytokines, have been discovered and play a major role in inflammatory processes. The activation of prostaglandins PGE2, PGD2 and PGI2 results in prominent symptoms during cardiovascular and rheumatoid diseases. The balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory compounds is nowadays a challenge for more targeted therapeutic approaches. The first cytokine was described more than a century ago and is now a part of different families of cytokines (38 interleukins), including the IL-1 and IL-6 families and TNF and TGFß families. Cytokines can perform a dual role, being growth promotors or inhibitors and having pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. The complex interactions between cytokines, vascular cells and immune cells are responsible for dramatic conditions and lead to the concept of cytokine storm observed during sepsis, multi-organ failure and, recently, in some cases of COVID-19 infection. Cytokines such as interferon and hematopoietic growth factor have been used as therapy. Alternatively, the inhibition of cytokine functions has been largely developed using anti-interleukin or anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies in the treatment of sepsis or chronic inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostaglandins , Humans , Prostaglandins/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukins/therapeutic use , Prostaglandins, Synthetic , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Comput Biol Chem ; 105: 107898, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2325654

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease is caused by the pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) known as COVID-19. COVID-19 has caused the deaths of 6,541,936 people worldwide as of September 27th, 2022. SARS-CoV-2 severity is determined by a cytokine storm condition, in which the innate immune system creates an unregulated and excessive production of pro-inflammatory such IL-1, IL-6, NF Kappa B, and TNF alpha signaling molecules known as cytokines. The patient died due to respiratory organ failure and an acute complication because of the hyper-inflammation phenomenon. Green tea, soybean, and guava bioactive substances are well-known to act as anti-inflammation, and antioxidants become prospective COVID-19 illness candidates to overcome the cytokine storm. Our research aims to discover the bioactivity, bioavailability, and protein targets of green tea, soybean, and guava bioactive compounds as anti-inflammatory agents via the TNF inhibition pathway. The experiment uses in silico methods and harnesses the accessible datasets. Samples of 3D structure and SMILE identity of bioactive compounds were retrieved from the KNApSAck and Dr Duke databases. The QSAR analysis was done by WAY2DRUG web server, while the ADME prediction was performed using SWISSADME web server, following the Lipinsky rules of drugs. The target protein and protein-protein interaction were analyzed using STRING DB and Cytoscape software. Lastly, molecular docking was performed using Autodock 4.2 and visualization with BioVia Discovery Studio 2019. The identified study showed the potential of green tea, soybean, and guava's bioactive compounds have played an important role as anti-inflammation agents through TNF inhibitor pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psidium , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Soybeans , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Tea , Molecular Docking Simulation , Inflammation/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
6.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 61(5): 7-10, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2316322

ABSTRACT

The immune system is central to brain health and longevity, yet with age, infection, injury, or chronic stress, the immune system can trigger persistent central nervous system inflammation that impairs brain functioning. This brief review investigates psychopharmacological treatments that have anti-inflammatory effects in the context of immune system dysregulation in the aging brain. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 61(5), 7-10.].


Subject(s)
Immunosenescence , Psychiatry , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Aging , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1030879, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309368

