Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 333
Filter
1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1031852, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323296

ABSTRACT

The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as the more transmissible Delta and Omicron variants, has raised concerns on efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we examined the waning of antibody responses against different variants following primary and booster vaccination. We found that antibody responses against variants were low following primary vaccination. The antibody response against Omicron was almost non-existent. Efficient boosting of antibody response against all variants, including Omicron, was observed following a third dose. The antibody response against the variants tested was significantly higher at one month following booster vaccination, compared with two months following primary vaccination, for all individuals, including the low antibody responders identified at two months following primary vaccination. The antibody response, for all variants tested, was significantly higher at four months post booster than at five months post primary vaccination, and the proportion of low responders remained low (6-11%). However, there was significant waning of antibody response in more than 95% of individuals at four months, compared to one month following booster. We also observed a robust memory B cell response following booster, which remained higher at four months post booster than prior to booster. However, the memory B cell responses were on the decline for 50% of individuals at four months following booster. Similarly, while the T cell response is sustained, at cohort level, at four months post booster, a substantial proportion of individuals (18.8 - 53.8%) exhibited T cell response at four months post booster that has waned to levels below their corresponding levels before booster. The findings show an efficient induction of immune response against SARS-CoV-2 variants following booster vaccination. However, the induced immunity by the third BNT162b2 vaccine dose was transient. The findings suggest that elderly individuals may require a fourth dose to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2663: 441-461, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324357

ABSTRACT

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a well-characterized, iatrogenic complication of heparin anticoagulation with significant morbidity. In contrast, vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a recently recognized severe prothrombotic complication of adenoviral vaccines, including the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Vaxzevria, AstraZeneca) and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen, Johnson & Johnson) vaccines against COVID-19. The diagnosis of HIT and VITT involve laboratory testing for antiplatelet antibodies by immunoassays followed by confirmation by functional assays to detect platelet-activating antibodies. Functional assays are critical to detect pathological antibodies due to the varying sensitivity and specificity of immunoassays. This chapter presents a protocol for a novel whole blood flow cytometry-based assay to detect procoagulant platelets in healthy donor blood in response to plasma from patients suspected of HIT or VITT. A method to identify suitable healthy donors for HIT and VITT testing is also described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , Blood Platelets , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Flow Cytometry , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Antibodies , Platelet Factor 4
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2663: 429-440, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324176

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) was first described in 2021 and represents an adverse reaction to adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccines AstraZeneca ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) and Johnson & Johnson Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. VITT is a severe immune platelet activation syndrome with an incidence of 1-2 per 100,000 vaccinations. The features of VITT include thrombocytopenia and thrombosis within 4-42 days of first dose of vaccine. Affected individuals develop platelet-activating antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4). The International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis recommends both an antigen-binding assay (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, ELISA) and a functional platelet activation assay for the diagnostic workup of VITT. Here, the application of multiple electrode aggregometry (Multiplate) is presented as a functional assay for VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , Humans , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Ad26COVS1 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Antibodies , Electrodes , Platelet Factor 4
4.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2663: 463-477, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324173

ABSTRACT

The serotonin release assay (SRA) has been the gold-standard assay for detection of heparin-dependent platelet-activating antibodies and integral for the diagnosis for heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (HIT). In 2021, a thrombotic thrombocytopenic syndrome was reported after adenoviral vector COVID-19 vaccination. This vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic syndrome (VITT) proved to be a severe immune platelet activation syndrome manifested by unusual thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, very elevated plasma D-dimer, and a high mortality even with aggressive therapy (anticoagulation and plasma exchange). While the platelet-activating antibodies in both HIT and VITT are directed toward platelet factor 4 (PF4), important differences have been found. These differences have required modifications to the SRA to improve detection of functional VITT antibodies. Functional platelet activation assays remain essential in the diagnostic workup of HIT and VITT. Here we detail the application of SRA for the assessment of HIT and VITT antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Humans , Heparin/adverse effects , Serotonin , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Antibodies , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/etiology , Platelet Factor 4/adverse effects
5.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285728, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323197

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Monitoring of SARS-CoV-2 spread and vaccination strategies have relied on antibody (Ab) status as a correlate of protection. We used QuantiFERON™ (QFN) and Activation-Induced Marker (AIM) assays to measure memory T-cell reactivity in unvaccinated individuals with prior documented symptomatic infection (late convalescents) and fully vaccinated asymptomatic donors (vaccinees). METHODS: Twenty-two convalescents and 13 vaccinees were enrolled. Serum anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 and N Abs were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassays. QFN was performed following instructions and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) measured by ELISA. AIM was performed on aliquots of antigen-stimulated samples from QFN tubes. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD4+CD25+CD134+, CD4+CD69+CD137+ and CD8+CD69+CD137+ T-cell frequencies were measured by flow cytometry. RESULTS: In convalescents, substantial agreement was observed between QFN and AIM assays. IFN-γ concentrations and AIM+ (CD69+CD137+) CD4+ T-cell frequencies correlated with each other, with Ab levels and AIM+ CD8+ T-cell frequencies, whereas AIM+ (CD25+CD134+) CD4+ T-cell frequencies correlated with age. AIM+ CD4+ T-cell frequencies increased with time since infection, whereas AIM+ CD8+ T-cell expansion was greater after recent reinfection. QFN-reactivity and anti-S1 titers were lower, whereas anti-N titers were higher, and no statistical difference in AIM-reactivity and Ab positivity emerged compared to vaccinees. CONCLUSIONS: Albeit on a limited sample size, we confirm that coordinated, cellular and humoral responses are detectable in convalescents up to 2 years after prior infection. Combining QFN with AIM may enhance detection of naturally acquired memory responses and help stratify virus-exposed individuals in T helper 1-type (TH1)-reactive (QFNpos AIMpos Abshigh), non-TH1-reactive (QFNneg AIMpos Abshigh/low), and pauci-reactive (QFNneg AIMneg Abslow).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Interferon-gamma
6.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2663: 405-415, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323040

ABSTRACT

Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) represents an autoimmune process whereby antibodies are formed against heparin in complex with platelet factor 4 (PF4) after heparin administration. These antibodies can be detected by a variety of immunological assays, including ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and by chemiluminescence on the AcuStar instrument. However, pathological HIT antibodies are those that activate platelets in a platelet activation assay and cause thrombosis in vivo. We would tend to call this condition heparin-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (HITT), although some workers instead use the truncated abbreviation HIT. Vaccine-induced (immune) thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) instead reflects an autoimmune process whereby antibodies are formed against PF4 after administration of a vaccine, most notably adenovirus-based vaccines directed against COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). Although both VITT and HITT reflect similar pathological processes, they have different origins and are detected in different ways. Most notable is that anti-PF4 antibodies in VITT can only be detected immunologically by ELISA assays, tending to be negative in rapid assays such as that using the AcuStar. Moreover, functional platelet activation assays otherwise used for HITT may need to be modified to detect platelet activation in VITT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Humans , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/diagnosis , Heparin/adverse effects , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Antibodies , Vaccines/adverse effects , Platelet Factor 4/adverse effects
7.
Viruses ; 15(4)2023 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321574

ABSTRACT

Influenza D virus (IDV) has been detected in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) outbreaks, and experimental studies demonstrated this virus's capacity to cause lesions in the respiratory tract. In addition, IDV-specific antibodies were detected in human sera, which indicated that this virus plays a potential zoonotic role. The present study aimed to extend our knowledge about the epidemiologic situation of IDV in Swedish dairy farms, using bulk tank milk (BTM) samples for the detection of IDV antibodies. A total of 461 and 338 BTM samples collected during 2019 and 2020, respectively, were analyzed with an in-house indirect ELISA. In total, 147 (32%) and 135 (40%) samples were IDV-antibody-positive in 2019 and 2020, respectively. Overall, 2/125 (2%), 11/157 (7%) and 269/517 (52%) of the samples were IDV-antibody-positive in the northern, middle and southern regions of Sweden. The highest proportion of positive samples was repeatedly detected in the south, in the county of Halland, which is one of the counties with the highest cattle density in the country. In order to understand the epidemiology of IDV, further research in different cattle populations and in humans is required.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases , Influenza, Human , Thogotovirus , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Milk , Sweden/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Farms , Antibodies , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary
8.
FASEB J ; 37(6): e22973, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313274

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is the etiological agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Antibody-based therapeutics targeting the spike protein, specifically the S1 subunit or the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, have gained attention due to their clinical efficacy in treating patients diagnosed with COVID-19. An alternative to conventional antibody therapeutics is the use of shark new antigen variable receptor domain (VNAR ) antibodies. VNAR s are small (<15 kDa) and can reach deep into the pockets or grooves of the target antigen. Here, we have isolated 53 VNAR s that bind to the S2 subunit by phage panning from a naïve nurse shark VNAR phage display library constructed in our laboratory. Among those binders, S2A9 showed the best neutralization activity against the original pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus. Several binders, including S2A9, showed cross-reactivity against S2 subunits from other ß coronaviruses. Furthermore, S2A9 showed neutralization activity against all variants of concern (VOCs) from alpha to omicron (including BA1, BA2, BA4, and BA5) in both pseudovirus and live virus neutralization assays. Our findings suggest that S2A9 could be a promising lead molecule for the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants. The nurse shark VNAR phage library offers a novel platform that can be used to rapidly isolate single-domain antibodies against emerging viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages , COVID-19 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemics , Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Neutralizing
9.
Orv Hetil ; 164(5): 163-171, 2023 Feb 05.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313001

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: New variants of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus are constantly appearing, causing the COVID-19 pandemic. From November 2021, most infections were caused by the Omicron coronavirus variant. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to estimate the incidence of COVID-19 infections in the high-risk healthcare workers after two BNT162b2 mRNA Pfizer-BioNTech vaccines and the subsequent booster vaccine, as well as the effectiveness, the safety and the humoral immune response of the vaccines. METHOD: We started the two Pfizer-BioNTech ((BNT162b29) vaccinations of healthcare workers of the Polyclinic of the Hospitaller Brothers of St. John between January 07 and March 08, 2021. The choice of the type and timing of the third booster vaccination was voluntary. The workers were followed up between January 07, 2021 and June 29, 2022. The infection rate, adverse events of the vaccination, risk factors to infection and the kinetics of anti-spike (S) antibody and anti-nucleocapsid (N) antibody serum level were evaluated. RESULTS: The data of 294 healthcare workers - 96 medical doctors, 127 nurses and 71 workers in hospital - who had at least three antibody level measurements were analyzed. The third booster vaccine was given to 280 workers, the distribution of the vaccines was the following: Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b29) vaccine (n = 210), Moderna COVID-19 (mRNA-1273) vaccine (n = 37), Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccine (n = 21), Janssen COVID-19 (n = 10), AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccine (n = 2). Infection occurred in 121 cases (41%) during the observation period. The course of the COVID-19 infections was mostly mild (97%) and recovered within a week. During the observational period, 2 workers died: a 56-year-old woman died after two vaccinations for reason unrelated to COVID-19 infection, and a 58-year-old man died after the booster vaccination, following COVID-19 infection. The incidence of infection did not correlate with age, sex, comorbidities, smoking, occupation and BMI. The median titre of anti-S antibody serum level increased one month after the second vaccination of the basic immunization (1173.0 U/ml) and decreased slowly until the 8th month (678.5-625.8-538.0 U/ml) after the basic vaccination. One month after the booster vaccination, the median titre of anti-S antibody serum level increased significantly (16 535 U/ml), and showed a decreasing trend in the 3rd month after the booster vaccination (9697.7 U/ml). An exceptionally high S antibody serum level increasing after the basic (>10 000 U/mL) and booster (>60 000 U/m) vaccination showed a correlation with prior COVID-19 infection. The median cut-off index (COI) of anti-N antibody was not affected by vaccination, the increasing of the titre is related to the infection. CONCLUSION: The booster vaccination had less effect on the infection caused by Omicron variant, but the course of the infection was milder. Compared to the basic immunisation, the booster vaccination caused a significant increase in the S antibody level. An exceptionally high S antibody level correlated with prior COVID-19 infection. Orv Hetil. 2023; 164(5): 163-171.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Health Personnel , Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral
10.
Biomolecules ; 13(4)2023 Mar 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312621

ABSTRACT

Microarrays are one of the trailblazing technologies of the last two decades and have displayed their importance in all the associated fields of biology. They are widely explored to screen, identify, and gain insights on the characteristics traits of biomolecules (individually or in complex solutions). A wide variety of biomolecule-based microarrays (DNA microarrays, protein microarrays, glycan microarrays, antibody microarrays, peptide microarrays, and aptamer microarrays) are either commercially available or fabricated in-house by researchers to explore diverse substrates, surface coating, immobilization techniques, and detection strategies. The aim of this review is to explore the development of biomolecule-based microarray applications since 2018 onwards. Here, we have covered a different array of printing strategies, substrate surface modification, biomolecule immobilization strategies, detection techniques, and biomolecule-based microarray applications. The period of 2018-2022 focused on using biomolecule-based microarrays for the identification of biomarkers, detection of viruses, differentiation of multiple pathogens, etc. A few potential future applications of microarrays could be for personalized medicine, vaccine candidate screening, toxin screening, pathogen identification, and posttranslational modifications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Polysaccharides , Polysaccharides/chemistry , DNA , Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis , Peptides
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317689

ABSTRACT

Antibodies possess numerous important functions in diagnostics, both as therapeutics and as research tools [...].


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Peptides , Antibodies/therapeutic use
12.
Rinsho Shinkeigaku ; 63(3): 145-151, 2023 Mar 29.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315854

ABSTRACT

The post-vaccination antibody response in patients with immune-mediated neuromuscular diseases under immuno-suppressive therapy has not been sufficiently verified. The Japanese Society of Neurology has stated that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination should be given priority in patients with immunotherapy-associated neuromuscular diseases; however, data on antibody production to a novel mRNA vaccine are scarce in these patients. In this study, we aimed to measure residual antibody titers after the second dose and produced antibodies after the third dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine in 25 patients with neuromuscular diseases under immuno-suppressive therapy (disease group). We compared the disease group antibody titers with those of 829 healthy employees in our hospital (control group). The disease group included 17 patients with myasthenia gravis, 4 with multiple sclerosis, 3 with inflammatory muscle disease, and 1 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. Seven cases of the disease group showed negative antibody levels (<15.0 s/co) before the third vaccination, and antibody titers in the positive cases ranged from 16.9 to 4,589.0 s/co. Three of the seven antibody-negative cases turned positive after the third vaccination, and all but one of the antibody-positive cases showed a booster effect, with antibody titers after the third dose ranging from 245.1 to 85,374.0 s/co (1.0 to 885.0 times higher than those before vaccination). Although the immune response in the disease group was modest compared to the control group, in which antibody titers after the third vaccination ranged from 67.8 to 150,000 s/co (0.9 to 5,402.1 times higher than those before vaccination), the result indicated that a constant immune response was achieved under immuno-suppressive therapy. Even in the control group, three participants tested negative for residual antibody before the third inoculation, and four of the antibody-positive participants (27.7-24,054.0 s/co) lacked a booster effect after the third vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neuromuscular Diseases , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunotherapy , Antibodies , Antibodies, Viral
13.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1139915, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315717

ABSTRACT

Introduction: SARS-CoV-2 is the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Questions remain regarding correlates of risk and immune protection against COVID-19. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 200 participants with a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 occupational exposure at a U.S. medical center between December 2020 and April 2022. Participant exposure risks, vaccination/infection status, and symptoms were followed longitudinally at 3, 6, and 12 months, with blood and saliva collection. Serological response to the SARS-CoV-2 spike holoprotein (S), receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid proteins (NP) were quantified by ELISA assay. Results: Based on serology, 40 of 200 (20%) participants were infected. Healthcare and non-healthcare occupations had equivalent infection incidence. Only 79.5% of infected participants seroconverted for NP following infection, and 11.5% were unaware they had been infected. The antibody response to S was greater than to RBD. Hispanic ethnicity was associated with 2-fold greater incidence of infection despite vaccination in this cohort. Discussion: Overall, our findings demonstrate: 1) variability in the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 infection despite similar exposure risk; 2) the concentration of binding antibody to the SARS-CoV-2 S or RBD proteins is not directly correlated with protection against infection in vaccinated individuals; and 3) determinants of infection risk include Hispanic ethnicity despite vaccination and similar occupational exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccination , Humans , Antibodies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethnicity , Hispanic or Latino , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Occupational Exposure
14.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 15(6): 7759-7766, 2023 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2311054

ABSTRACT

Infectious agents such as viruses pose significant threats to human health, being transmitted via direct contact as well as airborne transmission without direct contact, thus requiring rapid detection to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. In this study, we developed a conductive thread-based immunosensor (CT-IS), a biosensor to easily detect the presence of airborne viruses. CT-IS utilizes an antibody that specifically recognizes the HA protein of the pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) virus, which is incorporated into the conductive thread. The antigen-antibody interaction results in increased strain on the conductive thread in the presence of the pH1N1 virus, resulting in increased electrical resistance of the CT-IS. We evaluated the performance of this sensor using the HA protein and the pH1N1 virus, in addition to samples from patients infected with the pH1N1 virus. We observed a significant change in resistance in the pH1N1-infected patient samples (positive: n = 11, negative: n = 9), whereas negligible change was observed in the control samples (patients not infected with the pH1N1 virus; negative). Hence, the CT-IS is a lightweight fiber-type sensor that can be used as a wearable biosensor by combining it with textiles, to detect the pH1N1 virus in a person's vicinity.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Immunoassay , Antibodies
15.
Cell Rep Med ; 4(5): 101049, 2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308397

ABSTRACT

New Omicron subvariants continue to emerge throughout the world. In particular, the XBB subvariant, which is a recombinant virus between BA.2.10.1.1 and BA.2.75.3.1.1.1, as well as the BA.2.3.20 and BR.2 subvariants that contain mutations distinct from BA.2 and BA.2.75, are currently increasing in proportion of variants sequenced. Here we show that antibodies induced by 3-dose mRNA booster vaccination as well as BA.1- and BA.4/5-wave infection effectively neutralize BA.2, BR.2, and BA.2.3.20 but have significantly reduced efficiency against XBB. In addition, the BA.2.3.20 subvariant exhibits enhanced infectivity in the lung-derived CaLu-3 cells and in 293T-ACE2 cells. Overall, our results demonstrate that the XBB subvariant is highly neutralization resistant, which highlights the need for continued monitoring of the immune escape and tissue tropism of emerging Omicron subvariants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Humans , HEK293 Cells , Immunization, Secondary , Mutation , RNA, Messenger
16.
Nutrients ; 15(7)2023 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306191

