Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 91
Filter
2.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274549, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in South Africa. Despite the implementation of HIV/TB integration services at primary healthcare facility level, the effect of HIV on TB treatment outcomes has not been well investigated. To provide evidence base for TB treatment outcome improvement to meet End TB Strategy goal, we assessed the effect of HIV status on treatment outcomes of TB patients at a rural clinic in the Ugu Health District, South Africa. METHODS: We reviewed medical records involving a cohort of 508 TB patients registered for treatment between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 at rural public sector clinic in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Data were extracted from National TB Programme clinic cards and the TB case registers routinely maintained at study sites. The effect of HIV status on TB treatment outcomes was determined by using multinomial logistic regression. Estimates used were relative risk ratio (RRR) at 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: A total of 506 patients were included in the analysis. Majority of the patients (88%) were new TB cases, 70% had pulmonary TB and 59% were co-infected with HIV. Most of HIV positive patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (90% (n = 268)). About 82% had successful treatment outcome (cured 39.1% (n = 198) and completed treatment (42.9% (n = 217)), 7% (n = 39) died 0.6% (n = 3) failed treatment, 3.9% (n = 20) defaulted treatment and the rest (6.6% (n = 33)) were transferred out of the facility. Furthermore, HIV positive patients had a higher mortality rate (9.67%) than HIV negative patients (2.91%)". Using completed treatment as reference, HIV positive patients not on ART relative to negative patients were more likely to have unsuccessful outcomes [RRR, 5.41; 95%CI, 2.11-13.86]. CONCLUSIONS: When compared between HIV status, HIV positive TB patients were more likely to have unsuccessful treatment outcome in rural primary care. Antiretroviral treatment seems to have had no effect on the likelihood of TB treatment success in rural primary care. The TB mortality rate in HIV positive patients, on the other hand, was higher than in HIV negative patients emphasizing the need for enhanced integrated management of HIV/TB in rural South Africa through active screening of TB among HIV positive individuals and early access to ART among HIV positive TB cases.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
3.
Kidney Int ; 102(4): 740-749, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150236

ABSTRACT

Four decades after the first cases of HIV were reported, kidney disease remains an important comorbidity in people with HIV (PWH). Both HIV-associated nephropathy and immune complex kidney disease were recognized as complications of HIV infection in the early years before treatment was available. Although the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in the late 1990s resulted in dramatic improvements in survival and health in PWH, several commonly used antiretroviral agents have been associated with kidney injury. HIV infection and treatment may also promote the progression of comorbid chronic kidney disease due to traditional risk factors such as diabetes, and HIV is one of the strongest "second hits" for the high-risk APOL1 genotype. Unique considerations in the management of chronic kidney disease in PWH are largely related to the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy, with potential for toxicity, drug-drug interactions, and polypharmacy. PWH who develop progressive chronic kidney disease are candidates for all modalities of kidney replacement therapy, including kidney transplantation, and at some centers, PWH may be candidates to serve as donors for recipients with HIV. Transplantation of kidney allografts from donors with HIV also offers a unique opportunity to study viral dynamics in the kidney, with implications for kidney health and for research toward HIV cure. In addition, HIV-transgenic animal models have provided important insights into kidney disease pathogenesis beyond HIV, and experience with HIV and HIV-related kidney disease has provided important lessons for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Associated Nephropathy , HIV Infections , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/epidemiology , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/therapy , Animals , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
4.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277606, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main international guidelines indicate DTG/3TC therapy as one of the preferred regimens for people living with HIV (PLWH), due to its observed efficacy in randomized clinical trials. However, information in real-life cohorts is relatively scarce for first-line use. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study of adult PLWH starting DTG+3TC as a first-line regimen before January 31st, 2020. Virological failure (VF) was defined as 2 consecutive HIV RNA viral load (VL) >50 copies/mL. RESULTS: 135 participants were included. Treatment was started without knowing baseline drug resistance testing (bDRT) results in 71.9% of cases, with baseline resistance mutations being later confirmed in 17 patients (12.6%), two of them with presence of M184V mutation. Effectiveness at week 48 was 85.2% (CI95%: 78.1-90.7%) (ITT missing = failure [M = F]) and 96.6% (CI 95%: 91.6-99.1%) (per-protocol analysis). Six patients (4.4%) discontinued treatment. One developed not confirmed VF after discontinuing treatment due to poor adherence; no resistance-associated mutations emerged. Three discontinued treatments due to central nervous system side effects (2.2%), and two due to a medical decision after determining the M184V mutation in bDRT. Finally, 14 (10.4%) were lost to follow-up, most of them due to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: In a real-life multicenter cohort of ART-naïve PLWH, treatment initiation with DTG + 3TC showed high effectiveness and favorable safety results, comparable to those of randomized clinical trials, without treatment-emergent resistance being observed through week 48. Starting treatment before receiving the results of baseline drug resistance testing did not have an impact on the regimen's effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Adult , Humans , Lamivudine/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics , HIV-1/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
5.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(2): 157-161, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cabotegravir + rilpivirine long-acting (LA) is a novel antiretroviral therapy (ART) administered intramuscularly monthly or every 2 months by a health care provider. The COVID-19 pandemic presents a potential challenge to patients' ability to attend scheduled clinic visits for dosing administration. SETTING: This analysis evaluated implementation fidelity across 6 phase IIb/III/IIIb cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA clinical trials in 16 countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: COVID-19-impacted visits were defined as modified dosing visits for which oral therapy was provided to participants unable to attend the clinic or injection visits that were rescheduled. Data from December 1, 2019, to March 1, 2021, were aggregated and analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of 2127 participants in cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA trials, 1997 (94%) had LA dosing visits proceed as planned during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of 130 (6%) participants with injection visits affected by COVID-19, most were from North America (57%) and Europe (26%). Most participants with COVID-19-impacted visits used oral therapy with cabotegravir + rilpivirine (75%) or alternative oral standard-of-care ART (21%) to maintain continuous ART. The most common reasons for missed visits were clinic closure/staffing constraints (48%) and COVID-19-related travel restrictions (23%). Most (98%) participants who used oral ART maintained virologic suppression; 2 participants had viral load between 50 and 100 copies/mL. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most trial participants maintained their LA dosing schedules. Flexibility of the LA dosing regimen, with the ability to switch to oral therapy, facilitated continuous ART provision and implementation fidelity.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diketopiperazines , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pyridones , Rilpivirine/therapeutic use
6.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 490-521, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101976

ABSTRACT

The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections provided a rich source of new data and comprehensive reviews on antiviral therapy. For COVID-19, intramuscular sotrovimab was noninferior to intravenous sotrovimab, serostatus did not predict the efficacy of sotrovimab, and molnupiravir appeared safe and modestly effective in decreasing hospitalization rates. Trials from low- and middle-income countries provided data to support transitioning those on first-line therapy with or without virologic suppression and those virologically suppressed on second-line therapy to dolutegravir-based regimens. Additional data supported the use of lenacapavir as a long-acting antiretroviral drug. Data across the United States demonstrate the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the HIV care continuum, although enhanced outreach efforts and decentralization of antiretroviral therapy delivery were associated with improvements in care engagement outcomes. Researchers described potential mechanisms for the emergence of integrase strand transfer inhibitor resistance. Studies on proviral genotyping high-lighted the limitations of its use in predicting clinically significant resistance. Several studies looked at the epidemiology and treatment of hepatitis C and B and the status of current hepatitis C virus elimination efforts. Data presented on HIV, COVID-19, and maternal and pediatric health included 2-year virologic outcome data of very early antiretroviral therapy in potentially reducing the latent HIV reservoir in infants with HIV. Data presented on COVID-19 and HIV therapeutics in children included SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies in children younger than 12 years of age, remdesivir in hospitalized infants and children, and long-acting therapies for HIV treatment in children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Hepatitis, Viral, Human , Child , Humans , United States/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Latency , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(34): e29721, 2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2042652

ABSTRACT

Increased aortic stiffness is an important predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD). It remains controversial whether HIV infected persons have increased aortic stiffness at the time of HIV diagnosis. An explorative, case-control study was performed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a newly diagnosed, antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve cohort with modest baseline cardiovascular risk. We recruited 85 newly diagnosed adults without known CVD from health care facilities in South Africa (43 female; mean age 33). Median CD4 count was 285, IQR 156-393 cells/µL. Twenty two HIV uninfected controls were recruited from the same facilities (8 female; mean age 33). PWV was measured using the Vicorder module (Skidmore Medical, United Kingdom) using a corrective factor of 0.8. The HIV infected group's mean PWV measured 11% higher than controls (5.88 vs 5.28 m/s; P = .02). Median aortic distensibility in HIV infected persons was 18% lower than controls (0.37 vs 0.45 mm Hg-1; P = .009). Multivariate analysis revealed that the difference in PWV between groups remained significant when corrected for age, sex, mean blood pressure and kidney function (mean difference 0.52 m/s; P = .01). Mean blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, HIV infection per se, age and male sex were important associations with increased PWV. Our study provides evidence for increased aortic stiffness in ART naïve adults already demonstrable at the time of HIV diagnosis. The cohort's young age and recent HIV diagnosis makes atherosclerosis a less likely explanation for the difference. Alternative, potentially reversible, explanations that require further research include vasomotor tone abnormalities and endothelial dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , HIV Infections , Vascular Stiffness , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/physiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Pulse Wave Analysis , Vascular Stiffness/physiology
8.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266451, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039280

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite great progress in antiretroviral treatment (ART) access in recent decades, HIV incidence remains high in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the role of individual and healthcare supply-related factors in HIV transmission risk in HIV-positive adults enrolled in 19 HIV services in the Centre and Littoral regions of Cameroon. METHODS: Factors associated with HIV transmission risk (defined as both unstable aviremia and inconsistent condom use with HIV-negative or unknown status partners) were identified using a multi-level logistic regression model. Besides socio-demographic and behavioral individual variables, the following four HIV-service profiles, identified using cluster analysis, were used in regression analyses as healthcare supply-related variables: 1) district services with large numbers of patients, almost all practicing task-shifting and not experiencing antiretroviral drugs (ARV) stock-outs (n = 4); 2) experienced and well-equipped national reference services, most practicing task-shifting and not experiencing ARV stock-outs (n = 5); 3) small district services with limited resources and activities, almost all experiencing ARV stock-outs (n = 6); 4) small district services with a wide range of activities and half not experiencing ARV stock-outs (n = 4). RESULTS: Of the 1372 patients (women 67%, median age [Interquartile]: 39 [33-44] years) reporting sexual activity in the previous 12 months, 39% [min-max across HIV services: 25%-63%] were at risk of transmitting HIV. The final model showed that being a woman (adjusted Odd Ratio [95% Confidence Interval], p-value: 2.13 [1.60-2.82], p<0.001), not having an economic activity (1.34 [1.05-1.72], p = 0.019), having at least two sexual partners (2.45 [1.83-3.29], p<0.001), reporting disease symptoms at HIV diagnosis (1.38 [1.08-1.75], p = 0.011), delayed ART initiation (1.32 [1.02-1.71], p = 0.034) and not being ART treated (2.28 [1.48-3.49], p<0.001) were all associated with HIV transmission risk. Conversely, longer time since HIV diagnosis was associated with a lower risk of transmitting HIV (0.96 [0.92-0.99] per one-year increase, p = 0.024). Patients followed in the third profile had a higher risk of transmitting HIV (1.71 [1.05-2.79], p = 0.031) than those in the first profile. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare supply constraints, including limited resources and ARV supply chain deficiency may impact HIV transmission risk. To reduce HIV incidence, HIV services need adequate resources to relieve healthcare supply-related barriers and provide suitable support activities throughout the continuum of care.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cameroon/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Sexual Partners
9.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(9): e26006, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027365

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The CUSTOMIZE hybrid III implementation-effectiveness study evaluated implementation of once-monthly long-acting (LA) cabotegravir + rilpivirine in diverse US healthcare settings. Here, we report patient participant perspectives after 12 months in CUSTOMIZE. METHODS: CUSTOMIZE was a phase IIIb, 12-month study conducted from July 2019 to October 2020 at eight diverse US HIV clinics that enrolled virologically suppressed people living with HIV-1 (PLHIV) on a stable oral regimen to receive monthly cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA injections after a 1-month oral lead-in. Participants were administered quantitative surveys before injections at months 1 (baseline), 4 and 12. A randomly selected subset of participants was interviewed at baseline and month 12. Data collection at month 12 was completed by October 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). RESULTS: At baseline, 109 and 34 participants completed surveys and interviews, respectively; 87% were male; 35% were Black or African American. All participants who remained in the study at month 12 (n = 102) maintained HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/ml; two participants withdrew due to injection-related reasons. Mean total scores measuring acceptability and appropriateness of cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA were high at baseline (4.5-4.6 out of 5) and month 12 (4.7-4.9). At month 12, 74% of participants reported nothing interfered with receiving LA injections; injection pain or soreness was the most common concern (15%). Time spent in the clinic and coming to the clinic for monthly injections was very or extremely acceptable after 12 months for most participants (93% and 87%, respectively), with 64% reporting having spent ≤30 minutes in the clinic for injection visits. At month 12, 92% of participants preferred LA injections to daily oral tablets (3%); 97% plan to continue LA treatment going forward. In month 12 interviews, 24 (77%) of 31 participants reported the COVID-19 pandemic did not impact their ability to receive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Once-monthly cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA was highly acceptable among PLHIV who were virologically suppressed on a stable antiretroviral regimen and interested in trying LA therapy, with few participants reporting challenges receiving LA injections. Implementation data from CUSTOMIZE suggest that monthly LA injections provide a convenient and appealing treatment option for PLHIV.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Diketopiperazines , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Seropositivity/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pyridones , Rilpivirine/therapeutic use
10.
AIDS ; 36(12): 1697-1705, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018371

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess disruption in healthcare services for HIV treatment by national emergency in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. DESIGN: Time-series analysis. METHODS: We analyzed the IQVIA Real World Data-Longitudinal Prescriptions Database and calculated time trends in the weekly number of persons with active antiretroviral prescriptions for HIV treatment, and of persons who obtained antiretroviral prescriptions during January 2017-March 2021. We used interrupted time-series models to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antiretroviral therapy (ART) use between March 2020 and March 2021. RESULTS: We found that the weekly number of persons with active antiretroviral prescriptions decreased by an average 2.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -3.8% to -1.1%), compared to predicted use, during March 2020 through March 2021. The weekly number of persons who obtained antiretroviral prescriptions decreased 4.5% (95% CI: -6.0% to -3.0%), compared to the predicted number. Men, persons aged ≤34 years, privately insured persons, and persons in medication assistance programs had greater decreases than other groups. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated a decrease in the number of persons with active antiretroviral prescriptions during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic and the number did not return to levels expected in the absence of the pandemic. Disruptions in HIV care and decreased ART may lead to lower levels of viral suppression and immunologic control, and increased HIV transmission in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prescriptions , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(9): e26003, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013583

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: CUSTOMIZE evaluated the implementation of long-acting (LA) cabotegravir + rilpivirine, a novel healthcare provider-administered injectable antiretroviral therapy regimen, in diverse US healthcare settings. Findings from staff-study participants (SSPs) through 12 months of implementation are reported. METHODS: CUSTOMIZE was a phase IIIb, 12-month, single-arm, hybrid III implementation-effectiveness study conducted from July 2019 to October 2020 at eight US clinics of five clinic types: private practice (n = 2), federally qualified health centre (n = 2), university (n = 2), AIDS Healthcare Foundation (n = 2) and health maintenance organization (n = 1). Eligible patient participants received monthly cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA injections after a 1-month oral lead-in. At baseline, month 4 and month 12, SSPs (n = 3 each per clinic), including physicians, nurses or injectors, and administrators, completed quantitative surveys and semi-structured interviews to assess implementation outcomes (acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility of intervention measures), programme sustainability and SSP perceptions of, attitudes towards, and expectations for cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA. Month 12 data collection occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: In surveys, SSPs reported high mean total scores for acceptability, appropriateness and feasibility of cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA implementation at baseline (4.43, 4.52 and 4.38 of 5, respectively) and month 12 (4.45, 4.61 and 4.46 of 5, respectively), regardless of clinic type. At month 12, SSPs were positive about the implementation sustainability (mean Program Sustainability Assessment Tool score, 5.83 out of 7). At baseline, SSPs' top concern was patients' ability to maintain monthly appointments (81%); at month 12, 39% had this concern. The proportion of SSPs reporting patient injection pain or soreness as a barrier was consistent at month 12 versus baseline (48% vs. 46%). Most (78%) SSPs reported optimal implementation of cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA in their clinics was achieved in 1-3 months. In interviews, SSP-reported strategies for successful implementation included teamwork, using a web-based treatment planner and having a designated person to track appointment scheduling. In month 12 interviews, SSP-reported structural changes needed for implementation included changing clinic hours and purchasing refrigerators. CONCLUSIONS: In CUSTOMIZE, cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA was successfully implemented across a range of US healthcare settings. Barriers were mitigated with minor process adjustments.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Delivery of Health Care , Diketopiperazines , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Pyridones , Rilpivirine/therapeutic use
12.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221121094, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002101

ABSTRACT

Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) need support from family, peers and health workers to remain on antiretroviral therapy and achieve and sustain viral suppression. This paper qualitatively explores the implementation of a psychosocial support intervention (PSS) in five primary health care facilities in the Ehlanzeni district, South Africa. Data were collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions with ALHIV on ART. Data analysis employed inductive thematic analysis. Informed consent was obtained prior to all data collection. The PSS intervention facilitated full disclosure of HIV status to adolescents, supported treatment adherence through health education, peer support, health care provider- and client relations, and quick access to health service delivery. However, COVID-19 restrictions and regulations challenged the implementation of the intervention. The PSS intervention showed promise to support adolescent's adherence and retention in care. We recommend innovative approaches to account for systemic disruptions, as evidenced by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , Psychosocial Support Systems , South Africa/epidemiology
13.
West Afr J Med ; 39(7): 703-707, 2022 Jul 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1970201

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has ravaged the world with significant implications on the socio-economic and health status of individuals. Several measures were put in place to curtail the pandemic especially movement restrictions. The effect of this pandemic and the restriction measures could further compound the health needs of PLWHA. This study thus described the trend in access to HIV/AIDS care services before and during the COVID-19 induced lockdown and the possible consequences on their treatment outcome. METHODS: A secondary analysis of client data was carried out at the HIV clinic of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research. The sociodemographic and clinical data [type of ART, duration on ART, clinical services 3-months before and during the COVID-19 induced Lockdown] were extracted from the electronic medical records. Data obtained was analyzed using the SPSS version 22.0. RESULTS: The median age of PLWHA was 45 years (IQR: 39-51), with the predominant age group being 25-49 years (65.4%). The majority were females (68.7%), married (59.5%), had at least secondary education (82.8%), and employed (81.5%). The median duration on ART was 102 months (IQR: 67-138) with the majority on non-Protease Inhibitor based regimen (77.7%). In the 3 months before the lockdown, there was an increase in drug pick-up of approximately 25% over the booked appointment compared to a decline of 40% when the lockdown was enacted. CONCLUSION: The significant decline in drug pick-up during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic raises the need for measures to ensure continued access to drugs and care among PLWHA.


INTRODUCTION: La pandémie de SRAS-CoV-2 a ravagé le monde avec des implications significatives sur l'état socio- économique et sanitaire. Plusieurs mesures ont été mises en place pour freiner la pandémie, en particulier la restriction des déplacements. L'effet de cette pandémie et les mesures de restriction pourraient encore aggraver les besoins de santé des PVVIH. Cette étude décrit ainsi la tendance des services de soins du VIH / SIDA avant et pendant le verrouillage induit par le COVID-19 et les conséquences possibles sur l'issue de leur traitement. MÉTHODES: Une étude transversale parmi les PVVIH fréquentant la clinique VIH de l'Institut nigérian de recherche médicale. Les données sociodémographiques et cliniques [type de TAR, durée de la TAR, services cliniques 3 mois avant et pendant le verrouillage induit par COVID-19] ont été extraites des dossiers médicaux électroniques. Les données obtenues ont été analysées à l'aide de la version 22.0 de SPSS. RÉSULTATS: L'âge médian des PVVIH était de 45 ans (IQR (39-51), le groupe d'âge prédominant étant 25-49 ans (65,4%). La majorité étaient des femmes (68,7%), mariées (59,5%), avaient au moins secondaire (82,8%) et employé (81,5%). La durée médiane des TAR était de 102 mois (IQR: 67-138), la majorité sous traitement sans inhibiteur de protéase (77,7%). Au cours des 3 mois précédant le verrouillage , il y a eu une augmentation de la cueillette de médicaments d'environ 25% par rapport au rendez-vous réservé, comparativement à une baisse de 40% lorsque le verrouillage a été décrété. CONCLUSION: La baisse significative de la collecte de médicaments pendant la pandémie de SRAS-CoV-2 fait ressortir la nécessité de prendre des mesures pour assurer un accès continu aux médicaments et aux soins parmi les PVVIH. Mots Clés: SRAS-CoV-2, antirétroviral, COVID-19, ramassage de médicaments, VIH, verrouillage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e20210644, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to assess the lifestyle and adherence to antiretrovirals in people living with HIV (PLHIV) in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: a cross-sectional study, through telephone interview to 150 patients, using a sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical form, and questionnaires to assess lifestyle profile and adherence to antiretrovirals. Statistics analysis used Fisher's exact test, odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: most patients had a satisfactory lifestyle (121; 80.7%) and adequate adherence to antiretrovirals (133; 88.7%). All were in social isolation, without follow-up appointments, with access to the health service only to receive antiretrovirals, and 16 (10.7%) had COVID-19 infection. Evangelicals (p=0.002), Spiritists (p=0.045), patients using atazanavir (p=0.0001) and ritonavir (p=0.002) had a more unsatisfactory lifestyle. Adherence to antiretrovirals was more inadequate in female patients (p=0.009), with two (p=0.004) and three or more children (p=0.006), retired (p=0.029), with serodiscordant partner (p=0.046) and diagnosis time of 5 to 10 years (p=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: the most PLHIV had a satisfactory lifestyle and adequate adherence to antiretrovirals, but some groups needed intervention to improve medication adherence and lifestyle.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Life Style , Medication Adherence , Pandemics
15.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25 Suppl 2: e25912, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941095

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Historical approaches to clinical development of novel therapeutics for treatment and prevention of HIV have led to unacceptable delays in the generation of data to support optimal antiretroviral drug use in pregnancy. Over the last 5 years, multiple stakeholders have voiced their concerns around the exclusion of pregnant women from drug trials, and some progress has been made to consolidate principles and forge consensus. Building on ongoing efforts, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Maternal Paediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Network (IMPAACT) convened a technical consultation designed to move the discussion from theory to practice. DISCUSSION: Accelerating the inclusion of pregnant women in pre-licensure clinical trials, with a goal to have pharmacokinetics (PK) and preliminary safety data for all new HIV agents in pregnancy available at the time of drug approval, requires: (1) performing non-clinical developmental and reproductive toxicology studies early in drug development for all new HIV agents; (2) recognizing and acting on the central role of women of childbearing potential affected by HIV through the research being conducted and the dissemination of associated results; (3) enrolling pregnant women in studies to specifically determine pregnancy PK and preliminary safety, as soon as late non-clinical studies are completed with no negative signals, for all new HIV agents that have demonstrated preliminary evidence of safety and efficacy from phase 2 trials; (4) investigating adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes through dedicated pregnancy safety studies for all new priority HIV agents; and (5) expanding active surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy for rare events, such as birth defects. Strategic actions to pursue include developing tools and resources to support designing and implementing studies among pregnant and breastfeeding women, identifying and promoting modifications of the regulatory framework that are supportive of systematic ethical investigation of new drugs in pregnancy, coordinating surveillance efforts, mobilizing key stakeholders and promoting transparency and accountability for all involved. CONCLUSIONS: With more than 19 million women living with HIV worldwide, ensuring greater inclusion of pregnant women in research on novel therapeutics is a priority to support drug optimization and effective introduction of innovations for treatment and prevention of HIV.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adolescent , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Feeding , Child , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control
16.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e058704, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential bidirectional relationship between food insecurity and HIV infection in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Nationally representative HIV impact assessment household-based surveys. SETTING: Zambia, Eswatini, Lesotho, Uganda and Tanzania and Namibia. PARTICIPANTS: 112 955 survey participants aged 15-59 years with HIV and recency test results. MEASURES: Recent HIV infection (within 6 months) classified using the HIV-1 limited antigen avidity assay, in participants with an unsuppressed viral load (>1000 copies/mL) and no detectable antiretrovirals; severe food insecurity (SFI) defined as having no food in the house ≥three times in the past month. RESULTS: Overall, 10.3% of participants lived in households reporting SFI. SFI was most common in urban, woman-headed households, and in people with chronic HIV infection. Among women, SFI was associated with a twofold increase in risk of recent HIV infection (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 2.08, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.97). SFI was also associated with transactional sex (aRR 1.28, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.41), a history of forced sex (aRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.66) and condom-less sex with a partner of unknown or positive HIV status (aRR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14) in all women, and intergenerational sex (partner ≥10 years older) in women aged 15-24 years (aRR 1.23, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.46). Recent receipt of food support was protective against HIV acquisition (aRR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.88). CONCLUSION: SFI increased risk for HIV acquisition in women by twofold. Heightened food insecurity during climactic extremes could imperil HIV epidemic control, and food support to women with SFI during these events could reduce HIV transmission.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Tanzania
18.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(10): 824-826, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922368

