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1.
Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis ; 32(7): 427-433, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233854

ABSTRACT

Immune thrombocytopenia is a haematological, autoimmune disorder characterized by elevated platelet demolition due to the presence of antiplatelet autoantibodies derived from B cells and to an irregular, deficient process of platelets production in bone marrow. In this review, after a brief presentation of 'old' strategies used nowadays yet, we focused on new drugs used in the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia and their mechanism of action and posology, basing on the last scientific literature. The observation that CoViD-19 can be associated with immune thrombocytopenia is also put in evidence. Particular attention will be dedicated on the concept that the ideal treatment should represent a solution not only for the failure of normal processes of production and survival of platelets, but also it should improve quality of life of patients, with minimum adverse events. Anyway, despite enormous advances of the last years, further investigations are necessary in order to define scrupulously long-term efficacy of new molecules proposed.


Subject(s)
Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/drug therapy , Aminopyridines/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Morpholines/therapeutic use , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/etiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/immunology , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , Receptors, Fc/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Thrombopoietin/agonists , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Syk Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors , Thiazoles/therapeutic use , Thiophenes/therapeutic use
3.
Inflamm Res ; 72(4): 875-878, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315746

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypereosinophilic dermatitis (HED) is a subtype of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). Glucocorticoids are preferred for treatment but carry substantial side effect profiles. Symptoms of HED may recur after systemic glucocorticoid tapering. As an interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4Rα) monoclonal antibody targeting interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-13 (IL-13), dupilumab might be an efficacious adjuvant therapy for HED. METHOD: We report a young male diagnosed with HED who suffered from erythematous papules with pruritus for over five years. Once reducing the dosage of glucocorticoid was, his skin lesions relapsed. RESULTS: After using dupilumab, the patient's condition significantly improved with the glucocorticoid dosing decreased successfully. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we report a new application of dupilumab in HED patients, especially with difficulties in reducing the glucocorticoid dose.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Atopic , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Male , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Dermatitis, Atopic/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Interleukin-13 , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 107(10): 2777-2783, 2022 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291794

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR) are rare, heritable renal phosphate-wasting disorders that arise from overexpression of the bone-derived phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) leading to impaired bone mineralization (rickets and osteomalacia). Inactivating mutations of Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) give rise to ARHR type 1 (ARHR1). Short stature, prominent bowing of the legs, fractures/pseudofractures, and severe enthesopathy are prominent in this patient population. Traditionally, treatment consists of oral phosphate replacement and the addition of calcitriol but this approach is limited by modest efficacy and potential renal and gastrointestinal side effects. OBJECTIVE: The advent of burosumab (Crysvita), a fully humanized monoclonal antibody to FGF23 for the treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia and tumor-induced osteomalacia, offers a unique opportunity to evaluate its safety and efficacy in patients with ARHR1. RESULTS: Monthly administration of burosumab to 2 brothers afflicted with the disorder resulted in normalization of serum phosphate, healing of pseudofracture, diminished fatigue, less bone pain, and reduced incapacity arising from the extensive enthesopathy and soft tissue fibrosis/calcification that characterizes this disorder. No adverse effects were reported following burosumab administration. CONCLUSION: The present report highlights the beneficial biochemical and clinical outcomes associated with the use of burosumab in patients with ARHR1.


Subject(s)
Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Enthesopathy , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets , Osteomalacia , Rickets, Hypophosphatemic , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Calcitriol/therapeutic use , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets/drug therapy , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets/genetics , Fibroblast Growth Factors/genetics , Fibroblast Growth Factors/metabolism , Hormones/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Osteomalacia/metabolism , Phosphates/metabolism , Rickets, Hypophosphatemic/drug therapy , Rickets, Hypophosphatemic/genetics
7.
Rev Med Virol ; 33(4): e2445, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291182

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic in 2020 with high patient mortality due to acute respiratory distress syndrome which is possibly induced by a Cytokine release syndrome and more specifically through an interleukin-6 (IL-6) booster. Currently, IL-6/IL-6R inhibitors indicated an effective function in reducing the inflammatory markers in severe COVID-19 patients. In this comprehensively narrative review, we searched online academic databases including (Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Pub Med), the relevant literature was extracted from the databases by using search terms of COVID-19, IL-6, and IL6 inhibitor as free-text words and also with the combination with OR/AND to summarise the latest discoveries on the inhibitors of IL-6 and its receptor's especially focussing on the role of natural product, Naringin (NAR) as a flavonoid found in citrus fruits, with considerable anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties in COVID-19 treatments. Our data Therefore in comparison with other synthetic monoclonal antibodies NAR may provide a good qualification for the development of novel anti-inflammatory agents, especially against Covid 19 based on recent studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Ann Neurol ; 89(4): 780-789, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2272603

