BACKGROUND: Patients with non-severe ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) are often prescribed immunosuppressive medications that are associated with severe side effects and a reduced quality of life. There is an unmet need for safer effective treatments for these patients. Hydroxychloroquine is being explored due to its effect in similar autoimmune conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus. METHODS: Double-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre trial recruiting 76 patients across 20 sites. Participants will be randomised 1:1 to hydroxychloroquine or placebo in addition to standard of care immunosuppressive therapies over the course of 52 weeks. A phase II selection design will be used to determine hdroxychloroquine's efficacy, using prednisolone dosage and Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score as a measure of disease activity. Secondary outcomes will explore other elements of AAV progression, including disease flares and time to remission. DISCUSSION: This trial aims to explore Hydroxychloroquine as a treatment for patients with AAV. If effective, the need for immunosuppressive treatments such as prednisolone could be reduced. Hydroxychloroquine is safer, cheaper and has fewer adverse effects than conventional immunosuppressive treatments. This could improve patient outcomes while saving money for the NHS. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: ISRCTN79334891. Registered 07 June 2021. EudraCT: 2018-001268-40. Registered 13 September 2019. CLINICALTRIALS: gov: NCT04316494. Registered 20 March 2020.
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Quality of Life , Double-Blind Method , Prednisolone , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Multicenter Studies as Topic
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a group of diseases characterized by inflammation and destruction of small and medium-sized blood vessels. Clinical disease phenotypes include microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). The incidence of AAV has been on the rise in recent years with advances in ANCA testing. The etiology and pathogenesis of AAV are multifactorial and influenced by both genetic and environmental factors, as well as innate and adaptive immune system responses. Multiple case reports have shown that sustained exposure to silica in an occupational environment resulted in a significantly increased risk of ANCA positivity. A meta-analysis involving six case-control studies showed that silica exposure was positively associated with AAV incidence. Additionally, exposure to air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), is a risk factor for AAV. AAV has seasonal trends. Studies have shown that various environmental factors stimulate the body to activate neutrophils and expose their own antigens, resulting in the release of proteases and neutrophil extracellular traps, which damage vascular endothelial cells. Additionally, the activation of complement replacement pathways may exacerbate vascular inflammation. However, the role of environmental factors in the etiology of AAV remains unclear and has received little attention. In this review, we summarized the recent literature on the study of environmental factors, such as seasons, air pollution, latitude, silica, and microbial infection, in AAV with the aim of exploring the relationship between environmental factors and AAV and possible mechanisms of action to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and treatment of AAV.
Subject(s)Air Pollutants , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , Churg-Strauss Syndrome , Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/epidemiology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/etiology , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Carbon Monoxide/therapeutic use , Churg-Strauss Syndrome/complications , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Peptide Hydrolases , Silicon Dioxide
The objective of the study is to report the outcomes of COVID-19 in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) patients. This was a registry-based observational study conducted at a tertiary care center in north India. AAV patients with at least one follow-up visit between March 2020 and September 2021 were included. Demographic features, clinical manifestations, disease activity, and treatment details of underlying AAV were noted in all patients. Details of COVID-19 infection including severity, treatment, and outcomes were noted. Predictors of COVID-19 severity were determined using univariate analysis. A total of 33 (18.3%) out of 180 AAV patients contracted COVID-19 infection. Moderate COVID-19 infection was seen in 33.3% and severe or critical infection was seen in 36.3% of patients. Seventeen patients (51.5%) required supplemental oxygen therapy. Nine patients had active disease at the time of COVID-19 infection and three of them died due to COVID-19 infection. The risk of COVID-19 infection and its severity did not differ between patients receiving different immunosuppressants including rituximab induction. Hypothyroidism (p = 0.046) and ocular (p = 0.038) involvement due to AAV predicted the development of moderate to severe/critical COVID-19. Three (9.1%) patients died from COVID-19 and the rate of AAV flare after COVID-19 was similar to that in non-COVID-19 patients (15.3/100 person-year vs. 15.6/100 person-year, p = 0.95). Majority of the patients with AAV had moderate to severe or critical COVID-19 infection. The rate of death due to COVID-19 in AAV is higher than in general population. Use of standard remission induction regimens did not lead to increased risk of COVID-19 infection in our AAV cohort.
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/therapy , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Pandemics , Remission Induction , Rituximab/therapeutic use
Despite that clinical trials have been examining the safety profile of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, there are concerns about long-term side effects as the number of vaccinations increases. Herein, we report a case of new-onset renal-limited anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis after booster vaccination with the mRNA 1273 (Moderna) vaccine. A 72-year-old woman with no specific past history, and who had a normal renal function, developed ANCA-associated vasculitis following heterologous booster with mRNA1273 (Moderna) vaccine. After a kidney biopsy, she was diagnosed with ANCA-associated pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. Her renal function and constitutional symptoms have been improved with treatment with plasmapheresis, intravenous cyclophosphamide and steroid pulse therapy (intravenous 500 mg of methylprednisolone sodium succinate for 3 days) followed by a reduced steroid regimen.
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Glomerulonephritis , Aged , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/etiology , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Female , Glomerulonephritis/pathology , Humans , Vaccination/adverse effects
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/complications , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Humans , Remission Induction , Rituximab/therapeutic use
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Infections , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/epidemiology , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Humans , Pandemics
Humoral vaccine responses are known to be suboptimal in patients receiving B-cell targeted therapy, and little is known about vaccine induced T-cell immunity in these patients. In this study, we characterized humoral and cellular antigen-specific anti-SARS-CoV2 responses following COVID-19 vaccination in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) receiving anti-CD20 therapy, who were either B-cell depleted, or B-cell recovered at the time of vaccination and in normal control subjects. SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike (S) and anti-nucleocapsid (NC) antibodies were measured using electrochemiluminescence immunoassays, while SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses to S glycoprotein subunits 1 (S1) and 2 (S2) and receptor binding domain peptide pools were measured using interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays. In total, 26 recently vaccinated subjects were studied. Despite the lack of a measurable humoral immune response, B-cell depleted patients mounted a similar vaccine induced antigen-specific T-cell response compared to B-cell recovered patients and normal controls. Our data indicate that to assure a humoral response in patients receiving anti-CD20 therapy, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination should ideally be delayed until B-cell recovery (CD-20 positive B-cells > 10/µl). Nevertheless, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination elicits robust, potentially protective cellular immune responses in these subjects. Further research to characterize the durability and protective effect of vaccine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell immunity are needed.
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
For the foreseeable future, vaccines are the cornerstone in the global campaign against the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. As the number and fatalities due to COVID-19 decline and the lockdown anywise rescinded, we recognize an increase in the incidence of autoimmune disease post-COVID-19 vaccination. However, the causality of the most vaccine-induced side effects is debatable and, at best, limited to a temporal correlation. We herein report a case of a 51-year-old gentleman who developed Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) 2 week post-COVID-19 vaccination. The patient responded favorably to oral steroids and rituximab. Additionally, we conducted a case-based review of vaccine-associated AAV describing their clinical manifestations and treatment response of this emerging entity.
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Remission Induction , Rituximab/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic influenced the management of patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. A paucity of data exists on outcome of patients with vasculitis following COVID-19, but mortality is higher than in the general population and comparable to patients undergoing haemodialysis or kidney transplant recipients (reported mortality rates of 20-25%). Delays in diagnosis have been reported, which are associated with sequelae such as dialysis-dependency. Management of ANCA-associated vasculitis has not changed with the aim to suppress disease activity and reduce burden of disease. The use of rituximab, an important and widely used agent, is associated with a more severe hospital course of COVID-19 and absence of antibodies following severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 infections, which prone patients to re-infection. Reports on vaccine antibody response are scarce at the moment, but preliminary findings point towards an impaired immune response, especially when patients receive rituximab as part of their treatment. Seropositivity was reported in less than 20% of patients when rituximab was administered within the prior six months, and the antibody response correlated with CD19+ B-cell repopulation. A delay in maintenance doses, if disease activity allows, has been suggested using a CD19+ B-cell guided strategy. Other immunosuppressive measures, which are used in ANCA-associated vasculitis, also impair humoral and cellular vaccine responses. Regular measurements of vaccine response or a healthcare-policy time-based strategy are indicated to provide additional doses ("booster") of COVID-19 vaccines. This review summarizes a recent educational forum and a recent virtual meeting of the European Vasculitis Society (EUVAS) focusing on COVID-19.
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/epidemiology , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Rituximab , SARS-CoV-2
The complement system is central to first-line defense against invading pathogens. However, excessive complement activation and/or the loss of complement regulation contributes to the development of autoimmune diseases, systemic inflammation, and thrombosis. One of the three pathways of the complement system, the alternative complement pathway, plays a vital role in amplifying complement activation and pathway signaling. Complement factor D, a serine protease of this pathway that is required for the formation of C3 convertase, is the rate-limiting enzyme. In this review, we discuss the function of factor D within the alternative pathway and its implication in both healthy physiology and disease. Because the alternative pathway has a role in many diseases that are characterized by excessive or poorly mediated complement activation, this pathway is an enticing target for effective therapeutic intervention. Nonetheless, although the underlying disease mechanisms of many of these complement-driven diseases are quite well understood, some of the diseases have limited treatment options or no approved treatments at all. Therefore, in this review we explore factor D as a strategic target for advancing therapeutic control of pathological complement activation.
Subject(s)Complement Factor D/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement Pathway, Alternative/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , Adipose Tissue/metabolism , Aging/immunology , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/therapy , Complement Factor D/biosynthesis , Complement Factor D/deficiency , Complement Factor D/physiology , Energy Metabolism , Geographic Atrophy/genetics , Geographic Atrophy/immunology , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/drug therapy , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/genetics , Hemoglobinuria, Paroxysmal/immunology , Hepatocytes , Humans , Kidney Diseases/immunology , Liver/injuries , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/therapeutic use , Peptides, Cyclic/therapeutic use , Phagocytosis
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/chemically induced , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
Management of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) during the COVID-19 pandemic poses unique therapeutic challenges. An online survey was conducted to understand physician's choices for treating AAV during the COVID-19 pandemic. Web-based survey featuring nineteen questions was circulated amongst physicians across various specialties. The responses regarding immunosuppressive therapy for remission induction and maintenance, COVID-19 testing, and preventive measures were recorded. A total of 304 responses were recorded. Most of the respondents were from India (83.9%) and comprised rheumatologists (66%) in practice for ≥ 5 years (71%). Though a majority preferred Rituximab or intravenous cyclophosphamide (CYC) as a remission induction agent, a significant proportion opted for oral CYC and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) also. Only one-third wanted to test for COVID-19 before initiating immunosuppressive therapy in patients with organ/life-threatening manifestations. Rituximab was the most favored maintenance therapy (47%), followed by azathioprine, MMF, and methotrexate. The results of this focused survey of managing AAV patients depict the real-world dilemmas and physicians' choices in this setting.
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Immunosuppression Therapy/methods , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , Rheumatology/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Remission Induction/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
BACKGROUND: Perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (P-ANCA) are associated with a multisystem vasculitis affecting small blood vessels in the body. A handful of adult patients who developed vasculitis post-COVID-19 have been reported. Although SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to drive an exaggerated immune response in the pediatric population, such as in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), only one case of vasculitis following COVID-19 has been reported previously in children. CASE PRESENTATION: Seventeen-year-old male with a past medical history of COVID-19 pneumonia two months prior presented with acute kidney injury and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. Rheumatologic workup revealed P-ANCA and Myeloperoxidase (MPO) positivity. Kidney biopsy showed necrotizing glomerulonephritis with limited immune complex deposition. Subsequently, he was treated with steroids and plasmapheresis, and ultimately started on cyclophosphamide. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this report presents the second reported pediatric case of P-ANCA/MPO vasculitis following COVID-19.