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There is an unmet medical need for effective anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of acute and post-acute lung inflammation caused by respiratory viruses. The semi-synthetic polysaccharide, Pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS), an inhibitor of NF-kB activation, was investigated for its systemic and local anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model of influenza virus A/PR8/1934 (PR8 strain) mediated infection. Methods: Immunocompetent C57BL/6J mice were infected intranasally with a sublethal dose of PR8 and treated subcutaneously with 3 or 6 mg/kg PPS or vehicle. Disease was monitored and tissues were collected at the acute (8 days post-infection; dpi) or post-acute (21 dpi) phase of disease to assess the effect of PPS on PR8-induced pathology. Results: In the acute phase of PR8 infection, PPS treatment was associated with a reduction in weight loss and improvement in oxygen saturation when compared to vehicle-treated mice. Associated with these clinical improvements, PPS treatment showed a significant retention in the numbers of protective SiglecF+ resident alveolar macrophages, despite uneventful changes in pulmonary leukocyte infiltrates assessed by flow cytometry. PPS treatment in PR8- infected mice showed significant reductions systemically but not locally of the inflammatory molecules, IL-6, IFN-g, TNF-a, IL-12p70 and CCL2. In the post-acute phase of infection, PPS demonstrated a reduction in the pulmonary fibrotic biomarkers, sICAM-1 and complement factor C5b9. Discussion: The systemic and local anti-inflammatory actions of PPS may regulate acute and post-acute pulmonary inflammation and tissue remodeling mediated by PR8 infection, which warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
Influenzavirus A , Pneumonia , Mice , Animals , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/pharmacology , Pentosan Sulfuric Polyester/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal
8.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295031

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 infection and vaccination offer disparate levels of defense against reinfection and breakthrough infection. This study was designed to examine the effects of curcumin supplementation, specifically HydroCurc (CURC), versus placebo (CON) on circulating inflammatory biomarkers in adults who had previously been diagnosed with COVID-19 and subsequently received a primary series of monovalent vaccine doses. This study was conducted between June 2021 and May 2022. Participants were randomized to receive CURC (500 mg) or CON capsules twice daily for four weeks. Blood sampling was completed at baseline and week-4 and analyzed for biomarkers. Linear regression was utilized to examine the between-group differences in post-trial inflammatory biomarker levels, adjusting for baseline and covariates including age, sex, race/ethnicity, and interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and trial enrollment. The sample (n = 31) was 71% female (Age 27.6 ± 10.4 y). The CURC group exhibited significantly lower post-trial concentrations of proinflammatory IL-6 (ß = -0.52, 95%CI: -1.03, -0.014, p = 0.046) and MCP-1 (ß = -0.12, 95%CI: -0.23, -0.015, p = 0.027) compared to CON, adjusting for baseline and covariates. Curcumin intake confers anti-inflammatory activity and may be a promising prophylactic nutraceutical strategy for COVID-19. These results suggest that 4 weeks of curcumin supplementation resulted in significantly lower concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines in adults who recovered from COVID-19 infection and were subsequently vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Humans , Adult , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Male , Curcumin/pharmacology , COVID-19 Testing , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers
9.
Rev Med Virol ; 33(4): e2445, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291182

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic in 2020 with high patient mortality due to acute respiratory distress syndrome which is possibly induced by a Cytokine release syndrome and more specifically through an interleukin-6 (IL-6) booster. Currently, IL-6/IL-6R inhibitors indicated an effective function in reducing the inflammatory markers in severe COVID-19 patients. In this comprehensively narrative review, we searched online academic databases including (Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Pub Med), the relevant literature was extracted from the databases by using search terms of COVID-19, IL-6, and IL6 inhibitor as free-text words and also with the combination with OR/AND to summarise the latest discoveries on the inhibitors of IL-6 and its receptor's especially focussing on the role of natural product, Naringin (NAR) as a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, with considerable anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties in COVID-19 treatments. Our data Therefore in comparison with other synthetic monoclonal antibodies NAR may provide a good qualification for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents, especially against Covid 19 based on recent studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
10.
Phytother Res ; 37(5): 2168-2186, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305109

ABSTRACT

In the search for compounds that inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, isoquinoline-containing alkaloids have been identified as compounds with high potential to fight the disease. In addition to having strong antiviral activities, most of these alkaloids have significant anti-inflammatory effects which are often manifested through the inhibition of a promising host-based anti-COVID-19 target, the p38 MAPK signaling pathway. In the present review, our pharmacological and medicinal chemistry evaluation resulted in highlighting the potential of anti-SARS-CoV-2 isoquinoline-based alkaloids for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. Considering critical parameters of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities, mechanism of action, as well as toxicity/safety profile, we introduce the alkaloids emetine, cephaeline, and papaverine as high-potential therapeutic agents for use in the treatment of COVID-19. Although preclinical studies confirm that some isoquinoline-based alkaloids reviewed in this study have a high potential to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2, their entry into drug regimens of COVID-19 patients requires further clinical trial studies and toxicity evaluation.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , COVID-19 , Humans , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Isoquinolines/pharmacology , Isoquinolines/therapeutic use , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
11.
Immunol Lett ; 256-257: 34-41, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302009