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to assess the impact of immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies on the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). METHODS: We retrospectively collected data of PwMS with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. All the patients had complete follow-up to death or recovery. Severe COVID-19 was defined by a 3-level variable: mild disease not requiring hospitalization versus pneumonia or hospitalization versus intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death. We evaluated baseline characteristics and MS therapies associated with severe COVID-19 by multivariate and propensity score (PS)-weighted ordinal logistic models. Sensitivity analyses were run to confirm the results. RESULTS: Of 844 PwMS with suspected (n = 565) or confirmed (n = 279) COVID-19, 13 (1.54%) died; 11 of them were in a progressive MS phase, and 8 were without any therapy. Thirty-eight (4.5%) were admitted to an ICU; 99 (11.7%) had radiologically documented pneumonia; 96 (11.4%) were hospitalized. After adjusting for region, age, sex, progressive MS course, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration, body mass index, comorbidities, and recent methylprednisolone use, therapy with an anti-CD20 agent (ocrelizumab or rituximab) was significantly associated (odds ratio [OR] = 2.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18-4.74, p = 0.015) with increased risk of severe COVID-19. Recent use (<1 month) of methylprednisolone was also associated with a worse outcome (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 2.20-12.53, p = 0.001). Results were confirmed by the PS-weighted analysis and by all the sensitivity analyses. INTERPRETATION: This study showed an acceptable level of safety of therapies with a broad array of mechanisms of action. However, some specific elements of risk emerged. These will need to be considered while the COVID-19 pandemic persists. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:780-789.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Dimethyl Fumarate/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Interferons/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Natalizumab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
9.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 34(4): 747-754, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279573

ABSTRACT

Background: The quest for effective therapies in Covid-19 continues. We compared the outcome of severe COVID-19 patients treated with and without Tocilizumab, an IL-6 inhibitor. Methods: This is a prospective cohort study on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with Covid-19 patients admitted at The Indus Hospital and Health Network, Karachi between 24th March and 19th June 2020. Adult patients who received TCZ were compared with respect to mortality and days of hospitalization with those who did not. Results: A total of 88 patients including 41 patients in the TCZ group and 47 in non-TCZ group were recruited. Baseline demographic characteristics were comparable. TCZ group patients presented with worse clinical features including median SpO2 82% vs 88%, p<0.05 and CRP 193 vs 133.9 mg/L, p<0.05. Approximately, 85.4% were admitted in ICU compared to 69.8% in non-TCZ group, p>0.05. Mortality was not different among the groups (46% in TCZ group vs 51.1% in non-TCZ group, p>0.05). Median length of hospital stays, days of intubation, use of inotropic agents, and use of invasive ventilation or in-hospital complications were similar between the groups. Sub-group analysis revealed that mortality within TCZ group was associated with high IL-6 levels (173 vs 69.66 pg/ml, p<0.05), ICU admission (100% vs 72%, p<0.05), need for mechanical ventilation (100% vs 13.6%, p<0.05) and higher incidence of in-hospital complications, p<0.05. Conclusion: TCZ failed to demonstrate any mortality benefit in our patients. Non-survivors within the TCZ group were more critical compared to survivors and developed more in hospital complications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Interleukin-6 , Adult , Humans , Interleukin-6/analogs & derivatives , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use
10.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(4): 242-245, 2023 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286626

ABSTRACT

This retrospective analysis describes the administration of sotrovimab in 32 children (22 aged 12-16 years old; 10 aged 1-11 years old) who were at high risk of deterioration to severe COVID-19 disease. We provide dosing suggestions and demonstrate the feasibility of sotrovimab use in the younger pediatric population (<12 years old and <40 kg).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Child , Adolescent , Infant , Child, Preschool , Retrospective Studies , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing
11.
RMD Open ; 9(1)2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265330

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report the impact of continued burosumab treatment on clinical laboratory tests of efficacy, patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and ambulatory function in adults with X-linked hypophosphataemia who continued from a 96-week phase 3 study into a 48-week open-label extension. METHODS: Eligible participants from the phase 3 study continued on the burosumab regimen received at the end of the phase 3 study for a further 48 weeks (n=31). Some (not all) received compassionate burosumab treatment between the two studies (a period of 6-18 months). The primary efficacy outcome was fasting serum phosphate concentration; secondary outcomes were serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D concentration, renal phosphate reabsorption, PROs and ambulatory function. RESULTS: Improvements in fasting serum phosphate, serum 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D and renal phosphate reabsorption at 96 weeks were maintained through the 48-week extension. Improvements were also maintained in stiffness and physical function measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, pain and fatigue endpoints measuring using the Brief Pain Inventory short-form and Brief Pain Inventory, respectively, and in ambulatory function (6-Minute Walk Test).A post-hoc exploratory analysis exploring outcomes in participants who discontinued burosumab treatment between the studies (n=7) and those who received at least one dose (n=23) indicated that the benefits of burosumab on clinical laboratory tests of efficacy, PROs and ambulatory function may be lost when treatment is interrupted but recover over time when treatment is reinstated. CONCLUSION: Continued treatment with burosumab appears necessary for sustained clinical benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: Phase 3: NCT02526160; open-label extension: NCT03920072.


Subject(s)
Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets , Adult , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets/drug therapy , Pain , Phosphates
13.
Acta Med Port ; 36(5): 343-352, 2023 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236354

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: An out-of-season increase in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) incidence was observed in Portugal from June 2021 onwards, revealing a continuing surge in cases throughout 2021/2022 autumn/winter. We aimed to describe this out-of-season epidemic and define its epidemic period, by analysing RSV incidence from week 40 of 2020 (2020-W40) to week 18 of 2022 (2022-W18). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Surveillance data on weekly RSV laboratory confirmed cases, in Portugal, was used to monitor RSV incidence using CUSUM test methodology for count data. RESULTS: In 2021-W23, the CUSUM score identified a significant increase in the risk of RSV. By that time, the percentage of RSV positive tests rose from 1% in 2021-W22 (3/265) to 6% in 2021-W23 (18/298). Despite a sharp decrease in RSV incidence on 2021-W33 and on 2022-W02, the CUSUM score stayed over the limit up to 2022-W07, indicating that the RSV activity remained at an epidemic level. Distinct peaks of RSV cases were observed between 2021-W30 and 2021-W32 (average of 77 RSV cases per week) and between 2021-W39 and 2021-W41 (average of 79 RSV cases per week) with positivity rates around 60%. CONCLUSION: An out-of-season RSV epidemic was identified, with a longer epidemic period compared with previous seasons. Possible reasons include relaxation of COVID-19 physical distancing measures and a greater proportion of population susceptible to disease. As several factors may change the pattern of RSV activity, countries should implement year-round surveillance RSV surveillance systems. These findings might have an impact on public health planning regarding future RSV surges, namely, on the palivizumab prophylaxis period for high-risk infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Infant , Humans , Child , Seasons , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Portugal/epidemiology
14.
Viruses ; 15(1)2022 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228974

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are largely used to prevent the progression of the disease by blocking viral attachment, host cell entry, and infectivity. Sotrovimab, like other available mAbs, has been developed against the receptor binding Domain of the Spike (S) glycoprotein of the virus. Nevertheless, the latest Omicron variant has shown marked mutations within the S gene, thus opening the question of the efficacy of these neutralizing molecules towards this novel variant. In the present observational study, we describe the effects of Sotrovimab in the treatment of 15 fully vaccinated patients, infected by SARS-CoV-2 Omicron sub-variants, who were selected on the basis of factors widely considered to affect a worse prognosis: immune suppression (n = 12) and/or chronic kidney disease (n = 5) with evidence of interstitial pneumonia in nine patients. The effectiveness of Sotrovimab in the treatment of severe cases of COVID-19 was demonstrated by the regression of symptoms (mean 5.7 days), no need of hospitalisation, improvement of general health conditions and viral clearance within 30 days in all patients. In conclusion, although loss or reduction of mAbs neutralizing activity against the Omicron variant have been described, Sotrovimab has clinically proven to be a safe and useful treatment for patients with high risk of progression to severe COVID-19 infected by Omicron sub-variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
Intern Med ; 62(8): 1219-1222, 2023 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2224617

ABSTRACT

Omalizumab can cause hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of an 18-year-old woman with refractory cough-predominant asthma that correlated with allergic reactions caused by omalizumab and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine. The patient developed angioedema after taking omalizumab. She had previously experienced intense coughing immediately after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine. A skin prick test was positive for polysorbate 20, which was probably the cause of the allergic reactions to omalizumab and the COVID-19 vaccine. Clinicians should check for an allergic reaction, irrespective of its intensity, triggered by polysorbate and be careful when prescribing biologics to patients in order to avoid allergic reactions.


Subject(s)
Angioedema , Anti-Allergic Agents , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Omalizumab , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Angioedema/chemically induced , Anti-Allergic Agents/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Omalizumab/adverse effects , Polysorbates/therapeutic use
16.
Muscle Nerve ; 62(2): 254-258, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209145

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a global pandemic, but little is known about its potential impact on patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). METHODS: We studied the clinical course of COVID-19 in five hospitalized patients with autoimmune MG (four with acetylcholine receptor antibodies, one with muscle-specific tyrosine kinase antibodies) between April 1, 2020-April 30-2020. RESULTS: Two patients required intubation for hypoxemic respiratory failure, whereas one required significant supplemental oxygen. One patient with previously stable MG had myasthenic exacerbation. One patient treated with tocilizumab for COVID-19 was successfully extubated. Two patients were treated for MG with intravenous immunoglobulin without thromboembolic complications. DISCUSSION: Our findings suggest that the clinical course and outcomes in patients with MG and COVID-19 are highly variable. Further large studies are needed to define best practices and determinants of outcomes in this unique population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Hypoxia/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Myasthenia Gravis/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/etiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intubation, Intratracheal , Male , Middle Aged , Myasthenia Gravis/complications , Myasthenia Gravis/immunology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/immunology , Receptors, Cholinergic/immunology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
18.
In Vivo ; 37(1): 461-467, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Anti-CD20-depleting monoclonal antibodies predispose patients to the development of severe disease of SARS-CoV-2 infection. These antibodies are given as backbone or maintenance therapy in patients with hematological malignancies and rheumatology diseases, inducing effective B-cell depletion along with antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and disrupting infection-protective antibody responses. CASE REPORT: We describe two cases of prolonged SARS-CoV-2 infection with common features, in two patients receiving anti-CD20 therapies, the first for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and the second for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). For CLL patient, despite administration of antiviral therapy, signs and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection persisted for 43 days, with resolution and lymphocyte recovery from day 33. For RA patient, despite administration of two courses of antiviral therapy, signs and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection persisted for 47 days, without resolution and lymphocyte recovery, leading to a fatal outcome due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and unspecified sepsis. CONCLUSION: These two cases highlight the risk for persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and support a role for cellular immunity recovery for disease control.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 75(11-12): 411-417, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204469

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: We know that treatment algorithms have changed in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) practice during the pandemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether there was a change in the patient population for ocrelizumab (OCR) treatment during the pandemic period, the treatment compliance of the patients, and the course of the Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) disease in the patients who received OCR. Methods: Our study was designed as a survey study. A questionnaire was sent to the patients assessing whether they had COVID-19 infection, whether they received treatments regularly before and after the pandemic, vaccination status and duration of OCR treatment. Demographic characteristics of the patients, treatments they used before, MS type, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores were determined from the database. Each group of OCR started before pandemic and OCR started after pandemic were compared. Results: We included into the study 86 patients who started OCR before pandemic period and 75 patients who started OCR after the pandemic. Demographic features were similar. EDSS scores were higher in the group that started OCR treatment before the pandemic (p<0.0001). The patients who started OCR treatment before the pandemic had more disruptions than which started during the pandemic (p<0.0001). No correlation was found between the duration of OCR treatment and COVID-19 infection (p=0.940). We observed that the patients who had severe COVID-19 infection had received OCR therapy for a longer period. Conclusion: This retrospective study concluded that the OCR treatment approach in our center had changed during the pandemic period. OCR therapy was started in patients with less disability. The possible reasons for this situation include the proven relationship between high EDSS and serious COVID-19 infection, and that the patients who have higher EDSS score had troubles in reaching health institutions during the pandemic. The result that patients with severe COVID-19 infection received OCR treatment for a longer period necessitates more evidence-based research to investigate the relationship between treatment duration and disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology
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