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vasculitis , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/complications , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Child , Humans , Male , Peroxidase , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome , Vasculitis/diagnosis , Vasculitis/etiology
BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 has been found to be exquisitely adept at triggering autoimmunity and multiple new onset autoimmune diseases have been described as a post-infectious complication of COVID-19 infection in the adult population. Less has been described in the pediatric population, as infections are more likely to be asymptomatic and less severe. This case reports a previously healthy adolescent patient with new onset antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) diagnosed in the setting of acute COVID-19 infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A previously healthy adolescent male was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia after presenting with infectious symptoms of fever, cough, congestion, and shortness of breath. After worsening of disease, he was found to have pulmonary nodules, atypical for COVID-19. Further imaging and laboratory workup showed elevated inflammatory markers, negative infectious testing, and positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) diagnostic for AAV. He was treated with pulse dose steroids followed by a prolonged taper and rituximab. Symptoms resolved and laboratory abnormalities improved over time. At six-month follow-up, lesions were much improved, laboratory markers were within normal limits, and patient remained asymptomatic off medications. CONCLUSIONS: This case is one of the first in the pediatric population to describe new onset AAV presenting with an acute, symptomatic COVID-19 infection. There is increasing evidence for COVID-19 induced autoimmunity in the pediatric population and pediatric care providers should be on high alert for new onset autoimmune disease in children afflicted by COVID-19.
Subject(s)Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis , COVID-19 , Infections , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/complications , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/diagnosis , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic , Child , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease with a broad spectrum of clinical severity. Patients with systemic vasculitis have an increased risk of serious infections and may be at risk of severe outcomes following COVID-19. We undertook this study to establish the risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes in these patients, including the impact of immunosuppressive therapies. METHODS: A multicenter cohort was developed through the participation of centers affiliated with national UK and Ireland vasculitis registries. Clinical characteristics and outcomes are described. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between potential risk factors and a severe COVID-19 outcome, defined as a requirement for advanced oxygen therapy, a requirement for invasive ventilation, or death. RESULTS: The cohort included 65 patients with systemic vasculitis who developed COVID-19 (median age 70 years, 49% women), of whom 25 patients (38%) experienced a severe outcome. Most patients (55 of 65 [85%]) had antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV). Almost all patients required hospitalization (59 of 65 [91%]), 7 patients (11%) were admitted to intensive care, and 18 patients (28%) died. Background glucocorticoid therapy was associated with severe outcomes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.7 [95% confidence interval 1.1-14.9]; P = 0.047), as was comorbid respiratory disease (adjusted OR 7.5 [95% confidence interval 1.9-38.2]; P = 0.006). Vasculitis disease activity and nonglucocorticoid immunosuppressive therapy were not associated with severe outcomes. CONCLUSION: In patients with systemic vasculitis, glucocorticoid use at presentation and comorbid respiratory disease were associated with severe outcomes in COVID-19. These data can inform clinical decision-making relating to the risk of severe COVID-19 in this vulnerable patient group.
Subject(s)COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Vasculitis/drug therapy , Aged , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/drug therapy , Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Registries , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Vasculitis/epidemiology
We present a case of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in the context of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). A 42-year-old woman was treated for drug-susceptible pulmonary TB and represented with paradoxical worsening of symptoms and radiological features. She was HIV negative. A severe acute kidney injury with features of glomerulonephritis was evident on admission. Perinuclear ANCA and antimyeloperoxidase antibodies were present in serum and renal biopsy was consistent with ANCA-associated vasculitis. The patient was successfully treated with both antituberculous therapy and immunosuppression (corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil) with subsequent clinical improvement and amelioration of renal function. We propose this is the first case that describes the association between paradoxical reactions during TB treatment and ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis.