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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 4748447, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214085

ABSTRACT

The world's population is ageing at an accelerated pace. Ageing is a natural, physiological but highly complex and multifactorial process that all species in the Tree of Life experience over time. Physical and mental disabilities, and age-related diseases, would increase along with the increasing life expectancy. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a plant that belongs to the Zingiberaceae family, native to Southeast Asia. For hundreds of years, ginger has been consumed in various ways by the natives of Asian countries, both as culinary and medicinal herb for the treatment of many diseases. Mounting evidence suggests that ginger can promote healthy ageing, reduce morbidity, and prolong healthy lifespan. Ginger, a well-known natural product, has been demonstrated to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties, as well as an outstanding antiviral activity due to a high concentration of antiviral compounds. In this review, the current evidence on the potential role of ginger and its active compounds in the prevention of ageing is discussed.


Subject(s)
Ginger , Healthy Aging , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
2.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 126, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196306

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At present, the COVID-19 has been prevalent worldwide for more than a year and caused more than four million deaths. Liver injury was frequently observed in patients with COVID-19. Recently, a new definition of metabolic dysfunction associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) was proposed by a panel of international experts, and the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 has been actively investigated. Several previous studies indicated that the patients with MAFLD had a higher prevalence of COVID-19 and a tendency to develop severe type of respiratory infection, and others indicated that liver injury would be exacerbated in the patients with MAFLD once infected with COVID-19. The mechanism underlying the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 infection has not been thoroughly investigated, and recent studies indicated that multifactorial mechanisms, such as altered host angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor expression, direct viral attack, disruption of cholangiocyte function, systemic inflammatory reaction, drug-induced liver injury, hepatic ischemic and hypoxic injury, and MAFLD-related glucose and lipid metabolic disorders, might jointly contribute to both of the adverse hepatic and respiratory outcomes. In this review, we discussed the relationship between MAFLD and COVID-19 based on current available literature, and summarized the recommendations for clinical management of MAFLD patients during the pandemic of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/complications , Hypoxia/complications , Liver/metabolism , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Age Factors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/pathology , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Glucose/metabolism , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Hypoxia/pathology , Hypoxia/virology , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Liver/virology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/drug therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/pathology , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099581

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Since a large portion of the world's population is currently unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated and has limited access to approved treatments against COVID-19, there is an urgent need to continue research on treatment options, especially those at low cost and which are immediately available to patients, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Prior in vitro and observational studies have shown that fluoxetine, possibly through its inhibitory effect on the acid sphingomyelinase/ceramide system, could be a promising antiviral and anti-inflammatory treatment against COVID-19. In this report, we evaluated the potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities of fluoxetine in a K18-hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and against variants of concern in vitro, i.e., SARS-CoV-2 ancestral strain, Alpha B.1.1.7, Gamma P1, Delta B1.617 and Omicron BA.5. Fluoxetine, administrated after SARS-CoV-2 infection, significantly reduced lung tissue viral titres and expression of several inflammatory markers (i.e., IL-6, TNFα, CCL2 and CXCL10). It also inhibited the replication of all variants of concern in vitro. A modulation of the ceramide system in the lung tissues, as reflected by the increase in the ratio HexCer 16:0/Cer 16:0 in fluoxetine-treated mice, may contribute to explain these effects. Our findings demonstrate the antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties of fluoxetine in a K18-hACE2 mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and its in vitro antiviral activity against variants of concern, establishing fluoxetine as a very promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection and disease pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ceramides , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use
4.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35 Suppl 3: 6-9, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091721

ABSTRACT

In response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, the immune system physiologically upregulates to try to clear the virus from the body; failure to compensate for this inflammatory response with an anti-inflammatory response leads to dysregulation of the immune system that ultimately leads to a situation of uncontrolled hyperinflammation called cytokine storm. This cytokine storm can cause ARDS or multi-organ failure leading to patient death. This review exposes the different mechanisms of the inflammatory response in COVID-19 infection and the therapeutic options to treat this process.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokines , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
5.
Ter Arkh ; 94(5): 668-674, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091500

ABSTRACT

AIM: To study the effect of levilimab or baricitinib in combination with standard therapy (ST) on the incidence of severe viral pneumonia associated with a new coronavirus infection COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multicenter, open-label observational study of the efficacy and safety of levilimab in combination with ST (group 1, n=100), baricitinib in combination with ST (group 2, n=139), or in comparison with ST (group 3, n=200) in outpatients with verified CT-1 pneumonia. RESULTS: According to the results of laboratory tests, patients treated with levilimab in combination with ST had the best dynamics of changes in CRP from reliably the highest level (mg/L) to the lowest in comparison with other groups. In the group of patients with ST, in contrast to the other groups, no dynamics of CRP was observed by day 5 of therapy. In group of hospitalized patients initially receiving levilimab in addition to ST, the rate of transfer to the intensive care unit (2 patients, 9.52%) and length of stay (4 days) was significantly lower compared to the values in patients in both the baricitinib group in combination with ST (7 patients, 15.56%; 5 days [interquartile range 36.5]) and in patients receiving ST alone (7 patients, 15.56%; 5 days [interquartile range 36.5]). Also in hospitalized patients we observed no statistically significant intergroup differences in the incidence of infectious complications and thromboembolic events, which confirms the safety of including levilimab or baricitinib in COVID-19 pathogenetic therapy regimens. Observational results support the hypothesis that the initial inclusion of levilimab or baricitinib in addition to ST is accompanied by a reduced risk of viral pneumonia progression. CONCLUSION: The addition of levilimab or baricitinib to the therapy regimen for coronavirus infection during the outpatient phase has demonstrated a preemptive anti-inflammatory effect and reduced the probability of lung tissue damage progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 73(3)2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091455

ABSTRACT

Systemic inflammation is a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Anti-inflammatory therapy is considered crucial to modulate the hyperinflammatory response (cytokine storm) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. There is currently no specific, conclusively proven, cost-efficient, and worldwide available anti-inflammatory therapy available to treat COVID-19 patients with cytokine storm. The present study aimed to investigate the treatment benefit of oral colchicine for hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. Colchicine is an approved drug and possesses multiple anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This was a pilot, open-label randomized controlled clinical trial comparing standard of care (SOC) plus oral colchicine (colchicine arm) vs. SOC alone (control arm) in non-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. Colchicine treatment was initiated within first 48 hours of admission delivered at 1.5 mg loading dose, followed by 0.5 mg b.i.d. for next 6 days and 0.5 mg q.d. for the second week. A total of 96 patients were randomly allocated to the colchicine (n=48) and control groups (n=48). Both colchicine and control group patients experienced similar clinical outcomes by day 14 of hospitalization. Treatment outcome by day 14 in colchicine vs control arm: recovered and discharged alive: 36 (75.0%) vs. 37 (77.1%), remain admitted after 14-days: 4 (8.3%) vs. 5 (10.4%), ICU transferred: 4 (8.3%) vs. 3 (6.3%), and mortality: 4 (8.3%) vs. 3 (6.3%). The speed of improvement of COVID-19 acute symptoms including shortness of breath, fever, cough, the need of supplementary oxygen, and oxygen saturation level, was almost identical in the two groups. Length of hospitalization was on average 1.5 day shorter in the colchicine group. There was no evidence for a difference between the two groups in the follow-up serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP). According to the results of our study, oral colchicine does not appear to show clinical benefits in non-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. It is possible that the anti-inflammatory pathways of colchicine are not crucially involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2236123, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084938

ABSTRACT

Importance: Patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of developing pneumonia as well as an increased risk of severe COVID-19-associated adverse events and mortality. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory effects of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists via blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor may alter the risk of pneumonia and COVID-19-associated adverse events in patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes. Objective: To evaluate whether the selective, nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist finerenone is associated with protection against pneumonia and COVID-19 adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis used patient-level data from FIDELITY, a prespecified pooled analysis of 2 multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven, phase 3 randomized clinical trials: FIDELIO-DKD and FIGARO-DKD, conducted between September 2015 and February 2021. Patients in FIDELIO-DKD or FIGARO-DKD with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (urine albumin to creatine ratio, 30-5000 mg/g, estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥25 mL/min/1.73 m2) were assessed. Data were analyzed from May 15, 2021, to July 28, 2022. Exposure: Patients were randomized to finerenone (10 or 20 mg once daily) or matching placebo. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were investigator-reported incidences of treatment-emergent infective pneumonia adverse events and serious adverse events (during and up to 3 days after treatment) and any COVID-19 adverse events. Results: Of 13 026 randomized patients (mean [SD] age, 64.8 [9.5] years; 9088 [69.8%] men), 12 999 were included in the FIDELITY safety population (6510 patients receiving finerenone; 6489 patients receiving placebo). Over a median (range) treatment duration of 2.6 (0-5.1) years, finerenone was consistently associated with reduced risk of pneumonia and serious pneumonia vs placebo. Overall, 307 patients (4.7%) treated with finerenone and 434 patients (6.7%) treated with placebo experienced pneumonia (hazard ratio [HR], 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64-0.79; P < .001). Serious pneumonia occurred in 171 patients (2.6%) treated with finerenone and 250 patients (3.9%) treated with placebo (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.60-0.79; P < .001). Incidence proportions of COVID-19 adverse events were 86 patients (1.3%) in the finerenone group and 118 patients (1.8%) in the placebo group (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60-0.89; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that mineralocorticoid receptor blockade with finerenone was associated with protection against pneumonia and COVID-19 adverse events in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Further clinical studies may be warranted. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: FIDELIO-DKD: NCT02540993; FIGARO-DKD: NCT02545049.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Diabetic Nephropathies , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Albumins/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Creatine/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetic Nephropathies/epidemiology , Diabetic Nephropathies/complications , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Receptors, Mineralocorticoid/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/chemically induced
8.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 299: 115674, 2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069311

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Zukamu granules (ZKMG), as the preferred drug for the treatment of colds in Uygur medical theory, has been used for 1500 years. It is also widely used in China and included in the National Essential Drugs List (2018 edition). It has unique anti-inflammatory, antitussive and analgesic effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: Aiming at the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the characteristics of overall regulation of body diseases and the immune regulation mechanism with the concept of integrity, this paper put forward the integrated application of network composite module analysis and animal experiment verification to study the immune regulation mechanism of TCM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The active components and targets of ZKMG were predicted, and network module analysis was performed to explore their potential immunomodulatory mechanisms. Then acute lung injury (ALI) mice and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) rats were used as pathological models to observe the effects of ZKMG on the pathological conditions of infected ALI and IPF rats, determine the contents of Th1, Th2 characteristic cytokines and immunoglobulins, and study the intervention of GATA3/STAT6 signal pathway. RESULTS: The results of network composite module analysis showed that ZKMG contained 173 pharmacodynamic components and 249 potential targets, and four key modules were obtained. The immunomodulatory effects of ZKMG were related to T cell receptor signaling pathway. The validation results of bioeffects that ZKMG could carry out bidirectional immune regulation on Th1/Th2 cytokines in the stage of ALI and IPF, so as to play the role of regulating immune homeostasis and organ protection. CONCLUSIONS: The network composite module analysis and verification method is an exploration to study the immune regulation mechanism of TCM by combining the network module prediction analysis with animal experiments, which provides a reference for subsequent research.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Antitussive Agents , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Immunomodulating Agents , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antitussive Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokines/metabolism , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Drugs, Essential/therapeutic use , Immunomodulating Agents/pharmacology , Immunomodulating Agents/therapeutic use , Mice , Network Pharmacology/methods , Rats , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/therapeutic use
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(19)2022 Sep 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066116

ABSTRACT

Naturally occurring bioactives, also known as phytochemicals, have been widely recognized and researched owing to their multiple potentialities [...].


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Phytochemicals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use
10.
Life Sci ; 309: 121048, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061633

ABSTRACT

Pirfenidone (PFD) is a non-peptide synthetic chemical that inhibits the production of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-ß1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß), and collagen 1 (COL1A1), all of which have been linked to the prevention or removal of excessive scar tissue deposition in many organs. PFD has been demonstrated to decrease apoptosis, downregulate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) receptor expression, reduce inflammation through many routes, and alleviate oxidative stress in pneumocytes and other cells while protecting them from COVID-19 invasion and cytokine storm. Based on the mechanism of action of PFD and the known pathophysiology of COVID-19, it was recommended to treat COVID-19 patients. The use of PFD as a treatment for a range of disorders is currently being studied, with an emphasis on outcomes related to reduced inflammation and fibrogenesis. As a result, rather than exploring the molecule's chemical characteristics, this review focuses on innovative PFD efficacy data. Briefly, herein we tried to investigate, discuss, and illustrate the possible mechanisms of actions for PFD to be targeted as a promising anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumor, and/or anti-SARS-CoV-2 candidate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Humans , Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Interleukin-1beta , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fibrosis , Pyridones/pharmacology , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Collagen Type I/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Inflammation/drug therapy , Transforming Growth Factors , Angiotensins
11.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e937094, 2022 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056387

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Cognitive symptoms persisting longer than 3 months after infection, such as memory loss, or difficulties concentrating, have been reported in up to one-third of patients after COVID-19. Evidence-based therapeutic interventions to treat post-COVID-19 symptoms (also called "Long-COVID symptoms") have not yet been established, and the treating physicians must rely on conjecture to help patients. Based on its mechanism of action and its efficacy in treating cognitive impairment, as well as its good tolerability, the Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 has been suggested as a remedy to alleviate cognitive post-COVID-19 symptoms. In many studies, EGb 761 has been demonstrated to protect endothelial cells, to have potent anti-inflammatory effects, and to enhance neuroplasticity. CASE REPORT Here, we report for the first time the application of EGb 761 in the therapy of post-COVID-19-related cognitive deficits. Three women and 2 men, aged 26 to 59 years (average age 34.6 years), presented with concentration and attention deficits, cognitive deficiencies, and/or fatigue 9-35 weeks after infection. A daily dose of 2×80 mg of EGb 761 did not cause any detectable adverse effects, and it substantially improved or completely restored cognitive deficits and, when initially present, also other symptoms, such as fatigue and hyposmia, within an observation period of up to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS Our observations support the hypothesis that EGb 761 might be a low-risk treatment option for post-COVID-19 patients with cognitive symptoms. Moreover, we derive recommendations for randomized controlled clinical trials to confirm efficacy in that indication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cognition , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Endothelial Cells , Fatigue , Female , Ginkgo biloba , Humans , Male , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
12.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(10): 3713-3715, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055726

ABSTRACT

A 13-year-old boy developed painless diminution of vision in left eye 15 days after taking first dose of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine (Corbevax). Fundus and fluorescein angiography revealed central retinal vein occlusion in the left eye. Blood investigations were noncontributory. He was administered three doses of pulse corticosteroids followed by a tapering dose of oral corticosteroids. Retinal vascular occlusion can occur following COVID-19 vaccination in children, and early and aggressive systemic anti-inflammatory therapy can be helpful.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Adolescent , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Fluorescein Angiography , Humans , Male , Retinal Vein Occlusion/chemically induced , Retinal Vein Occlusion/diagnosis , Retinal Vein Occlusion/drug therapy , Vaccination
13.
Clin Immunol ; 244: 109093, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049018

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Emerging evidence indicates that the NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated, which results in a cytokine storm at the late stage of COVID-19. Autophagy regulation is involved in the infection and replication of SARS-CoV-2 at the early stage and the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated lung inflammation at the late stage of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the autophagy regulation at different stages of COVID-19. Specifically, we highlight the therapeutic potential of autophagy activators in COVID-19 by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby avoiding the cytokine storm. We hope this review provides enlightenment for the use of autophagy activators targeting the inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome, specifically the combinational therapy of autophagy modulators with the inhibitors of the NLRP3 inflammasome, antiviral drugs, or anti-inflammatory drugs in the fight against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(6): 2003-2016, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2048379

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a global diastrophic disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Covid-19 leads to inflammatory, immunological, and oxidative changes, by which SARS-CoV-2 leads to endothelial dysfunction (ED), acute lung injury (ALI), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and multi-organ failure (MOF). Despite evidence illustrating that some drugs and vaccines effectively manage and prevent Covid-19, complementary herbal medicines are urgently needed to control this pandemic disease. One of the most used herbal medicines is berberine (BBR), which has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiviral, and immune-regulatory effects; thus, BBR may be a prospective candidate against SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review found that BBR has anti-SARS-CoV-2 effects with mitigation of associated inflammatory changes. BBR also reduces the risk of ALI/ARDS in Covid-19 patients by inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory signaling pathways. In conclusion, BBR has potent anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral effects. Therefore, it can be utilized as a possible anti-SARS-CoV-2 agent. BBR inhibits the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2 and attenuates the associated inflammatory disorders linked by the activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. Indeed, BBR can alleviate ALI/ARDS in patients with severe Covid-19. In this sense, clinical trials and prospective studies are suggested to illustrate the potential role of BBR in treating Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Berberine , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Berberine/pharmacology , Berberine/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 241: 114659, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035972

ABSTRACT

Cytokine storm is a key feature of sepsis and severe stage of COVID-19, and the immunosuppression after excessive immune activation is a substantial hazard to human life. Both pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are recognized by various pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which lead to the immune response. A number of neolignan analogues were synthesized in this work and showed powerful anti-inflammation properties linked to the response to innate and adaptive immunity, as well as NP-7 showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity at 100 nM. On the sepsis model caused by cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) in C57BL/6J mice, NP-7 displayed a strong regulatory influence on cytokine release. Then a photo-affinity probe of NP-7 was synthesized and chemoproteomics based on stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell cultures (SILAC) identified Immunity-related GTPase M (IRGM) as a target suppressing cytokine storm, which was verified by competitive pull-down, cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA), drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) and molecular dynamics simulations.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Cytokine Release Syndrome , GTP-Binding Proteins , Sepsis , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , GTP-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Proteomics
16.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(6): 1993-2001, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035140

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection leads to the development of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes endothelial dysfunction (ED), oxidative stress (OS), and inflammatory disorders. These changes cause hypoxia and cytokine storm with the development of cardio-pulmonary complications. Bioactive lipids and other polyunsaturated fatty acids participate in a vital role in the SARS-CoV-2 infection process. One of these mediators is the anti-inflammatory compound, lipoxin (LX). LXs are produced from arachidonic acid (AA) by collaboration between 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and 12-15 LO during cell interactions. Thus, our goal was to review the probable role of LXs in COVID-19 regarding the effects of LXs on the inflammatory signaling pathways that are linked with COVID-19 pathogenesis and complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipoxins , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Lipoxins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010115

ABSTRACT

Background: Hyperinflammation is frequently associated with the chronic pain of autoimmune disease and the acute death of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) via a severe cytokine cascade. CIGB-258 (Jusvinza®), an altered peptide ligand with 3 kDa from heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), inhibits the systemic inflammation and cytokine storm, but the precise mechanism is still unknown. Objective: The protective effect of CIGB-258 against inflammatory stress of N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (CML) was tested to provide mechanistic insight. Methods: CIGB-258 was treated to high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and injected into zebrafish and its embryo to test a putative anti-inflammatory activity under presence of CML. Results: Treatment of CML (final 200 µM) caused remarkable glycation of HDL with severe aggregation of HDL particles to produce dysfunctional HDL, which is associated with a decrease in apolipoprotein A-I stability and lowered paraoxonase activity. Degradation of HDL3 by ferrous ions was attenuated by a co-treatment with CIGB-258 with a red-shift of the Trp fluorescence in HDL. A microinjection of CML (500 ng) into zebrafish embryos resulted in the highest embryo death rate, only 18% of survivability with developmental defects. However, co-injection of CIGB-258 (final 1 ng) caused the remarkable elevation of survivability around 58%, as well as normal developmental speed. An intraperitoneal injection of CML (final 250 µg) into adult zebrafish resulted acute paralysis, sudden death, and laying down on the bottom of the cage with no swimming ability via neurotoxicity and inflammation. However, a co-injection of CIGB-258 (1 µg) resulted in faster recovery of the swimming ability and higher survivability than CML alone injection. The CML alone group showed 49% survivability, while the CIGB-258 group showed 97% survivability (p < 0.001) with a remarkable decrease in hepatic inflammation up to 50%. A comparison of efficacy with CIGB-258, Infliximab (Remsima®), and Tocilizumab (Actemra®) showed that the CIGB-258 group exhibited faster recovery and swimming ability with higher survivability than those of the Infliximab group. The CIGB-258 group and Tocilizumab group showed the highest survivability, the lowest plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride level, and the infiltration of inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils in hepatic tissue. Conclusion: CIGB-258 ameliorated the acute neurotoxicity, paralysis, hyperinflammation, and death induced by CML, resulting in higher survivability in zebrafish and its embryos by enhancing the HDL structure and functionality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipoproteins, HDL , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Infliximab , Lysine/analogs & derivatives , Paralysis , Zebrafish/metabolism
18.
Future Microbiol ; 17: 1217-1229, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009815

ABSTRACT

Aim: Our main objectives were to compare the effects of Rejuveinix (RJX), dexamethasone (DEX) and their combination on the severity of sepsis and survival outcome in an animal model of fatal sepsis. Methods: We used the LPS plus D-galactosamine mouse model of sepsis to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of RJX, dexamethasone and a combination of RJX plus DEX. Additionally, we examined the clinical feasibility and tolerability of combining RJX with DEX in COVID-19 patients in a clinical phase I study. Data were analyzed using standard methods. Results & conclusion: RJX exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity in the murine sepsis model. The combination of RJX plus DEX was more effective than either agent alone, decreased the inflammatory cytokine responses and associated organ damage, and improved the survival outcome in mice. In the phase I clinical study, RJX plus DEX was well tolerated by COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , COVID-19 , Sepsis , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Ascorbic Acid , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Drug Combinations , Magnesium Sulfate , Mice , Niacinamide , Pantothenic Acid , Pyridoxine , Riboflavin , Sepsis/drug therapy , Thiamine
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 154: 113625, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2003886

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic urges researching possibilities for prevention and management of the effects of the virus. Carotenoids are natural phytochemicals of anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties and may exert potential in aiding in combatting the pandemic. This review presents the direct and indirect evidence of the health benefits of carotenoids and derivatives based on in vitro and in vivo studies, human clinical trials and epidemiological studies and proposes possible mechanisms of action via which carotenoids may have the capacity to protect against COVID-19 effects. The current evidence provides a rationale for considering carotenoids as natural supportive nutrients via antioxidant activities, including scavenging lipid-soluble radicals, reducing hypoxia-associated superoxide by activating antioxidant enzymes, or suppressing enzymes that produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Carotenoids may regulate COVID-19 induced over-production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, pro-inflammatory enzymes and adhesion molecules by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) and interleukins-6- Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (IL-6-JAK/STAT) pathways and suppress the polarization of pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage. Moreover, carotenoids may modulate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ by acting as agonists to alleviate COVID-19 symptoms. They also may potentially block the cellular receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). These activities may reduce the severity of COVID-19 and flu-like diseases. Thus, carotenoid supplementation may aid in combatting the pandemic, as well as seasonal flu. However, further in vitro, in vivo and in particular long-term clinical trials in COVID-19 patients are needed to evaluate this hypothesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carotenoids/pharmacology , Carotenoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273340, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002326

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess inflammatory markers and clinical outcomes in adult patients admitted to hospital with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 and treated with a combination of standard-of-care (SOC) and targeted immunosuppressive therapy including anti-IL-17A (netakimab), anti-IL-6R (tocilizumab), or JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor (baricitinib) or with a standard-of-care therapy alone. METHODS: The observational cohort study included 154 adults hospitalized between February and August, 2020 with RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 with National Early Warning Score2 (NEWS2) < 7 and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels ≤ 140 mg/L on the day of the start of the therapy or observation. Patients were divided into the following groups: I) 4 mg baricitinib, 1 or 2 times a day for an average of 5 days (n = 38); II) 120 mg netakimab, one dose (n = 48); III) 400 mg tocilizumab, one dose (n = 34), IV) SOC only: hydroxychloroquine, antiviral, antibacterial, anticoagulant, and dexamethasone (n = 34). RESULTS: CRP levels significantly decreased after 72 h in the tocilizumab (p = 1 x 10-5) and netakimab (p = 8 x 10-4) groups and remained low after 120 h. The effect was stronger with tocilizumab compared to other groups (p = 0.028). A significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels was observed 72 h after netakimab therapy (p = 0.029). NEWS2 scores significantly improved 72 h after tocilizumab (p = 6.8 x 10-5) and netakimab (p = 0.01) therapy, and 120 h after the start of tocilizumab (p = 8.6 x 10-5), netakimab (p = 0.001), or baricitinib (p = 4.6 x 10-4) therapy, but not in the SOC group. Blood neutrophil counts (p = 6.4 x 10-4) and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (p = 0.006) significantly increased 72 h after netakimab therapy and remained high after 120 h. The percentage of patients discharged 5-7 days after the start of therapy was higher in the tocilizumab (44.1%) and netakimab (41.7%) groups than in the baricitinib (31.6%) and SOC (23.5%) groups. Compared to SOC (3 of the 34; 8.8%), mortality was lower in netakimab (0 of the 48; 0%, RR = 0.1 (95% CI: 0.0054 to 1.91)), tocilizumab (0 of the 34; 0%, RR = 0.14 (95% CI: 0.0077 to 2.67)), and baricitinib (1 of the 38; 2.6%, RR = 0.3 (95% CI: 0.033 to 2.73)) groups. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19, the combination of SOC with anti-IL-17A or anti-IL-6R therapy were superior or comparable to the combination with JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor, and all three were superior to SOC alone. Whereas previous studies did not demonstrate significant benefit of anti-IL-17A therapy for severe COVID-19, our data suggest that such therapy could be a rational choice for mild-to-moderate disease, considering the generally high safety profile of IL-17A blockers. The significant increase in blood neutrophil count in the netakimab group may reflect efflux of neutrophils from inflamed tissues. We therefore hypothesize that neutrophil count and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio could serve as markers of therapeutic efficiency for IL-17A-blocking antibodies in the context of active inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Azetidines , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Purines , Pyrazoles , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides , Treatment Outcome
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