ABSTRACT

Multicenter study designed to describe epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) positive cases registered among children and adolescents living with HIV (CALWH). SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in 13.3% of CALWH, with all patients presenting mild symptoms, and the outcome was good in all patients. None of the HIV- and antiretroviral treatment-related variables studied were associated with greater infection risk or could be considered protective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1819-1827, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915486

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron and other variants of concern (VOCs) has brought huge challenges to control the COVID-19 pandemic, calling for urgent development of effective vaccines and therapeutic drugs. In this study, we focused on characterizing the impacts of divergent VOCs on the antiviral activity of lipopeptide-based fusion inhibitors that we previously developed. First, we found that pseudoviruses bearing the S proteins of five VOCs (Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron) and one variant of interest (Lambda) exhibited greatly decreased infectivity relative to the wild-type (WT) strain or single D614G mutant, especially the Omicron pseudovirus. Differently, the most of variants exhibited an S protein with significantly enhanced cell fusion activity, whereas the S protein of Omicron still mediated decreased cell-cell fusion. Next, we verified that two lipopeptide-based fusion inhibitors, IPB02V3 and IPB24, maintained the highly potent activities in inhibiting various S proteins-driven cell fusion and pseudovirus infection. Surprisingly, both IPB02V3 and IPB24 lipopeptides displayed greatly increased potencies against the infection of authentic Omicron strain relative to the WT virus. The results suggest that Omicron variant evolves with a reduced cell fusion capacity and is more sensitive to the inhibition of fusion-inhibitory lipopeptides; thus, IPB02V3 and IPB24 can be further developed as potent, broad-spectrum antivirals for combating Omicron and the potential future outbreak of other emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Lipopeptides/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Internalization
20.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e056386, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865172

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore how the COVID-19 pandemic affected access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) services from the perspective of the persons living with HIV (PLWH). DESIGN: The study adopted an exploratory-descriptive qualitative design that used in-depth interviews as the technique for the data collection. Data analysis was done using conceptual content analysis, following the traditions of Elo and Kyngäs on deductive and Hsieh on inductive content analysis. SETTING: ART clinic, Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana. PARTICIPANTS: Twelve participants who had at least 1 year history of accessing ART care before the COVID-19 pandemic and at least one clinic visit during the pandemic were purposively sampled from the ART clinic. RESULTS: Five concepts of accessing healthcare proposed by Penchansky and Thomas were explored: accessibility, availability, affordability, accommodation and acceptability. The ART unit in the study setting remained open for service delivery throughout the pandemic. However, fear of contracting the virus while patronising services affected the participants' decision to use the facility. Although all the participants in this study reportedly honoured their refill appointments, they indicated knowledge of other PLWH defaulting. With reference to the availability of resources, a shortage of antiretrovirals was reported, affecting the refill appointment intervals. In spite of the challenges, several strategies were implemented to accommodate the patients' needs while protecting them from contracting the virus by instituting the stipulated COVID-19 protocols. The study found that some of the strategies impacted the acceptability and affordability of the services as transportation costs increased. Varying levels of accessibility to health workers providing ART services in the study setting was also recorded. CONCLUSION: Strategies were implemented to accommodate the effects of the pandemic on ART provision. However, these had deficiencies that must be addressed using appropriate Differentiated Service Delivery (DSD) interventions that will ensure continuous access to service delivery in the ongoing and any similar future occurrences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Ghana , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Pandemics
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL