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2.
N Engl J Med ; 386(3): 230-240, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630266

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rheumatic heart disease affects more than 40.5 million people worldwide and results in 306,000 deaths annually. Echocardiographic screening detects rheumatic heart disease at an early, latent stage. Whether secondary antibiotic prophylaxis is effective in preventing progression of latent rheumatic heart disease is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of secondary antibiotic prophylaxis in Ugandan children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age with latent rheumatic heart disease. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either injections of penicillin G benzathine (also known as benzathine benzylpenicillin) every 4 weeks for 2 years or no prophylaxis. All the participants underwent echocardiography at baseline and at 2 years after randomization. Changes from baseline were adjudicated by a panel whose members were unaware of the trial-group assignments. The primary outcome was echocardiographic progression of latent rheumatic heart disease at 2 years. RESULTS: Among 102,200 children and adolescents who had screening echocardiograms, 3327 were initially assessed as having latent rheumatic heart disease, and 926 of the 3327 subsequently received a definitive diagnosis on the basis of confirmatory echocardiography and were determined to be eligible for the trial. Consent or assent for participation was provided for 916 persons, and all underwent randomization; 818 participants were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis, and 799 (97.7%) completed the trial. A total of 3 participants (0.8%) in the prophylaxis group had echocardiographic progression at 2 years, as compared with 33 (8.2%) in the control group (risk difference, -7.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -10.2 to -4.7; P<0.001). Two participants in the prophylaxis group had serious adverse events that were attributable to receipt of prophylaxis, including one episode of a mild anaphylactic reaction (representing <0.1% of all administered doses of prophylaxis). CONCLUSIONS: Among children and adolescents 5 to 17 years of age with latent rheumatic heart disease, secondary antibiotic prophylaxis reduced the risk of disease progression at 2 years. Further research is needed before the implementation of population-level screening can be recommended. (Funded by the Thrasher Research Fund and others; GOAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03346525.).


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Penicillin G Benzathine/therapeutic use , Rheumatic Heart Disease/drug therapy , Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Intention to Treat Analysis , Latent Infection/drug therapy , Male , Mass Screening , Penicillin G Benzathine/administration & dosage , Rheumatic Heart Disease/diagnostic imaging , Uganda
3.
5.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 59(1): 106471, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487080

ABSTRACT

The role of probiotics in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a probiotic regimen for VAP prophylaxis in mechanically ventilated multi-trauma patients, intubated immediately after the injurious insult. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study enrolling multi-trauma patients, patients expected to require mechanical ventilation for >10 days were assigned at random to receive prophylaxis with a probiotic formula (n=59) or placebo (n=53). The probiotic formula was a preparation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 [1.75 × 109 colony-forming units (cfu)], Lactobacillus plantarum (0.5 × 109 cfu), Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 (1.75 × 109 cfu) and Saccharomyces boulardii (1.5 × 109 cfu) in sachets. Each patient received two sachets twice daily for 15 days: one through the nasogastric tube and one spread on the oropharynx. The incidence of VAP was the primary endpoint. The incidence of other infections and sepsis, and the duration of hospital stay were the secondary endpoints. Administration of probiotics reduced the incidence of VAP [11.9% vs 28.3%, hazard ratio (HR) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.92; P=0.034] and sepsis [6.8% vs 24.5%, odds ratio 0.22, 95% CI 0.07-0.74: P=0.016]. Furthermore, probiotic prophylaxis reduced the time of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the length of hospital stay. The prophylactic use of probiotics with a combination of enteral and topical application to the oropharynx had a positive effect on the incidence of VAP and sepsis, as well as on ICU and total hospital stay in patients receiving protracted mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bifidobacterium animalis/chemistry , Lactobacillus acidophilus/chemistry , Lactobacillus plantarum/chemistry , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/drug therapy , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Saccharomyces boulardii/chemistry , Adult , Female , Greece , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
8.
Updates Surg ; 73(5): 1775-1786, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274974

ABSTRACT

Several regimens of oral and intravenous antibiotics (OIVA) have been proposed with contradicting results, and the role of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is still controversial. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing Surgical Site Infections (SSI) in elective colorectal surgery. In a multicentre trial, we randomized patients undergoing elective colorectal resection surgery, comparing the effectiveness of OIVA versus intravenous antibiotics (IVA) regimens to prevent SSI as the primary outcome (NCT04438655). In addition to intravenous Amoxicillin/Clavulanic, patients in the OIVA group received Oral Neomycin and Bacitracin 24 h before surgery. MBP was administered according to local habits which were not changed for the study. The trial was terminated during the COVID-19 pandemic, as many centers failed to participate as well as the pandemic changed the rules for engaging patients. Two-hundred and four patients were enrolled (100 in the OIVA and 104 in the IVA group); 3 SSIs (3.4%) were registered in the OIVA and 14 (14.4%) in the IVA group (p = 0.010). No difference was observed in terms of anastomotic leak. Multivariable analysis indicated that OIVA reduced the rate of SSI (OR 0.21 / 95% CI 0.06-0.78 / p = 0.019), while BMI is a risk factor of SSI (OR 1.15 / 95% CI 1.01-1.30 p = 0.039). Subgroup analysis indicated that 0/22 patients who underwent OIVA/MBP + vs 13/77 IVA/MBP- experienced an SSI (p = 0.037). The early termination of the study prevents any conclusion regarding the interpretation of the data. Nonetheless, Oral Neomycin/Bacitracin and intravenous beta-lactam/beta-lactamases inhibitors seem to reduce SSI after colorectal resections, although not affecting the anastomotic leak in this trial. The role of MBP requires more investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Surgery , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bacitracin , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Colectomy , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Neomycin , Pandemics , Preoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
9.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(Supplement_3): S76-S82, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243455

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with a reported ß-lactam allergy (BLA) are often given alternative perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, increasing risk of surgical site infections (SSIs), acute kidney injury (AKI), and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a pharmacist-led BLA clarification interview service in the preoperative setting. METHODS: A pharmacist performed BLA clarification telephone interviews before elective procedures from November 2018 to March 2019. On the basis of allergy history and a decision algorithm, first-line preoperative antibiotics, alternative antibiotics, or allergy testing referral was recommended. The pharmacist intervention (PI) group was compared to a standard of care (SOC) group who underwent surgery from November 2017 to March 2018. RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients were included, with 50 (57%) and 37 (43%) in the SOC and PI groups, respectively. The most common surgeries included orthopedic surgery in 41 patients (47%) and neurosurgery in 17 patients (20%). In the PI group, all BLA labels were updated after interview. Twenty-three patients were referred for allergy testing, 12 of the 23 (52%) completed BLA testing, and penicillin allergies were removed for 9 of the 12 patients. Overall, 28 of the 37 (76%) pharmacy antibiotic recommendations were accepted. Cefazolin use significantly increased from 28% to 65% after the intervention (P = 0.001). SSI occurred in 5 (10%) patients in the SOC group and no patients in the PI group (P = 0.051). All of these SSIs were associated with alternative antibiotics. Incidence of AKI and CDI was similar between the groups. No allergic reactions occurred in either group. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a pharmacy-driven BLA reconciliation significantly increased ß-lactam preoperative use without negative safety outcomes.


Subject(s)
Drug Hypersensitivity , Pharmacy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Drug Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Humans , Lactams , Retrospective Studies , beta-Lactams/adverse effects
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(21): e25645, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242118

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since December 2019, pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), namely 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), has rapidly spread from Wuhan city to other cities across China. The present study was designed to describe the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of 74 hospitalized patients with COVID-19.Clinical data of 74 COVID-19 patients were collected to analyze the epidemiological, demographic, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data. Thirty-two patients were followed up and tested for the presence of the viral nucleic acid and by pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scan at 7 and 14 days after they were discharged.Among all COVID-19 patients, the median incubation period for patients and the median period from symptom onset to admission was all 6 days; the median length of hospitalization was 13 days. Fever symptoms were presented in 83.78% of the patients, and the second most common symptom was cough (74.32%), followed by fatigue and expectoration (27.03%). Inflammatory indicators, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) of the intensive care unit (ICU) patients were significantly higher than that of the non-ICU patients (P < .05). However, 50.00% of the ICU patients had their the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells (CD4/CD8) ratio lower than 1.1, whose proportion is much higher than that in non-ICU patients (P < .01).Compared with patients in Wuhan, COVID-19 patients in Anhui Province seemed to have milder symptoms of infection, suggesting that there may be some regional differences in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 between different cities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cough/epidemiology , Fever/epidemiology , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Cough/blood , Cough/therapy , Cough/virology , Female , Fever/blood , Fever/therapy , Fever/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Geography , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
11.
Br J Hosp Med (Lond) ; 82(3): 1-6, 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168179

ABSTRACT

Antibiotics are one of the most widely used classes of drugs within hospitals in the UK. They have a wide range of uses within all surgical specialties, both as preoperative prophylaxis and for treatment of acute surgical conditions. Antimicrobial resistance has increasingly been seen as a major issue, as the production of new antibiotics has decreased and overall use worldwide has increased. With the COVID-19 pandemic increasing concerns about antimicrobial resistance, there is an ever-increasing need for action. This article examines the particular challenges of antibiotic stewardship in surgical departments within the UK, and outlines possible solutions for improving adherence and reducing the risk of antimicrobial resistance in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Surgery Department, Hospital , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Appendicitis/therapy , Cholecystitis/therapy , Diverticulitis/therapy , Humans , Preoperative Care , Surgical Wound Infection/drug therapy , United Kingdom
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD003427, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders that result in haemoglobin abnormalities and other complications. Injury to the spleen, among other factors, contribute to persons with SCD being particularly susceptible to infection. Infants and very young children are especially vulnerable. The 'Co-operative Study of Sickle Cell Disease' observed an incidence rate for pneumococcal septicaemia of 10 per 100 person-years in children under the age of three years. Vaccines, including customary pneumococcal vaccines, may be of limited use in this age group. Therefore, prophylactic penicillin regimens may be advisable for this population. This is an update of a Cochrane Review which was first published in 2002, and previously updated, most recently in 2017.  OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis against pneumococcus in children with SCD receiving antibiotic prophylaxis compared to those without in relation to: 1. incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection; 2. mortality (as reported in the included studies); 3. drug-related adverse events (as reported in the included studies) to the individual and the community; 4. the impact of discontinuing at various ages on incidence of infection and mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and also two clinical trials registries: ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Registry Platform (not in 2020 given access issues relating to Covid-19 pandemic). Additionally, we carried out hand searching of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Date of the most recent search: 25 January 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing prophylactic antibiotics to prevent pneumococcal infection in children with SCD with placebo, no treatment or a comparator drug. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane were used. Both authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. The authors used the GRADE criteria to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Six trials were identified by the searches, of which three trials were eligible for inclusion. A total of 880 children, who were between three months to five years of age at randomization were included. The included studies were conducted in centres in the USA and in Kingston, Jamaica. In trials that investigated initiation of penicillin on risk of pneumococcal infection, the odds ratio was 0.37 (95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.86) (two trials, 457 children) (low-certainty evidence), while for withdrawal the odds ratio was 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 2.71) (one trial, 400 children) (low-certainty evidence). Adverse drug effects were rare and minor. Rates of pneumococcal infection were found to be relatively low in children over the age of five years. Overall, the certainty of the evidence for all outcomes was judged to be low. The results from the risk of bias assessment undertaken identified two domains in which the risk of bias was considered to be high, these were incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) (two trials) and allocation concealment (selection bias) (one trial). Domains considered to have a low risk of bias for all three trials were selective reporting (reporting bias) and blinding (performance and detection bias). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence examined was determined to be of low certainty and suggests that prophylactic penicillin significantly reduces risk of pneumococcal infection in children with homozygous SCD, and is associated with minimal adverse reactions. Further research may help to determine the ideal age to safely withdraw penicillin.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Age Factors , Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/adverse effects , Bias , Child, Preschool , Hemoglobin SC Disease/complications , Homozygote , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Medication Adherence , Penicillins/adverse effects , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Streptococcus pneumoniae , beta-Thalassemia/complications
13.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 216(3): 563-569, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133848

ABSTRACT

Despite inferior vena cava (IVC) filter practice spanning over 50 years, interventionalists face many controversies in proper utilization and management. This article reviews recent literature and offers opinions on filter practices. IVC filtration is most likely to benefit patients at high risk of iatrogenic pulmonary embolus during endovenous intervention. Filters should be used selectively in patients with acute trauma or who are undergoing bariatric surgery. Retrieval should be attempted for perforating filter and fractured filter fragments when imaging suggests feasibility and favorable risk-to-benefit ratio. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered when removing filters with confirmed gastrointestinal penetration. Anticoagulation solely because of filter presence is not recommended except in patients with active malignancy. Anticoagulation while filters remain in place may decrease long-term filter complications in these patients. Patients with a filter and symptomatic IVC occlusion should be offered filter removal and IVC reconstruction. Physicians implanting filters may maximize retrieval by maintaining physician-patient relationships and scheduling follow-up at time of placement. Annual follow-up allows continued evaluation for removal or replacement as appropriate. Advanced retrieval techniques increase retrieval rates but require caution. Certain cases may require referral to experienced centers with additional retrieval resources. The views expressed should help guide clinical practice, future innovation, and research.


Subject(s)
Device Removal/methods , Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Vena Cava Filters , Vena Cava, Inferior , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19/complications , Device Removal/instrumentation , Endovascular Procedures , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Physician-Patient Relations , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prosthesis Design , Recurrence , Risk Assessment , Vena Cava Filters/adverse effects , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Wounds and Injuries/complications
15.
J Healthc Qual Res ; 36(3): 160-167, 2021.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039448

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The interruption of surgical care in Spain caused by the pandemic must end. Recovery from this activity must be carried out on an elective basis and in conjunction with possible cases of COVID-19. The objective of this review was to incorporate good practice criteria related to COVID-19 into the context of safe surgery, which would make it possible to develop a proposed surgical safety checklist adapted to patients with this disease. METHODS: Narrative literature review, following the PRISMA protocol, in the Medline and Cochrane directories, using the MeSH terms (coronavirus, infections, safety, surgical procedures, operative, checklist) and the Boolean operator AND. In addition, recommendations from scientific bodies and societies were reviewed (grey literature). RESULTS: Thirty-three final studies were included with recommendations for safe surgery and surgical safety checklist adapted for COVID-19, the most frequent being aspects related to treatment (41.3%) and prevention and control measures (27.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a broad consensus on good practices recommended for COVID surgical patients makes it possible to make a proposal for surgical safety checklist to these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Airway Management , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Anesthesia/methods , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Checklist , Consensus , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures , Emergencies , Equipment Contamination , Humans , Hygiene , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Medical Waste Disposal , Operating Rooms , Patient Safety , Personal Protective Equipment , Practice Guidelines as Topic/standards , Recovery Room , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment
16.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0244778, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1013217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Populations such as healthcare workers (HCW) that are unable to practice physical distancing are at high risk of acquiring Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). In these cases pharmacological prophylaxis would be a solution to reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS CoV-2) transmission. Hydroxychloroquine has in vitro antiviral properties against SARS CoV-2. We therefore sought to determine the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine as prophylaxis for COVID-19. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We electronically searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, the Cochrane COVID-19 Register of Controlled Trials, Epistemonikos COVID-19, clinicaltrials.gov, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform up to September 28th, 2020 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We calculated pooled relative risks (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effect model. We identified four RCTs (n = 4921) that met our eligibility criteria. The use of hydroxychloroquine, compared to placebo, did not reduce the risks of developing COVID-19 (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.04, moderate certainty), hospitalization (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.50, moderate certainty), or mortality (RR 3.26, 95% CI 0.13 to 79.74, low certainty), however, hydroxychloroquine use increased the risk of adverse events (RR 2.76, 95% CI 1.38 to 5.55, moderate certainty). CONCLUSION: Although pharmacologic prophylaxis is an attractive preventive strategy against COVID-19, the current body of evidence failed to show clinical benefit for prophylactic hydroxychloroquine and showed a higher risk of adverse events when compared to placebo or no prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/metabolism , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244266, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992712

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate safety and effectiveness of clarithromycin as adjunctive antibiotic prophylaxis for patients undergoing non-elective cesarean delivery in comparison with no macrolides, to adapt to azithromycin shortages in COVID-19 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a multi-center, prospective observational cohort study from March 23, 2020 through June 1, 2020. We followed all women receiving either clarithromycin or no macrolide antibiotic for adjunct surgical prophylaxis for non-elective cesarean deliveries. The primary outcome was development of postpartum endometritis. Secondary outcomes included meconium-stained amniotic fluid at time of cesarean delivery, neonatal sepsis, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and neonatal acute respiratory distress syndrome. All patients in this study were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection and resulted negative. RESULTS: This study included 240 patients, with 133 patients receiving clarithromycin and 107 patients receiving no adjunct macrolide prophylaxis. Patients receiving clarithromycin were noted to have significantly lower rates of postpartum endometritis as compared to those who did not receive adjunct prophylaxis (4.5% versus 11.2%, p = 0.025). In crude (unadjusted) analysis, a significantly lower risk of developing endometritis was noted in the clarithromycin group as compared to the control group (66% decreased risk, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.95, p = 0.040). When adjusted for perceived confounders, a significant difference was again noted (67% decreased risk, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.97, p = 0.034). Stratified analysis of significantly different demographic factors including Black race, BMI, and age was performed. A significantly decreased risk of development of endometritis when taking clarithromycin versus no adjunct macrolide was noted for Black race women in crude and adjusted models (crude: 87% decreased risk, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.83, p = 0.032; adjusted: 91% decreased risk, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.79, p = 0.026). This was also noted for women aged 18-29 years in crude and adjusted models (crude: model, 79% decreased risk, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.80, p = 0.014; adjusted model: 75% decreased risk, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.94, p = 0.028). All other stratified analyses did not yield significant differences in endometritis risk. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that administration of clarithromycin for adjunctive surgical prophylaxis for non-elective cesarean deliveries may be a safe option that may provide suitable endometritis prophylaxis in cases where azithromycin is unavailable, as was the case during the start of COVID-19 pandemic, most especially for Black race women and women ages 18-29 years.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cesarean Section/methods , Clarithromycin/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Drug Substitution , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
18.
J Glob Antimicrob Resist ; 24: 45-47, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-969589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Earlier studies have reported high antibiotic use in patients hospitalised for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), resulting in concerns of increasing antimicrobial resistance with increase antibiotic use in this pandemic. Point prevalence survey (PPS) can be a quick tool to provide antibiotic prescribing information to aid antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) activities. OBJECTIVES: To describe antibiotic utilization and evaluate antibiotic appropriateness in COVID-19 patients using PPS. METHODS: Adapting Global-PPS on antimicrobial use, the survey was conducted in COVID-19 wards at 2 centres in Singapore on 22 April 2020 at 0800h. Patients on systemic antibiotics were included and evaluated for antibiotic appropriateness. RESULTS: Five hundred and seventy-seven patients were screened. Thirty-six (6.2%) patients were on antibiotics and which were started at median of 7 days (inter-quartile rate (IQR), 4, 11) from symptom onset. Fifty-one antibiotics were prescribed in these patients. Overall, co-amoxiclav (26/51, 51.0%) was the most often prescribed antibiotic. Thirty-one out of 51 (60.8%) antibiotic prescriptions were appropriate. Among 20 inappropriate prescriptions, 18 (90.0%) were initiated in patients with low likelihood of bacterial infections. Antibiotic prescriptions were more appropriate when reviewed by infectious diseases physicians (13/31 [41.9%] versus 2/20 [10.0%], p=0.015), and if reasons for use were stated in notes (31/31 [100.0%] versus 16/20 [80.0%], p=0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Despite low prevalence of antibiotic use among confirmed and suspected COVID-19 patients at 2 centres in Singapore, there was significant proportion of inappropriate antibiotics use where bacterial infections were unlikely. AMS teams can tailor stewardship strategies using PPS results.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/microbiology , Inappropriate Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Female , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Singapore/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Trials ; 21(1): 867, 2020 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need for treatments that can shorten hospitalization and lower the risk of secondary infection and death in patients with corona disease. The ProPac-COVID trial evaluates whether combination therapy with macrolide azithromycin and hydroxychloroquine via anti-inflammation/immune modulation, antiviral efficacy, and pre-emptive treatment of supra-infections can shorten hospitalization duration and reduce the risk of non-invasive ventilation, treatment in the intensive care unit, and death in patients with acute hospital admission and a positive test for 2019-nCoV and symptoms of COVID-19 disease. METHODS: The ProPAC-COVID is a multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. The primary outcome is number of days spent alive and out of hospital within 14 days from randomization. Randomization will be in blocks of unknown size, and the final allocation will be stratified for age, site of recruitment, and whether the patient has any chronic lung diseases. Data is analyzed using intention-to-treat (ITT) principles, and main analyses will also be subject to modified ITT analysis and per protocol analysis. DISCUSSION: This paper describes the detailed statistical analysis plan for the evaluation of primary and secondary endpoints of the ProPAC-COVID study. Enrolment of patients to the ProPAC-COVID study is still ongoing. The purpose of this paper is to provide primary publication of study results to prevent selective reporting of outcomes, data-driven analysis, and to increase transparency. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04322396 . Registered on 26 March 2020.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Denmark/epidemiology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intention to Treat Analysis/methods , Male , Noninvasive Ventilation/adverse effects , Placebos/administration & dosage , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Ann Ital Chir ; 91: 273-276, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739593

ABSTRACT

CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old woman presented to our emergency department during the outbreak of the covid-19 emergency in Italy with syncope, anosmia, mild dyspnoea and atypical chest and dorsal pain. A chest CT scan showed an acute type B aortic dissection (ATBAD) and bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity, compatible with interstitial pneumonia. Nasopharyngeal swabs resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2. For the persistence of chest pain, despite the analgesic therapy, we decided to treat her with a TEVAR. Patient's chest and back pain resolved during the first few days after the procedure. No surgical or respiratory complications occurred and the patient was discharged 14 days after surgery. DISCUSSION: By performing the operation under local anesthesia, it was possible to limit both the staff inside the operatory room and droplet/aerosol release. Since we had to perform the operation in a hemodynamics room, thanks to the limited extension of the endoprosthesis and the good caliber of the right vertebral artery we were able to reduce the risk of spinal cord ischemia despite the lack of a revascularization of the left subclavian artery. CONCLUSIONS: A minimally invasive total endovascular approach allows, through local anesthesia and percutaneous access, to avoid surgical cut down and orotracheal intubation. This, combined with a defined management protocol for infected patients, seems to be a reasonable way to perform endovascular aortic procedures in urgent setting, even in a SARSCoV- 2 positive patient. KEY WORDS: COVID-19, Dissection, TEVAR.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Dissecting/surgery , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/surgery , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Anesthesia, Local , Aneurysm, Dissecting/complications , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Aortic Aneurysm, Thoracic/complications , COVID-19 , Contraindications, Procedure , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Drug Therapy, Combination , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Intraoperative Complications/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Operating Rooms , Patient Isolation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord Ischemia/prevention & control , Vertebral Artery/surgery
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