ABSTRACT

Kawasaki disease (KD), a rare multisystem inflammatory condition that predominantly affects children under six years of age, is the leading cause of childhood-acquired heart disease in developed countries. The pathogenesis is unknown, but studies support that an infectious stimulus triggers an autoimmune reaction in a genetically susceptible child. Recent studies demonstrated an association with autoantibody response to Del-1 (also known as EDIL3) in children with KD. Del-1 is an extracellular matrix protein that is expressed both in macrophages and vascular endothelium. Del-1 has an anti-inflammatory role by preventing leucocyte migration to inflammatory sites. Del-1 has two expression variants and genetic variants of Del-1 have been associated with the risk of intracranial aneurysms. Due to the physiologic plausibility for a role during KD, we chose to assess if autoantibodies against DEL-1 are seen in a larger cohort of children with KD and to assess if responses correlated to aneurysm formation. Contrary to prior findings, in comparison to febrile controls, autoantibodies were not overall higher in children with KD. Elevation in Post-IVIG samples in comparison to pre-IVIG and convalescent samples supports the commonality of anti-Del-1 antibodies. Autoantibodies were notably lower in children with KD who had coronary Z score elevations in comparison to those who did not.


Subject(s)
Coronary Aneurysm , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Autoantibodies , Coronary Aneurysm/complications , Coronary Aneurysm/prevention & control , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/genetics , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Calcium-Binding Proteins , Cell Adhesion Molecules
12.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1147991, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306631

ABSTRACT

Commonly used clinical strategies against coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), including the potential role of monoclonal antibodies for site-specific targeted drug delivery, are discussed here. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) tailored with tocilizumab (TCZ) and loading cannabidiol (CBD) are proposed for the treatment of COVID-19 by oral route. TCZ, as a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody and an interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor agonist, can attenuate cytokine storm in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. CBD (an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid and TCZ agonist) alleviates anxiety, schizophrenia, and depression. CBD, obtained from Cannabis sativa L., is known to modulate gene expression and inflammation and also shows anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. It has also been recognized to modulate angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) expression in SARS-CoV-2 target tissues. It has already been proven that immunosuppressive drugs targeting the IL-6 receptor may ameliorate lethal inflammatory responses in COVID-19 patients. TCZ, as an immunosuppressive drug, is mainly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, although several attempts have been made to use it in the active hyperinflammatory phase of COVID-19, with promising outcomes. TCZ is currently administered intravenously. It this review, we discuss the potential advances on the use of SLN for oral administration of TCZ-tailored CBD-loaded SLN, as an innovative platform for managing SARS-CoV-2 and related infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabidiol , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cannabidiol/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents
13.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; 33(4): 165-177, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2281783

ABSTRACT

Neuropsychiatric sequalae to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are beginning to emerge, like previous Spanish influenza and severe acute respiratory syndrome episodes. Streptococcal infection in paediatric patients causing obsessive compulsive disorder (PANDAS) is another recent example of an infection-based psychiatric disorder. Inflammation associated with neuropsychiatric disorders has been previously reported but there is no standard clinical management approach established. Part of the reason is that it is unclear what factors determine the specific neuronal vulnerability and the efficacy of anti-inflammatory treatment in neuroinflammation. The emerging COVID-19 data suggested that in the acute stage, widespread neuronal damage appears to be the result of abnormal and overactive immune responses and cytokine storm is associated with poor prognosis. It is still too early to know if there are long-term-specific neuronal or brain regional damages associated with COVID-19, resulting in distinct neuropsychiatric disorders. In several major psychiatric disorders where neuroinflammation is present, patients with abnormal inflammatory markers may also experience less than favourable response or treatment resistance when standard treatment is used alone. Evidence regarding the benefits of co-administered anti-inflammatory agents such as COX-2 inhibitor is encouraging in selected patients though may not benefit others. Disease-modifying therapies are increasingly being applied to neuropsychiatric diseases characterised by abnormal or hyperreactive immune responses. Adjunct anti-inflammatory treatment may benefit selected patients and is definitely an important component of clinical management in the presence of neuroinflammation.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Streptococcal Infections/psychology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/psychology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/epidemiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/etiology , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Streptococcal Infections/complications , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/immunology
14.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 71(3): 229-234, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248530

ABSTRACT

Understanding mechanisms of the novel SARS-CoV2 infection and progression can provide potential novel targets for prevention and/or treatment. This could be achieved via the inhibition of viral entry and/or replication, or by suppression of the immunologic response that is provoked by the infection (known as the cytokine storm). Probiotics are defined as 'live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host'. There is scarcity of evidence about the relationship between COVID-19 and gut microbiota. So, whether or not these supplements can prevent or ameliorate COVID-19-associated symptoms is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to provide an indirect evidence about the utility of probiotics in combating COVID-19 or its associated symptoms, through the review of its antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro, animal models and human trials. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The role of probiotics in alleviation of the novel COVID-19 has not been established. This review provides an insight about the anti-inflammatory, antiviral effects of probiotics in vitro, animal models and human. The latter can provide an indirect evidence and/or hypothesis-driven approach to investigate the use of probiotics as adjunctive therapy in the prophylaxis and/or alleviation of COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diet therapy , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Probiotics/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Cytokines/blood , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Rats
16.
Inflamm Res ; 72(2): 301-312, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2-induced severe inflammatory response can be associated with severe medical consequences leading to multi-organ failure, including the liver. The main mechanism behind this assault is the aggressive cytokine storm that induces cytotoxicity in various organs. Of interest, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) respond acutely to liver injury through several molecular mechanisms, hence furthering the perpetuation of the cytokine storm and its resultant tissue damage. In addition, hepatocytes undergo apoptosis or necrosis resulting in the release of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic mediators that lead to chronic liver inflammation. AIMS: The aim of this review is to summarize available data on SARS-CoV-2-induced liver inflammation in addition to evaluate the potential effect of anti-inflammatory drugs in attenuating SARS-CoV-2-induced liver inflammation. METHODS: Thorough PubMed search was done to gather and summarize published data on SARS-CoV-2-induced liver inflammation. Additionally, various anti-inflammatory potential treatments were also documented. RESULTS: Published data documented SARS-CoV-2 infection of liver tissues and is prominent in most liver cells. Also, histological analysis showed various features of tissues damage, e.g., hepatocellular necrosis, mitosis, cellular infiltration, and fatty degeneration in addition to microvesicular steatosis and inflammation. Finally, the efficacy of the different drugs used to treat SARS-CoV-2-induced liver injury, in particular the anti-inflammatory remedies, are likely to have some beneficial effect to treat liver injury in COVID-19. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2-induced liver inflammation is a serious condition, and drugs with potent anti-inflammatory effect can play a major role in preventing irreversible liver damage in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Inflammation , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Necrosis
17.
Respir Investig ; 61(2): 270-283, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287419

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses like rhinovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and coronavirus cause several respiratory diseases, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis, and coronavirus disease 2019, and exacerbate bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchiectasis, and diffuse panbronchiolitis. The production of inflammatory mediators and mucin and the accumulation of inflammatory cells have been reported in patients with viral infection-induced respiratory diseases. Interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and regulated on activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted are produced in the cells, including human airway and alveolar epithelial cells, partly through the activation of toll-like receptors, nuclear factor kappa B and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These mediators are associated with the development of viral infection-induced respiratory diseases through the induction of inflammation and injury in the airway and lung, airway remodeling and hyperresponsiveness, and mucus secretion. Medications used to treat respiratory diseases, including corticosteroids, long-acting ß2-agonists, long-acting muscarinic antagonists, mucolytic agents, antiviral drugs for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and influenza virus, macrolides, and Kampo medicines, reduce the production of viral infection-induced mediators, including cytokines and mucin, as determined in clinical, in vivo, or in vitro studies. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of these medications on viral infection-induced respiratory diseases may be associated with clinical benefits, such as improvements in symptoms, quality of life, and mortality rate, and can prevent hospitalization and the exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma, bronchiectasis, and diffuse panbronchiolitis.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Bronchiectasis , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Virus Diseases , Humans , Quality of Life , Asthma/drug therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Mucins/therapeutic use
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(3)2023 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263449

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids have been shown to have anti-oxidative effects, as well as other health benefits (e.g., anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor functions). Luteolin (3', 4', 5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) is a flavonoid found in vegetables, fruits, flowers, and herbs, including celery, broccoli, green pepper, navel oranges, dandelion, peppermint, and rosemary. Luteolin has multiple useful effects, especially in regulating inflammation-related symptoms and diseases. In this paper, we summarize the studies about the immunopharmacological activity of luteolin on anti-inflammatory, anti-cardiovascular, anti-cancerous, and anti-neurodegenerative diseases published since 2018 and available in PubMed or Google Scholar. In this review, we also introduce some additional formulations of luteolin to improve its solubility and bioavailability.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Luteolin , Humans , Luteolin/pharmacology , Luteolin/therapeutic use , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Vegetables , Chronic Disease
19.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35 Suppl 3: 6-9, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282797

ABSTRACT

In response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the immune system physiologically upregulates to try to clear the virus from the body; failure to compensate for this inflammatory response with an anti-inflammatory response leads to dysregulation of the immune system that ultimately leads to a situation of uncontrolled hyperinflammation called cytokine storm. This cytokine storm can cause ARDS or multi-organ failure leading to patient death. This review exposes the different mechanisms of the inflammatory response in COVID-19 infection and the therapeutic options to treat this process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
20.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 9354555, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258876

ABSTRACT

C. camphora is a renowned traditional Unani medicinal herb and belongs to the family Lauraceae. It has therapeutic applications in various ailments and prophylactic properties to prevent flu-like epidemic symptoms and COVID-19. This comprehensive appraisal is to familiarize the reader with the traditional, broad applications of camphor both in Unani and modern medicine and its effects on bioactive molecules. Electronic databases such as Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Research Gate were searched for bioactive molecules, and preclinical/clinical research and including 59 research and review papers up to 2022 were retrieved. Additionally, 21 classical Unani and English herbal pharmacopeia books with ethnomedicinal properties and therapeutic applications were explored. Oxidative stress significantly impacts aging, obesity, diabetes mellitus, depression, and neurodegenerative diseases. The polyphenolic bioactive compounds such as linalool, borneol, and nerolidol of C. camphora have antioxidant activity and have the potential to remove free radicals. Its other major bioactive molecules are camphor, cineole, limelol, safrole, limonene, alpha-pinene, and cineole with anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anxiolytic, analgesic, immunomodulatory, antihyperlipidemic, and many other pharmacological properties have been established in vitro or in vivo preclinical research. Natural bioactive molecules and their mechanisms of action and applications in diseases have been highlighted, with future prospects, gaps, and priorities that need to be addressed.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Cinnamomum camphora , Analgesics , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Camphor , Ethnopharmacology , Eucalyptol , Hypolipidemic Agents , Limonene , Phytochemicals , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Safrole
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