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1.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e20210644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to assess the lifestyle and adherence to antiretrovirals in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: a cross-sectional study, through telephone interview to 150 patients, using a sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical form, and questionnaires to assess lifestyle profile and adherence to antiretrovirals. Statistics analysis used Fisher's exact test, odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: most patients had a satisfactory lifestyle (121; 80.7%) and adequate adherence to antiretrovirals (133; 88.7%). All were in social isolation, without follow-up appointments, with access to the health service only to receive antiretrovirals, and 16 (10.7%) had COVID-19 infection. Evangelicals (p=0.002), Spiritists (p=0.045), patients using atazanavir (p=0.0001) and ritonavir (p=0.002) had a more unsatisfactory lifestyle. Adherence to antiretrovirals was more inadequate in female patients (p=0.009), with two (p=0.004) and three or more children (p=0.006), retired (p=0.029), with serodiscordant partner (p=0.046) and diagnosis time of 5 to 10 years (p=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: the most PLHIV had a satisfactory lifestyle and adequate adherence to antiretrovirals, but some groups needed intervention to improve medication adherence and lifestyle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Life Style , Medication Adherence , Pandemics
2.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25 Suppl 2: e25912, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941095

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Historical approaches to clinical development of novel therapeutics for treatment and prevention of HIV have led to unacceptable delays in the generation of data to support optimal antiretroviral drug use in pregnancy. Over the last 5 years, multiple stakeholders have voiced their concerns around the exclusion of pregnant women from drug trials, and some progress has been made to consolidate principles and forge consensus. Building on ongoing efforts, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Maternal Paediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network (IMPAACT) convened a technical consultation designed to move the discussion from theory to practice. DISCUSSION: Accelerating the inclusion of pregnant women in pre-licensure clinical trials, with a goal to have pharmacokinetics (PK) and preliminary safety data for all new HIV agents in pregnancy available at the time of drug approval, requires: (1) performing non-clinical developmental and reproductive toxicology studies early in drug development for all new HIV agents; (2) recognizing and acting on the central role of women of childbearing potential affected by HIV through the research being conducted and the dissemination of associated results; (3) enrolling pregnant women in studies to specifically determine pregnancy PK and preliminary safety, as soon as late non-clinical studies are completed with no negative signals, for all new HIV agents that have demonstrated preliminary evidence of safety and efficacy from phase 2 trials; (4) investigating adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes through dedicated pregnancy safety studies for all new priority HIV agents; and (5) expanding active surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy for rare events, such as birth defects. Strategic actions to pursue include developing tools and resources to support designing and implementing studies among pregnant and breastfeeding women, identifying and promoting modifications of the regulatory framework that are supportive of systematic ethical investigation of new drugs in pregnancy, coordinating surveillance efforts, mobilizing key stakeholders and promoting transparency and accountability for all involved. CONCLUSIONS: With more than 19 million women living with HIV worldwide, ensuring greater inclusion of pregnant women in research on novel therapeutics is a priority to support drug optimization and effective introduction of innovations for treatment and prevention of HIV.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adolescent , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Feeding , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e058704, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential bidirectional relationship between food insecurity and HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Nationally representative HIV impact assessment household-based surveys. SETTING: Zambia, Eswatini, Lesotho, Uganda and Tanzania and Namibia. PARTICIPANTS: 112 955 survey participants aged 15-59 years with HIV and recency test results. MEASURES: Recent HIV infection (within 6 months) classified using the HIV-1 limited antigen avidity assay, in participants with an unsuppressed viral load (>1000 copies/mL) and no detectable antiretrovirals; severe food insecurity (SFI) defined as having no food in the house ≥three times in the past month. RESULTS: Overall, 10.3% of participants lived in households reporting SFI. SFI was most common in urban, woman-headed households, and in people with chronic HIV infection. Among women, SFI was associated with a twofold increase in risk of recent HIV infection (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 2.08, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.97). SFI was also associated with transactional sex (aRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.41), a history of forced sex (aRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.66) and condom-less sex with a partner of unknown or positive HIV status (aRR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14) in all women, and intergenerational sex (partner ≥10 years older) in women aged 15-24 years (aRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.46). Recent receipt of food support was protective against HIV acquisition (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.88). CONCLUSION: SFI increased risk for HIV acquisition in women by twofold. Heightened food insecurity during climactic extremes could imperil HIV epidemic control, and food support to women with SFI during these events could reduce HIV transmission.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Tanzania
5.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1819-1827, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915486

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and other variants of concern (VOCs) has brought huge challenges to control the COVID-19 pandemic, calling for urgent development of effective vaccines and therapeutic drugs. In this study, we focused on characterizing the impacts of divergent VOCs on the antiviral activity of lipopeptide-based fusion inhibitors that we previously developed. First, we found that pseudoviruses bearing the S proteins of five VOCs (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron) and one variant of interest (Lambda) exhibited greatly decreased infectivity relative to the wild-type (WT) strain or single D614G mutant, especially the Omicron pseudovirus. Differently, the most of variants exhibited an S protein with significantly enhanced cell fusion activity, whereas the S protein of Omicron still mediated decreased cell-cell fusion. Next, we verified that two lipopeptide-based fusion inhibitors, IPB02V3 and IPB24, maintained the highly potent activities in inhibiting various S proteins-driven cell fusion and pseudovirus infection. Surprisingly, both IPB02V3 and IPB24 lipopeptides displayed greatly increased potencies against the infection of authentic Omicron strain relative to the WT virus. The results suggest that Omicron variant evolves with a reduced cell fusion capacity and is more sensitive to the inhibition of fusion-inhibitory lipopeptides; thus, IPB02V3 and IPB24 can be further developed as potent, broad-spectrum antivirals for combating Omicron and the potential future outbreak of other emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e056386, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore how the COVID-19 pandemic affected access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) services from the perspective of the persons living with HIV (PLWH). DESIGN: The study adopted an exploratory-descriptive qualitative design that used in-depth interviews as the technique for the data collection. Data analysis was done using conceptual content analysis, following the traditions of Elo and Kyngäs on deductive and Hsieh on inductive content analysis. SETTING: ART clinic, Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve participants who had at least 1 year history of accessing ART care before the COVID-19 pandemic and at least one clinic visit during the pandemic were purposively sampled from the ART clinic. RESULTS: Five concepts of accessing healthcare proposed by Penchansky and Thomas were explored: accessibility, availability, affordability, accommodation and acceptability. The ART unit in the study setting remained open for service delivery throughout the pandemic. However, fear of contracting the virus while patronising services affected the participants' decision to use the facility. Although all the participants in this study reportedly honoured their refill appointments, they indicated knowledge of other PLWH defaulting. With reference to the availability of resources, a shortage of antiretrovirals was reported, affecting the refill appointment intervals. In spite of the challenges, several strategies were implemented to accommodate the patients' needs while protecting them from contracting the virus by instituting the stipulated COVID-19 protocols. The study found that some of the strategies impacted the acceptability and affordability of the services as transportation costs increased. Varying levels of accessibility to health workers providing ART services in the study setting was also recorded. CONCLUSION: Strategies were implemented to accommodate the effects of the pandemic on ART provision. However, these had deficiencies that must be addressed using appropriate Differentiated Service Delivery (DSD) interventions that will ensure continuous access to service delivery in the ongoing and any similar future occurrences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ghana , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Pandemics
7.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(4): e25904, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802359

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: South Africa's progress towards the 95-95-95 goals has been significantly slower among adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV), among whom antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, retention in care and viral suppression remain a concern. After 2 years of living with COVID-19, it is important to examine the direct and indirect effects of the pandemic on healthcare resources, access to HIV services and availability of support structures, to assess their impact on HIV care for ALHIV. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 response in South Africa has shifted healthcare resources towards combatting COVID-19, affecting the quality and availability of HIV services-especially for vulnerable populations, such as ALHIV. The healthcare system's response to COVID-19 has threatened to diminish fragile gains in engaging ALHIV with HIV services, especially as this group relies on overburdened public health facilities for their HIV care. Reallocation of limited health resources utilized by ALHIV disrupted healthcare workers' capacity to form and maintain therapeutic relationships with ALHIV and monitor ALHIV for ART-related side effects, treatment difficulties and mental health conditions, affecting their ability to retain ALHIV in HIV care. Prevailing declines in HIV surveillance meant missed opportunities to identify and manage opportunistic infections and HIV disease progression in adolescents. "Lockdown" restrictions have limited access to healthcare facilities and healthcare workers for ALHIV by reducing clinic appointments and limiting individual movement. ALHIV have had restricted access to social, psychological and educational support structures, including national feeding schemes. This limited access, coupled with reduced opportunities for routine maternal and sexual and reproductive health services, may place adolescent girls at greater risk of transactional sex, child marriages, unintended pregnancy and mother-to-child HIV transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent HIV care in South Africa is often overlooked; however, ART adherence among ALHIV in South Africa is particularly susceptible to the consequences of a world transformed by COVID-19. The current structures in place to support HIV testing, ART initiation and adherence have been reshaped by disruptions to health structures, new barriers to access health services and the limited available education and psychosocial support systems. Reflecting on these limitations can drive considerations for minimizing these barriers and retaining ALHIV in HIV care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Reproductive Health Services , Adolescent , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , South Africa/epidemiology
8.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221084543, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794048

ABSTRACT

Background: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is the key determinant of virological suppression in people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study reports factors associated with non-adherence among PLHIV one year after introducing dolutegravir (DTG) based regimens in Tanzania. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in two health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, in 2020. Results: A total of 406 PLHIV were recruited, where the majority (73.4%) were females, with 94.6% of patients being on DTG based regimens. Factors such as refill interval and sharing of antiretrovirals had significant effects on adherence. Multivariate analysis found that patients attending care and treatment center (CTC) at Temeke Regional Referral Hospital (RRH) were 4.3 times more likely to have non-adherence compared to those attending Amana RRH (aOR [adjusted odds ratio] 4.3, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 2.38 - 7.91, p-value < 0.0001). Conclusions: Sustainable adherence counseling is warranted to overcome non-adherence to ART.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring , Humans , Male , Oxazines , Piperazines , Pyridones , Tanzania/epidemiology
9.
PLoS Med ; 19(3): e1003959, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global HIV treatment programs have sought to lengthen the interval between clinical encounters for people living with HIV (PLWH) who are established on antiretroviral treatment (ART) to reduce the burden of seeking care and to decongest health facilities. The overall effect of reduced visit frequency on HIV treatment outcomes is however unknown. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of implementation strategies that reduce the frequency of clinical appointments and ART refills for PLWH established on ART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched databases​ between 1 January 2010 and 9 November 2021 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that compared reduced (6- to 12-monthly) clinical consultation or ART refill appointment frequency to 3- to 6-monthly appointments for patients established on ART. We assessed methodological quality and real-world relevance, and used Mantel-Haenszel methods to generate pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals for retention, viral suppression, and mortality. We evaluated heterogeneity quantitatively and qualitatively, and overall evidence certainty using GRADE. Searches yielded 3,955 records, resulting in 10 studies (6 RCTs, 3 observational studies, and 1 study contributing observational and RCT data) representing 15 intervention arms with 33,599 adults (≥16 years) in 8 sub-Saharan African countries. Reduced frequency clinical consultations occurred at health facilities, while reduced frequency ART refills were delivered through facility or community pharmacies and adherence groups. Studies were highly pragmatic, except for some study settings and resources used in RCTs. Among studies comparing reduced clinical consultation frequency (6- or 12-monthly) to 3-monthly consultations, there appeared to be no difference in retention (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97-1.04, p = 0.682, 8 studies, low certainty), and this finding was consistent across 6- and 12-monthly consultation intervals and delivery strategies. Viral suppression effect estimates were markedly influenced by under-ascertainment of viral load outcomes in intervention arms, resulting in inconclusive evidence. There was similarly insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on mortality (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.75-1.66, p = 0.592, 6 studies, very low certainty). For ART refill frequency, there appeared to be little to no difference in retention (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.98-1.06, p = 0.473, 4 RCTs, moderate certainty) or mortality (RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.63-3.35, p = 0.382, 4 RCTs, low certainty) between 6-monthly and 3-monthly visits. Similar to the analysis for clinical consultations, although viral suppression appeared to be better in 3-monthly arms, effect estimates were markedly influence by under-ascertainment of viral load outcomes in intervention arms, resulting in overall inclusive evidence. This systematic review was limited by the small number of studies available to compare 12- versus 6-monthly clinical consultations, insufficient data to compare implementation strategies, and lack of evidence for children, key populations, and low- and middle-income countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this synthesis, extending clinical consultation intervals to 6 or 12 months and ART dispensing intervals to 6 months appears to result in similar retention to 3-month intervals, with less robust conclusions for viral suppression and mortality. Future research should ensure complete viral load outcome ascertainment, as well as explore mechanisms of effect, outcomes in other populations, and optimum delivery and monitoring strategies to ensure widespread applicability of reduced frequency visits across settings.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents , HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
10.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265166, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785191

ABSTRACT

JUSTIFICATION: The WHO 95-95-95 targets for 2030 do not imply that people living with HIV (PLHIV) achieve a good quality of life. The current 30-day dispensing interval for antiretroviral (ART) burdens the healthcare system. Lengthening dispensing intervals could alleviate this burden as well as enhance patient well-being. OBJECTIVES: To capture perceptions on 90-day dispensing interval (90D) for ART from the perspective of PLHIV, people on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), doctors, and pharmacists. METHODS: Multi-centre observational survey led in France from 16 to 20 October 2020, among doctors agreeing to participate via regional coordinated care organisations for HIV, all PLHIV or people on PrEP consulting these outpatient-clinic doctors, and pharmacists doing ART dispensing. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 220 doctors who saw 1087 people (999 PLHIV; 88 on PrEP) and 176 pharmacists from 55 centres. Among the PLHIV, 855 (85.6%, 95% CI: 83.2%-87.7%) and among the patients on PrEP, 70 (79.5%, 95% CI: 69.6%-87.4%) stated they would be interested in 90D. All in all, patients who were more likely to endorse 90D are those who opt exclusively for hospital dispensing (OR 3.22 [1.57-6.58]) and who rotate between hospital and community pharmacy dispensing (OR 3.29 [1.15-9.32]). Patients who were less likely to endorse 90-D were those who consult in a city located outside the 3 French high HIV prevalence regions (OR 0.66 [0.44-0.99]), receive 2 vs 1 pill QD regimens (OR 0.53 [0.31-0.91]), and anticipate at least one vs no limitation to 90D (OR 0.27 [0.17-0.42]). 90D was perceived as possible by 152 pharmacists (86.4%), including 8 (5%) without restriction, and 219 doctors (99.6%), including 42 (19.2%) regardless of PLHIV's immunovirologic status or social conditions (health insurance coverage, access to housing or accommodation, access to rights, resources). Comparison of the benefits and limitations of a 90-day ART dispensing interval as perceived by PLHIV and people on PrEP, doctors and pharmacists shows that doctors anticipate a higher number of benefits than people on ART and/or pharmacists, chiefly that 90D would be more convenient and create less risk of drug shortages and that patients would gain autonomy and a better quality of life. Pharmacists were found to clearly perceive the economic benefits (90D would be less expensive) but anticipate more drawbacks than doctors and the people on ART themselves: more administrative burdens, more non-dispensing if doses get lost, harder to track adherence and more drug-drug interaction issues, and more work as they shall have to warn the patient of potential risks of shortages due to the cost of the stock. CONCLUSION: A clear majority of PLHIV, people on PrEP, doctors, and pharmacists endorsed 90D of ART. Most patients thought that 90D would be a good option, whereas most pharmacists and doctors thought that eligibility for 90D dispensing should depend on immunovirologic factors and social condition criteria. Moreover, pharmacists thought it would be necessary to commit regulatory resources and a better follow-up on adherence and drug-drug interactions.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pharmacists , Quality of Life
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(12): 447-452, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761301

ABSTRACT

The U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports country programs in identifying persons living with HIV infection (PLHIV), providing life-saving treatment, and reducing the spread of HIV in countries around the world (1,2). CDC used Monitoring, Evaluation, and Reporting (MER) data* to assess the extent to which COVID-19 mitigation strategies affected HIV service delivery across the HIV care continuum† globally during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Indicators included the number of reported HIV-positive test results, the number of PLHIV who were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and the rates of HIV viral load suppression. Percent change in performance was assessed between countries during the first 3 months of 2020, before COVID-19 mitigation efforts began (January-March 2020), and the last 3 months of the calendar year (October-December 2020). Data were reviewed for all 41 countries to assess total and country-level percent change for each indicator. Then, qualitative data were reviewed among countries in the upper quartile to assess specific strategies that contributed to programmatic gains. Overall, positive percent change was observed in PEPFAR-supported countries in HIV treatment (5%) and viral load suppression (2%) during 2020. Countries reporting the highest gains across the HIV care continuum during 2020 attributed successes to reducing or streamlining facility attendance through strategies such as enhancing index testing (offering of testing to the biologic children and partners of PLHIV)§ and community- and home-based testing; treatment delivery approaches; and improvements in data use through monitoring activities, systems, and data quality checks. Countries that reported program improvements during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic offer important information about how lifesaving HIV treatment might be provided during a global public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections/drug therapy , International Cooperation , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Global Health , Government Programs , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , United States
13.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256330, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has proved to have an indirect impact on essential health services in several parts of the world which could lead to increased morbidity and mortality and loss of the gains made in the past decades. There were no synthesized scientific evidences which could show the impact of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impacts of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic on essential health services provision in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A pre-post study design was used to assess the impacts of COVID-19 on essential health services delivery in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia in the second quarter of 2020 (Post COVID-19) compared to similar quarter in 2019 (Pre COVID-19). The study focuses on five categories; namely; maternal, neonatal and child health care; communicable diseases with a focus on HIV and TB-HIV co-infection; prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV; basic emergency, outpatient, inpatient and blood bank services, non-communicable diseases and road traffic accidents (RTAs). Analysis was done using Stata version 14.0 software package. The effects of COVID-19 epidemics/pandemic were calculated taking the differences between post COVID -19 and pre COVID-19 periods and the levels of service disruptions presented using proportions. Wilcoxon sign rank test was done and a significance level of ≤0.05 was considered as having significant difference among the two quarters. RESULTS: There were significant increase in institutional delivery, delivery by Caesarian Section (CS), still birth, postnatal care within 7 days of delivery, the number of children who received all vaccine doses before 1st birthday, the number of under 5 children screened and had moderate acute malnutrition, the number of under 5 children screened and had severe acute malnutrition and children with SAM admitted for management. However, there were significant decrease in HIV testing and detection along with enrolment to antiretroviral therapy (ART) care, number of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk ≥ 30% received treatment, RTAs, total units of blood received from national blood transfusion service (NBTS) and regional blood banks, total number of units of blood transfused and emergency referral. There were no significant changes in outpatient visits and admissions. CONCLUSION: Despite commendable achievements in maintaining several of the essential health services, COVID-19 has led to an increase in under nutrition in under five children, decline in HIV detection and care, CVD, cervical cancer screening and blood bank services. Therefore, governments, local and international agencies need to introduce innovative ways to rapidly expand and deliver services in the context of COVID-19. Moreover, lower income countries have to customize comprehensive and coordinated community-based health care approaches, including outreach and campaigns. In addition, countries should ensure that NCDs are incorporated in their national COVID-19 response plans to provide essential health care services to people living with NCDs and HIV or HIV-TB co-infection during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Transfusion/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Malnutrition/diagnosis , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Pandemics , Postnatal Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data
14.
Curr HIV Res ; 19(6): 465-475, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1688732

ABSTRACT

A number of different viral families have developed convergent methods to infect cells. Class I fusion proteins are commonly used by members of Arenaviridae, Coronaviridae, Filovirdae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, and Retroviridae. Class I viral fusion proteins are trimers that are involved in recognizing the cellular receptor, with a region that is responsible for fusing the viral and target cell membranes. During the fusion process, the fusion region folds into a six-helix bundle (6 HB) which approximates the two membranes leading to fusion. For Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the gp41 subunit is responsible for the formation of this 6 HB. The fusion inhibitor drug enfuvirtide, or T20, is the only US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency approved drug which targets this crucial step and has been widely used in combination regimens for the treatment of HIV since March 2003. In this review, we describe the current state of peptide-based fusion inhibitors in the treatment of HIV, and review how the field of HIV research is driving advances in the development of similar therapeutics in other viral systems, including the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
HIV Fusion Inhibitors , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Envelope Protein gp41 , HIV Fusion Inhibitors/pharmacology , HIV Fusion Inhibitors/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Peptide Fragments , Peptides/pharmacology , Peptides/therapeutic use
15.
AIDS ; 36(2): 161-168, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672442

ABSTRACT

The relative susceptibility of people with HIV (PWH) to Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is debated. Numerous studies have been published with apparently contradictory findings, but comparisons are difficult because they have been conducted in populations with different characteristics (e.g. age, prevalence comorbidities) and have used different comparison groups (e.g. HIV-negative cohorts, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalized patients, general population), and because of challenges to measure the most important confounders. Here, we review the evidence regarding risk and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PWH compared with persons without HIV. Publications originate largely from high-income settings where the majority of the PWH are on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite early evidence supporting higher frequency of SARS-CoV-2 testing in PWH on ART, HIV infection is not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, once confounding by socioeconomic characteristic is taken into account. Most publications identify increased COVID-19 severity in PWH compared with people without HIV from the general population or compared with COVID-19 hospitalized patients. The only study with an adequate comparison group to reduce confounding, has not identified differences in COVID-19 disease severity by HIV. Publications consistently identify that COVID-19 severity in PWH is not homogeneous and increases with age and baseline comorbidities. As PWH have a higher prevalence of comorbidities than people without HIV, examining their respective contribution to poor health outcomes is not straight forward as comorbidities could mediate the effect of HIV on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Lancet HIV ; 9(2): e112-e119, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665598

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, HIV incidence, and mortality has decreased since 2010; however, in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean region, trends continue to increase. We reviewed the regional progress to understand determinants of this situation and inform strategies to accelerate the response. METHODS: We conducted a multicountry programme review of 22 countries in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean region from Jan 1, 2010 to Dec 31, 2020. We extracted data from WHO's global AIDS monitoring system, UNAIDS estimates, and country reports regarding incident cases, policy uptake, and antiretrovirals used. We analysed data to describe incidence, testing practices, treatment coverage, and mortality to identify bottlenecks leading to persisting incidence and mortality. FINDINGS: Due to COVID-19 disruptions, the volume of HIV testing in 2020 halved to 3·0 million tests compared with 2019 with 8017 people living with HIV identified (0·27% positivity yield). In comparison with a 0·18% positivity yield from the 6·5 million tests in 2019. HIV tests were done in migrants (59·6%), groups at low risk (38·9%), and key populations (1·5%). Diagnoses with advanced disease increased from 27·3% in 2017 to 37·0% in 2019. In 2019, among 52 318 people on treatment, only 2888 (6%) received optimised regimens as per WHO recommendations. The number of people on treatment increased from 19 000 in 2010 with a coverage of 8% to 110 000 in 2020 with a coverage of 25%. Late diagnoses and suboptimal regimens could explain the increase in mortality from 9600 in 2010 to 17 000 in 2020. INTERPRETATION: In the Eastern Mediterranean region, inefficient testing and suboptimal treatment lead to underdiagnosis, persisting transmission, late treatment, and rising mortality. The HIV epidemic is growing faster than the response. A change in thinking is needed to test groups at high risk, transition to optimised treatment, and deliver patient-centred services that maximise retention. FUNDING: World Health Organization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
17.
AIDS Behav ; 26(6): 1905-1922, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604089

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the South African government imposed a lockdown to control COVID-19 transmission. Lockdown may affect people living with HIV's (PLWH) antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence. Data from a cluster randomised control trial was collected from 152 PLWH in Cape Town sub-districts from October 2019-March 2020 when the lockdown halted collection. Subsequently, 83 PLWH were followed-up in June-July 2020. Random effects models were used to analyse: (1) changes between baseline and follow-up and (2) correlates of adherence during lockdown. At follow-up, there was an increase in the odds of being below the poverty line and the odds of experiencing violence decreased. Measures for well-being, household functioning, stigma and HIV competency improved. Violence, depression, food insecurity, and stigma were associated with poorer ART adherence; higher well-being scores were associated with better adherence. During lockdown, governments need to ensure financial support, access to (mental) health services, and services for those experiencing violence.Clinical Trial Number: Pan African Clinical Trial Registry, PACTR201906476052236. Registered on 24 June 2019.


RESUMEN: En marzo de 2020, el gobierno sudafricano impuso un confinamiento generalizado para controlar la transmisión del COVID-19. Estas medidas pueden afectar la adherencia a la terapia antirretroviral de las personas con VIH. A partir de un ensayo aleatorio grupal se recopilan datos de 152 personas con VIH en los sub-distritos de Ciudad del Cabo entre octubre de 2019 y marzo de 2020 cuando el confinamiento detuvo la recopilación. Posteriormente, se realizó un seguimiento de 83 pacientes entre junio y julio de 2020. Se utilizaron modelos de efectos aleatorios para analizar: 1) los cambios en las variables entre la línea de base y de seguimiento; 2) covariables de adhesión al tratamiento. En el seguimiento se observa que aumentaron las probabilidades de estar por debajo del umbral de pobreza y disminuyeron las probabilidades de sufrir violencia. Las medidas de bienestar, funcionamiento del hogar, estigma e idoneidad en materia de VIH mejoraron entre la línea base y el seguimiento. Por otro lado, la violencia, la depresión, la inseguridad alimentaria y el estigma se asocian a una menor adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral, mientras la mejora del bienestar se asocia a una mayor adherencia al tratamiento. De tal manera, se observa que durante situaciones de emergencia que requieran de confinamientos es recomendable que los gobiernos garanticen apoyo financiero, atención a la salud física y mental de manera continua, así como servicios especializados hacia quienes sufren violencia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Medication Adherence , South Africa/epidemiology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593120

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains problematic. Regular monitoring of its barriers is clinically recommended, however, patient-provider communication around adherence is often inadequate. Our team thus decided to develop a new electronically administered patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) of barriers to ART adherence (the I-Score) to systematically capture this data for physician consideration in routine HIV care. To prepare for a controlled definitive trial to test the I-Score intervention, a pilot study was designed. Its primary objectives are to evaluate patient and physician perceptions of the I-Score intervention and its implementation strategy. METHODS: This one-arm, 6-month study will adopt a mixed method type 3 implementation-effectiveness hybrid design and be conducted at the Chronic Viral Illness Service of the McGill University Health Centre (Montreal, Canada). Four HIV physicians and 32 of their HIV patients with known or suspected adherence problems will participate. The intervention will involve having patients complete the I-Score through a smartphone application (Opal), before meeting with their physician. Both patients and physicians will have access to the I-Score results, for consideration during the clinic visits at Times 1, 2 (3 months), and 3 (6 months). The implementation strategy will focus on stakeholder involvement, education, and training; promoting the intervention's adaptability; and hiring an Application Manager to facilitate implementation. Implementation, patient, and service outcomes will be collected (Times 1-2-3). The primary outcome is the intervention's acceptability to patients and physicians. Qualitative data obtained, in part, through physician focus groups (Times 2-3) and patient interviews (Times 2-3) will help evaluate the implementation strategy and inform any methodological adaptations. DISCUSSION: This study will help plan a definitive trial to test the efficacy of the I-Score intervention. It will generate needed data on electronic PROM interventions in routine HIV care that will help improve understanding of conditions for their successful implementation. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04702412; https://clinicaltrials.gov/.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Electronic Health Records , Health Services , Medication Adherence , Patient Portals , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Canada , Humans , Pilot Projects
19.
Glob Public Health ; 17(1): 1-12, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561650

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 poses significant threats to the health of people with underlying chronic conditions, including people living with HIV. The association between subjective well-being and practicing COVID-19 preventive behaviours among people living with HIV is yet to be empirically tested. The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that subjective well-being would be associated with engaging in greater COVID-19 preventive behaviours. A sample of 200 women and 72 men (mean age 38.1, SD = 10.4) receiving HIV treatment at a clinic in Cape Town, South Africa completed interview administered surveys of health behaviours and three dimensions of subjective well-being: emotional, social and psychological well-being. Hierarchical regression models were performed to test subjective well-being as predictors of COVID-19 preventive behaviours adjusting for age, sex, education, TB history, antiretroviral therapy adherence, and concern about contracting COVID-19. Results showed that psychological well-being, along with concerns over COVID-19, predicted greater COVID-19 preventive behaviours over and above the other variables in the model, accounting for 9.2% of the variance. Results support incorporating interventions to foster psychological well-being into existing clinical services for people living with HIV to improve clusters of health behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa
20.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260670, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genetic diversity and pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) are major barriers to successful antiretroviral therapy (ART). In China, sexual intercourse is the most frequent route of HIV-1 transmission. However, few studies have analyzed PDR and transmission networks in detail among individuals in China with acute HIV-1 infection and their sexual contacts. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Baoding City, Hebei Province, China from 2019-2020. CD4 T cell counts and viral loads were assessed and a HIV-1 genotypic PDR assay was developed in-house. Transmission networks were visualized using Cytoscape with a threshold genetic distance of 0.015 among HIV-1 subtypes. RESULTS: From 139 newly diagnosed and drug-naïve individuals with HIV-1, 132 pol gene sequences were obtained and revealed eight HIV-1 subtypes. Circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE was the most frequent subtype (53.0%, 70/132) followed by CRF07_BC (26.5%, 35/132), B (13.6%, 18/132), unique recombinant forms (2.3%, 3/132), CRF55_01B (1.5%, 2/132), CRF103_01B (1.5%, 2/132), CRF65_cpx (0.8%, 1/132), and C (0.8%, 1/132). A total of 47 pol gene sequences were used to generate 10 molecular transmission networks. The overall prevalence of PDR was 7.6% and that of PDR to non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 6.1%. Of three transmission networks for PDR, two were closely associated with Beijing and Tianjin, while another was restricted to sequences determined in this study. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that during acute HIV-1 infection, PDR is transmitted in dynamic networks. This suggests that early detection, diagnosis, surveillance, and treatment are critical to effectively control HIV-1 spread.


Subject(s)
Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , HIV Infections/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Genotype , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/classification , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Young Adult , pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/classification , pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
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