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1.
N Engl J Med ; 386(9): 837-846, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721750

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract infection and hospitalization in infants. Nirsevimab is a monoclonal antibody to the RSV fusion protein that has an extended half-life. The efficacy and safety of nirsevimab in healthy late-preterm and term infants are uncertain. METHODS: We randomly assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, infants who had been born at a gestational age of at least 35 weeks to receive a single intramuscular injection of nirsevimab or placebo before the start of an RSV season. The primary efficacy end point was medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection through 150 days after the injection. The secondary efficacy end point was hospitalization for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection through 150 days after the injection. RESULTS: A total of 1490 infants underwent randomization: 994 were assigned to the nirsevimab group and 496 to the placebo group. Medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection occurred in 12 infants (1.2%) in the nirsevimab group and in 25 infants (5.0%) in the placebo group; these findings correspond to an efficacy of 74.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.6 to 87.1; P<0.001) for nirsevimab. Hospitalization for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection occurred in 6 infants (0.6%) in the nirsevimab group and in 8 infants (1.6%) in the placebo group (efficacy, 62.1%; 95% CI, -8.6 to 86.8; P = 0.07). Among infants with data available to day 361, antidrug antibodies after baseline were detected in 58 of 951 (6.1%) in the nirsevimab group and in 5 of 473 (1.1%) in the placebo group. Serious adverse events were reported in 67 of 987 infants (6.8%) who received nirsevimab and in 36 of 491 infants (7.3%) who received placebo. CONCLUSIONS: A single injection of nirsevimab administered before the RSV season protected healthy late-preterm and term infants from medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection. (Funded by MedImmune/AstraZeneca and Sanofi; MELODY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03979313.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Infant, Premature, Diseases/prevention & control , Infant, Premature , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Injections, Intramuscular , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male
2.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1540-1549, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718400

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in elderly patients is more aggressive and treatments have shown limited efficacy. Our objective is to describe the clinical course and to analyze the prognostic factors associated with a higher risk of mortality of a cohort of patients older than 80 years. In addition, we assess the efficacy of immunosuppressive treatments in this population. We analyzed the data from 163 patients older than 80 years admitted to our institution for COVID-19, during March and April 2020. A Lasso regression model and subsequent multivariate Cox regression were performed to select variables predictive of death. We evaluated the efficacy of immunomodulatory therapy in three cohorts using adjusted survival analysis. The mortality rate was 43%. The mean age was 85.2 years. The disease was considered severe in 76.1% of the cases. Lasso regression and multivariate Cox regression indicated that factors correlated with hospital mortality were: age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.22), alcohol consumption (HR 3.15, 95% CI: 1.27-7.84), CRP > 10 mg/dL (HR 2.67, 95% CI: 1.36-5.24), and oxygen support with Venturi Mask (HR 6.37, 95% CI: 2.18-18.62) or reservoir (HR 7.87, 95% CI: 3.37-18.38). Previous treatment with antiplatelets was the only protective factor (HR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23-0.96). In the adjusted treatment efficacy analysis, we found benefit in the combined use of tocilizumab (TCZ) and corticosteroids (CS) (HR 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01-0.74) compared to standard treatment, with no benefit of CS alone (HR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.53-1.71). Hospitalized elderly patients suffer from a severe and often fatal form of COVID-19 disease. In this regard, several parameters might identify high-risk patients upon admission. Combined use of TCZ and CS could improve survival.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Analysis
3.
JAMA ; 327(5): 432-441, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694857

ABSTRACT

Importance: Easy-to-administer anti-SARS-CoV-2 treatments may be used to prevent progression from asymptomatic infection to symptomatic disease and to reduce viral carriage. Objective: To evaluate the effect of combination subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab on progression from early asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection to symptomatic COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial of close household contacts of a SARS-CoV-2-infected index case at 112 sites in the US, Romania, and Moldova enrolled July 13, 2020-January 28, 2021; follow-up ended March 11, 2021. Asymptomatic individuals (aged ≥12 years) were eligible if identified within 96 hours of index case positive test collection. Results from 314 individuals positive on SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) testing are reported. Interventions: Individuals were randomized 1:1 to receive 1 dose of subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab, 1200 mg (600 mg of each; n = 158), or placebo (n = 156). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was the proportion of seronegative participants who developed symptomatic COVID-19 during the 28-day efficacy assessment period. The key secondary efficacy end points were the number of weeks of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection and the number of weeks of high viral load (>4 log10 copies/mL). Results: Among 314 randomized participants (mean age, 41.0 years; 51.6% women), 310 (99.7%) completed the efficacy assessment period; 204 were asymptomatic and seronegative at baseline and included in the primary efficacy analysis. Subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab, 1200 mg, significantly prevented progression to symptomatic disease (29/100 [29.0%] vs 44/104 [42.3%] with placebo; odds ratio, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.30-0.97]; P = .04; absolute risk difference, -13.3% [95% CI, -26.3% to -0.3%]). Casirivimab and imdevimab reduced the number of symptomatic weeks per 1000 participants (895.7 weeks vs 1637.4 weeks with placebo; P = .03), an approximately 5.6-day reduction in symptom duration per symptomatic participant. Treatment with casirivimab and imdevimab also reduced the number of high viral load weeks per 1000 participants (489.8 weeks vs 811.9 weeks with placebo; P = .001). The proportion of participants receiving casirivimab and imdevimab who had 1 or more treatment-emergent adverse event was 33.5% vs 48.1% for placebo, including events related (25.8% vs 39.7%) or not related (11.0% vs 16.0%) to COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: Among asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 RT-qPCR-positive individuals living with an infected household contact, treatment with subcutaneous casirivimab and imdevimab antibody combination vs placebo significantly reduced the incidence of symptomatic COVID-19 over 28 days. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04452318.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Disease Progression , Double-Blind Method , Drug Combinations , Female , Humans , Incidence , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Viral Load
5.
Lancet ; 397(10285): 1637-1645, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of tocilizumab in adult patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 with both hypoxia and systemic inflammation. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]), is assessing several possible treatments in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the UK. Those trial participants with hypoxia (oxygen saturation <92% on air or requiring oxygen therapy) and evidence of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein ≥75 mg/L) were eligible for random assignment in a 1:1 ratio to usual standard of care alone versus usual standard of care plus tocilizumab at a dose of 400 mg-800 mg (depending on weight) given intravenously. A second dose could be given 12-24 h later if the patient's condition had not improved. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with ISRCTN (50189673) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381936). FINDINGS: Between April 23, 2020, and Jan 24, 2021, 4116 adults of 21 550 patients enrolled into the RECOVERY trial were included in the assessment of tocilizumab, including 3385 (82%) patients receiving systemic corticosteroids. Overall, 621 (31%) of the 2022 patients allocated tocilizumab and 729 (35%) of the 2094 patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (rate ratio 0·85; 95% CI 0·76-0·94; p=0·0028). Consistent results were seen in all prespecified subgroups of patients, including those receiving systemic corticosteroids. Patients allocated to tocilizumab were more likely to be discharged from hospital within 28 days (57% vs 50%; rate ratio 1·22; 1·12-1·33; p<0·0001). Among those not receiving invasive mechanical ventilation at baseline, patients allocated tocilizumab were less likely to reach the composite endpoint of invasive mechanical ventilation or death (35% vs 42%; risk ratio 0·84; 95% CI 0·77-0·92; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: In hospitalised COVID-19 patients with hypoxia and systemic inflammation, tocilizumab improved survival and other clinical outcomes. These benefits were seen regardless of the amount of respiratory support and were additional to the benefits of systemic corticosteroids. FUNDING: UK Research and Innovation (Medical Research Council) and National Institute of Health Research.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261113, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637108

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Complement activation contributes to lung dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We assessed whether C5 blockade with eculizumab could improve disease outcome. METHODS: In this single-centre, academic, unblinded study two 900 mg eculizumab doses were added-on standard therapy in ten COVID-19 patients admitted from February 2020 to April 2020 and receiving Continuous-Positive-Airway-Pressure (CPAP) ventilator support from ≤24 hours. We compared their outcomes with those of 65 contemporary similar controls. Primary outcome was respiratory rate at one week of ventilator support. Secondary outcomes included the combined endpoint of mortality and discharge with chronic complications. RESULTS: Baseline characteristics of eculizumab-treated patients and controls were similar. At baseline, sC5b-9 levels, ex vivo C5b-9 and thrombi deposition were increased. Ex vivo tests normalised in eculizumab-treated patients, but not in controls. In eculizumab-treated patients respiratory rate decreased from 26.8±7.3 breaths/min at baseline to 20.3±3.8 and 18.0±4.8 breaths/min at one and two weeks, respectively (p<0.05 for both), but did not change in controls. Between-group changes differed significantly at both time-points (p<0.01). Changes in respiratory rate correlated with concomitant changes in ex vivo C5b-9 deposits at one (rs = 0.706, p = 0.010) and two (rs = 0.751, p = 0.032) weeks. Over a median (IQR) period of 47.0 (14.0-121.0) days, four eculizumab-treated patients died or had chronic complications versus 52 controls [HRCrude (95% CI): 0.26 (0.09-0.72), p = 0.010]. Between-group difference was significant even after adjustment for age, sex and baseline serum creatinine [HRAdjusted (95% CI): 0.30 (0.10-0.84), p = 0.023]. Six patients and 13 controls were discharged without complications [HRCrude (95% CI): 2.88 (1.08-7.70), p = 0.035]. Eculizumab was tolerated well. The main study limitations were the relatively small sample size and the non-randomised design. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe COVID-19, eculizumab safely improved respiratory dysfunction and decreased the combined endpoint of mortality and discharge with chronic complications. Findings need confirmation in randomised controlled trials.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Complement Membrane Attack Complex/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
7.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 317, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the safety and efficacy profile of tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be enriched. METHODS: In this open label, prospective study, we evaluated clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with COVID-19 and PaO2/FiO2 < 200 receiving tocilizumab plus usual care versus usual care alone. Tocilizumab was administered at the time point that PaO2/FiO2 < 200 was observed. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included time to discharge, change in PaO2/FiO2 at day 5 and change in WHO progression scale at day 10. FINDINGS: Overall, 114 patients were included in the analysis (tocilizumab plus usual care: 56, usual care: 58). Allocation to usual care was associated with significant increase in 28-day mortality compared to tocilizumab plus usual care [Cox proportional-hazards model: HR: 3.34, (95% CI: 1.21-9.30), (p = 0.02)]. There was not a statistically significant difference with regards to hospital discharge over the 28 day period for patients receiving tocilizumab compared to usual care [11.0 days (95% CI: 9.0 to 16.0) vs 14.0 days (95% CI: 10.0-24.0), HR: 1.32 (95% CI: 0.84-2.08), p = 0.21]. ΔPaO2/FiO2 at day 5 was significantly higher in the tocilizumab group compared to the usual care group [42.0 (95% CI: 23.0-84.7) vs 15.8 (95% CI: - 19.4-50.3), p = 0.03]. ΔWHO scale at day 10 was significantly lower in the tocilizumab group compared to the usual care group (-0.5 ± 2.1 vs 0.6 ± 2.6, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Administration of tocilizumab, at the time point that PaO2/FiO2 < 200 was observed, improved survival and other clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 irrespective of systemic inflammatory markers levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/trends , Patient Acuity , Administration, Intravenous , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
8.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(12): 1825-1832, 2021 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1630926

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Tocilizumab, can be used in the treatment of COVID-19 in patients developing cytokine storms. This study retrospectively evaluated patients treated with Tocilizumab. METHODOLOGY: This study included 23 patients (17 men) admitted to the hospital and received Tocilizumab due to cytokine storms. The patients were categorized into three groups: "moderate, severe, and critical". Clinical outcomes after 7 days of hospitalization were classified as "death, disease aggravation, clinical stabilization, and clinical improvement". RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 58±10.1 years. 52.2% of the patients were severely ill, and 47.8% were critically ill. After tocilizumab treatment, the mean lymphocyte count increased in all patients; the C-reactive protein levels dropped rapidly, except for one patient. After the first dose, the patients' fever dropped dramatically, and their oxygen support needs decreased. During the treatment, 82.6% of the patients were in the intensive care unit. At the end of the treatment, 56.5% had clinical improvement, 13% had clinical stabilization, and 4.3% had aggravation. Mortality occurred in 26.1%; 60.9% were discharged within a mean time of 19.14 ± 13.57 days after their treatment, and 18.2% of the critically ill and 91.7% of the severely ill patients recovered. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high rates of recovery and discharge after the tocilizumab treatment in the severely ill patients, more than half of the critically ill patients died. Early tocilizumab treatment resulted in a high survival rate and reduced the rates of progression to more critical states and mortality. Tocilizumab treatment should be given early in patients developing cytokine storms.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
10.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(2): 143-150, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Extended interval (EI) dosing for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) mono- or consolidation therapy initiated due to the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant reduction in ICI-related site visits for patients with stage III and IV non-small cell lung cancer. Here we report the safety and efficacy compared to standard dose (SD) schedules. METHOD: In this retrospective analysis, patients who received ICI mono- or consolidation therapy, or adjuvant ICI therapy were assessed. Safety and efficacy of EI dosing with data of SD schedules were compared. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients received EI dosing for ICI and 88 patients SD. Patient characteristics were comparable. We observed 237 adverse events in the EI dosing cohort versus 118 in the SD group (P= .02). Overall, there was no difference in the occurrence of grade ≥3 adverse events (EI dosing: 21/237 [8.9%]; SD group: 20/118 [17.0%], P = .42), except for the pembrolizumab EI dosing cohort. Of all patients who received an EI dosing schedule, however, only 8 (6.8%) were reduced to SD because of toxicity. In 5 (4.3%) patients ICI was permanently stopped because of severe toxicity compared to 11 (12.5%) discontinuations in the SD group. Short-term treatment interruption occurred with similar frequencies in both groups. Progression-free survival and overall survival were comparable in patients receiving pembrolizumab and in those receiving adjuvant durvalumab. Progression-free survival and OS were better in the EI dosing cohort of nivolumab. CONCLUSION: EI dosing for ICI did not lead to an increase of clinically relevant toxicities resulting in dose reduction and/or treatment discontinuation. Efficacy of EI dosing of pembrolizumab and durvalumab were comparable to SD. Based on our safety and efficacy data EI dosing for ICI seems a safe and effective strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Nivolumab/administration & dosage , Nivolumab/adverse effects , Progression-Free Survival , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211059675, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582485

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The fully-human monoclonal anti-interleukin (IL)-1ß antibody canakinumab may inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the hyperinflammatory response potentially leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. OBJECTIVES: The goal of our retrospective, observational analysis was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous (s.c.) canakinumab in combination with our standard of care (SOC) treatment of selected patients with COVID-19 with respiratory failure and elevated reactive pro-inflammatory markers. METHODS: Eight participants received two doses of s.c. canakinumab 150 mg (or 2 mg/kg for participants weighing ≤40 kg) in addition to SOC. 12 patients received only SOC treatment. RESULTS: Canakinumab treatment reduced the need for mechanical ventilation and reduced proinflammatory markers, resulting in an amelioration of the final outcome, with respect to the control group who received SOC alone. The treatment was safe and well tolerated; no adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION: The use of canakinumab (300 mg, s.c.) in the early stage of COVID-19 with mild-to-moderate respiratory failure was superior to SOC at preventing clinical deterioration and may warrant further investigation as a treatment option for patients with COVID-19 who experience a hyperinflammatory response in the early stage of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Interleukin-1beta , Respiration, Artificial , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Interleukin-1beta/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Immunologic/methods , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Selection , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time-to-Treatment
13.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1540-1549, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540142

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in elderly patients is more aggressive and treatments have shown limited efficacy. Our objective is to describe the clinical course and to analyze the prognostic factors associated with a higher risk of mortality of a cohort of patients older than 80 years. In addition, we assess the efficacy of immunosuppressive treatments in this population. We analyzed the data from 163 patients older than 80 years admitted to our institution for COVID-19, during March and April 2020. A Lasso regression model and subsequent multivariate Cox regression were performed to select variables predictive of death. We evaluated the efficacy of immunomodulatory therapy in three cohorts using adjusted survival analysis. The mortality rate was 43%. The mean age was 85.2 years. The disease was considered severe in 76.1% of the cases. Lasso regression and multivariate Cox regression indicated that factors correlated with hospital mortality were: age (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.22), alcohol consumption (HR 3.15, 95% CI: 1.27-7.84), CRP > 10 mg/dL (HR 2.67, 95% CI: 1.36-5.24), and oxygen support with Venturi Mask (HR 6.37, 95% CI: 2.18-18.62) or reservoir (HR 7.87, 95% CI: 3.37-18.38). Previous treatment with antiplatelets was the only protective factor (HR 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23-0.96). In the adjusted treatment efficacy analysis, we found benefit in the combined use of tocilizumab (TCZ) and corticosteroids (CS) (HR 0.09, 95% CI: 0.01-0.74) compared to standard treatment, with no benefit of CS alone (HR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.53-1.71). Hospitalized elderly patients suffer from a severe and often fatal form of COVID-19 disease. In this regard, several parameters might identify high-risk patients upon admission. Combined use of TCZ and CS could improve survival.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spain/epidemiology , Survival Analysis
14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 522-532, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537199

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated proinflammatory cytokines are associated with greater COVID-19 severity. We aimed to assess safety and efficacy of sarilumab, an interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor, in patients with severe (requiring supplemental oxygen by nasal cannula or face mask) or critical (requiring greater supplemental oxygen, mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal support) COVID-19. METHODS: We did a 60-day, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational phase 3 trial at 45 hospitals in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Russia, and Spain. We included adults (≥18 years) admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and pneumonia, who required oxygen supplementation or intensive care. Patients were randomly assigned (2:2:1 with permuted blocks of five) to receive intravenous sarilumab 400 mg, sarilumab 200 mg, or placebo. Patients, care providers, outcome assessors, and investigators remained masked to assigned intervention throughout the course of the study. The primary endpoint was time to clinical improvement of two or more points (seven point scale ranging from 1 [death] to 7 [discharged from hospital]) in the modified intention-to-treat population. The key secondary endpoint was proportion of patients alive at day 29. Safety outcomes included adverse events and laboratory assessments. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04327388; EudraCT, 2020-001162-12; and WHO, U1111-1249-6021. FINDINGS: Between March 28 and July 3, 2020, of 431 patients who were screened, 420 patients were randomly assigned and 416 received placebo (n=84 [20%]), sarilumab 200 mg (n=159 [38%]), or sarilumab 400 mg (n=173 [42%]). At day 29, no significant differences were seen in median time to an improvement of two or more points between placebo (12·0 days [95% CI 9·0 to 15·0]) and sarilumab 200 mg (10·0 days [9·0 to 12·0]; hazard ratio [HR] 1·03 [95% CI 0·75 to 1·40]; log-rank p=0·96) or sarilumab 400 mg (10·0 days [9·0 to 13·0]; HR 1·14 [95% CI 0·84 to 1·54]; log-rank p=0·34), or in proportions of patients alive (77 [92%] of 84 patients in the placebo group; 143 [90%] of 159 patients in the sarilumab 200 mg group; difference -1·7 [-9·3 to 5·8]; p=0·63 vs placebo; and 159 [92%] of 173 patients in the sarilumab 400 mg group; difference 0·2 [-6·9 to 7·4]; p=0·85 vs placebo). At day 29, there were numerical, non-significant survival differences between sarilumab 400 mg (88%) and placebo (79%; difference +8·9% [95% CI -7·7 to 25·5]; p=0·25) for patients who had critical disease. No unexpected safety signals were seen. The rates of treatment-emergent adverse events were 65% (55 of 84) in the placebo group, 65% (103 of 159) in the sarilumab 200 mg group, and 70% (121 of 173) in the sarilumab 400 mg group, and of those leading to death 11% (nine of 84) were in the placebo group, 11% (17 of 159) were in the sarilumab 200 mg group, and 10% (18 of 173) were in the sarilumab 400 mg group. INTERPRETATION: This trial did not show efficacy of sarilumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 and receiving supplemental oxygen. Adequately powered trials of targeted immunomodulatory therapies assessing survival as a primary endpoint are suggested in patients with critical COVID-19. FUNDING: Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , International Cooperation , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
15.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(5): 511-521, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Global randomised controlled trials of the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 have shown conflicting results but potential decreases in time to discharge and burden on intensive care. Tocilizumab reduced progression to mechanical ventilation and death in a trial population enriched for racial and ethnic minorities. We aimed to investigate whether tocilizumab treatment could prevent COVID-19 progression in the first multicentre randomised controlled trial of tocilizumab done entirely in a lower-middle-income country. METHODS: COVINTOC is an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial done at 12 public and private hospitals across India. Adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 (Indian Ministry of Health grading) confirmed by positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result were randomly assigned (1:1 block randomisation) to receive tocilizumab 6 mg/kg plus standard care (the tocilizumab group) or standard care alone (the standard care group). The primary endpoint was progression of COVID-19 (from moderate to severe or from severe to death) up to day 14 in the modified intention-to-treat population of all participants who had at least one post-baseline assessment for the primary endpoint. Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned patients. The trial is completed and registered with the Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI/2020/05/025369). FINDINGS: 180 patients were recruited between May 30, 2020, and Aug 31, 2020, and randomly assigned to the tocilizumab group (n=90) or the standard care group (n=90). One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group inadvertently received tocilizumab at baseline and was included in the tocilizumab group for all analyses. One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group withdrew consent after the baseline visit and did not receive any study medication and was not included in the modified intention-to-treat population but was still included in safety analyses. 75 (82%) of 91 in the tocilizumab group and 68 (76%) of 89 in the standard care group completed 28 days of follow-up. Progression of COVID-19 up to day 14 occurred in eight (9%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 11 (13%) of 88 in the standard care group (difference -3·71 [95% CI -18·23 to 11·19]; p=0·42). 33 (36%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 22 (25%) of 89 patients in the standard care group had adverse events; 18 (20%) and 15 (17%) had serious adverse events. The most common adverse event was acute respiratory distress syndrome, reported in seven (8%) patients in each group. Grade 3 adverse events were reported in two (2%) patients in the tocilizumab group and five (6%) patients in the standard care group. There were no grade 4 adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in 18 (20%) patients in the tocilizumab group and 15 (17%) in the standard care group; 13 (14%) and 15 (17%) patients died during the study. INTERPRETATION: Routine use of tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 is not supported. However, post-hoc evidence from this study suggests tocilizumab might still be effective in patients with severe COVID-19 and so should be investigated further in future studies. FUNDING: Medanta Institute of Education and Research, Roche India, Cipla India, and Action COVID-19 India.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Drug Monitoring/methods , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Immunologic Factors/adverse effects , India , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
17.
Inflamm Res ; 71(1): 39-56, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525531

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic created a worldwide debilitating health crisis with the entire humanity suffering from the deleterious effects associated with the high infectivity and mortality rates. While significant evidence is currently available online and targets various aspects of the disease, both inflammatory and noninflammatory kidney manifestations secondary to COVID-19 infection are still largely underrepresented. In this review, we summarized current knowledge about COVID-19-related kidney manifestations, their pathologic mechanisms as well as various pharmacotherapies used to treat patients with COVID-19. We also shed light on the effect of these medications on kidney functions that can further enhance renal damage secondary to the illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/physiopathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney/injuries , Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Aldosterone/metabolism , Angiotensins/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Autopsy , Biopsy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Enoxaparin/administration & dosage , Heparin/administration & dosage , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/administration & dosage , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Kidney Diseases/complications , Kidney Transplantation , Lopinavir/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Renal Replacement Therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 102: 108384, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521088

ABSTRACT

Tocilizumab decreases inflammatory response in the cytokine storm which is one of the mechanisms behind the development of ARDS in COVID-19 patients. The objective of our study was to determine response of tocilizumab in patients suffering from COVID-19 by analyzing clinical parameters and inflammatory markers. A single-arm observational retrospective study was conducted from March 15, 2020 to March 15, 2021. Clinical outcomes in terms of mortality, weaning from mechanical ventilator, improvement in laboratory parameters including inflammatory cytokines, and length of hospital stay were documented. Reduction in values of inflammatory markers, and patients discharged home in stable condition were defined as an improvement after tocilizumab administration. A total of 514 patients received tocilizumab, majority of whom were critically sick 333 (64.8%). Out of the total sample 363 (70.6%) patients were discharged home in stable condition. Overall mean length of stay was 11.50 ± 8.4 days. There was significant difference in length of stay of patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation as compared to those who were kept only on supplemental oxygen (p < 0.05). Patients who were discharged home showed significant improvement in inflammatory markers and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio as compared to those who expired (p < 0.05). A total of 21 (4.1%) patients had positive blood culture while 57 (11.1%) had positive culture of tracheal aspirate. Hence, tocilizumab is found to be a reasonable therapeutic option for worsening COVID-19 pneumonia by decreasing the need for mechanical ventilation. However, it is associated with adverse events including bacterial and fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Bacterial Infections/chemically induced , Bacterial Infections/immunology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Mycoses/chemically induced , Mycoses/immunology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
20.
Mol Cell Biol ; 42(1): e0046721, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494978

ABSTRACT

A subset of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, particularly the aged and those with comorbidities, develop the most severe form of the disease, characterized by acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), coincident with experiencing a "cytokine storm." Here, we demonstrate that cytokines which activate the NF-κB pathway can induce activin A. Patients with elevated activin A, activin B, and FLRG at hospital admission were associated with the most severe outcomes of COVID-19, including the requirement for mechanical ventilation, and all-cause mortality. A prior study showed that activin A could decrease viral load, which indicated there might be a risk to giving COVID-19 patients an inhibitor of activin. To evaluate this, the role for activin A was examined in a hamster model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, via blockade of activin A signaling. The hamster model demonstrated that use of an anti-activin A antibody did not worsen the disease and there was no evidence for increase in lung viral load and pathology. The study indicates blockade of activin signaling may be beneficial in treating COVID-19 patients experiencing ARDS.


Subject(s)
Activins/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Follistatin-Related Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cells, Cultured , Cricetinae , Double-Blind Method , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Survival Rate
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