ABSTRACT

Despite the effectiveness and safety of COVID-19 vaccines, vaccine-induced responses decline over time; thus, booster vaccines have been approved globally. In addition, interest in natural compounds capable of improving host immunity has increased. This study aimed to examine the effect of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) on virus-specific antibodies after COVID-19 vaccination. We conducted a 24 week clinical pilot study of 350 healthy subjects who received two doses of the COVID-19 vaccine and a booster vaccination (third dose). These subjects were randomized 1:2 to the KRG and control groups. We evaluated antibody response five times: just before the second dose (baseline), 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 12 weeks after the second dose, and 4 weeks after the third dose. The primary endpoints were changes in COVID-19 spike antibody titers and neutralizing antibody titers. The antibody formation rate of the KRG group was sustained higher than that of the control group for 12 weeks after the second dose. This trend was prominently observed in those above 50 years old. We found that KRG can help to increase and maintain vaccine response, highlighting that KRG could potentially be used as an immunomodulator with COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Panax , Humans , Middle Aged , Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Pilot Projects , Vaccination
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 71(13): 5053-5061, 2023 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305465

ABSTRACT

The immunoglobulin Y (IgY) derived from hyperimmune egg yolk is a promising passive immune agent to combat microbial infections in humans and livestock. Numerous studies have been performed to develop specific egg yolk IgY for pathogen control, but with limited success. To date, the efficacy of commercial IgY products, which are all delivered through an oral route, has not been approved or endorsed by any regulatory authorities. Several challenging issues of the IgY-based passive immunization, which were not fully recognized and holistically discussed in previous publications, have impeded the development of effective egg yolk IgY products for humans and animals. This review summarizes major challenges of this technology, including in vivo stability, purification, heterologous immunogenicity, and repertoire diversity of egg yolk IgY. To tackle these challenges, potential solutions, such as encapsulation technologies to stabilize IgY, are discussed. Exploration of this technology to combat the COVID-19 pandemic is also updated in this review.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Egg Yolk , Animals , Humans , Pandemics , Chickens , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunoglobulins , Immunization, Passive , Antibodies , Immunization
18.
JCI Insight ; 8(7)2023 04 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304483

ABSTRACT

Currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines induce humoral and cellular responses to epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, though the relative roles of antibodies and T cells in protection are not well understood. To understand the role of vaccine-elicited T cell responses in protection, we established a T cell-only vaccine using a DC-targeted lentiviral vector expressing single CD8+ T cell epitopes of the viral nucleocapsid, spike, and ORF1. Immunization of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-transgenic mice with ex vivo lentiviral vector-transduced DCs or by direct injection of the vector induced the proliferation of functional antigen-specific CD8+ T cells, resulting in a 3-log decrease in virus load upon live virus challenge that was effective against the ancestral virus and Omicron variants. The Pfizer/BNT162b2 vaccine was also protective in mice, but the antibodies elicited did not cross-react on the Omicron variants, suggesting that the protection was mediated by T cells. The studies suggest that the T cell response plays an important role in vaccine protection. The findings suggest that the incorporation of additional T cell epitopes into current vaccines would increase their effectiveness and broaden protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Animals , Humans , Mice , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Animal
19.
Commun Biol ; 6(1): 395, 2023 04 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303703

ABSTRACT

The decrease of antibody efficacy to mutated SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD explains the breakthrough infections and reinfections by Omicron variants. Here, we analyzed broadly neutralizing antibodies isolated from long-term hospitalized convalescent patients of early SARS-CoV-2 strains. One of the antibodies named NCV2SG48 is highly potent to broad SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/5. To reveal the mode of action, we determined the sequence and crystal structure of the Fab fragment of NCV2SG48 in a complex with spike RBD from the original, Delta, and Omicron BA.1. NCV2SG48 is from a minor VH but the multiple somatic hypermutations contribute to a markedly extended binding interface and hydrogen bonds to interact with conserved residues at the core receptor-binding motif of RBD, which efficiently neutralizes a broad spectrum of variants. Thus, eliciting the RBD-specific B cells to the longitudinal germinal center reaction confers potent immunity to broad SARS-CoV-2 variants emerging one after another.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antibodies , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments
20.
Viral Immunol ; 36(3): 151-152, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302837
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL