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1.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 36(4): 735-748, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095433

ABSTRACT

Both cytokine release syndrome (CRS) and sepsis are clinical syndromes rather than distinct diseases and share considerable overlap. It can often be challenging to distinguish between the two, but it is important given the availability of targeted treatment options. In addition, several other clinical syndromes overlap with CRS and sepsis, further making it difficult to differentiate them. This has particularly been highlighted in the recent coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic. As we start to understand the differences in the inflammatory markers and presentations in these syndromes, hopefully we will be able to enhance treatment and improve outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6 , Sepsis/drug therapy
2.
Ter Arkh ; 94(8): 1028-1035, 2022 Oct 12.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091506

ABSTRACT

The Advisory Board chaired by the chief specialist in infectious diseases of the Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, Professor V.P. Chulanov was held on June 18, 2022 in Saint Petersburg. Aim. The main purpose of the Board was following discussion: the analysis of the real-world data of levilimab as an anticipatory therapy for COVID-19 in hospitalized patients; the review of the experience and perspectives of levilimab as an anticipatory anti-inflammatory option for outpatient patients who meet defined clinical and laboratory criteria. Results. The analyzed data on clinical efficacy and safety formed the basis of recommendations proposed by experts for the use of levilimab in the inpatient and outpatient medical care for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Receptors, Interleukin-6
3.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(11): 1906-1917, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087227

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mutations that cause resistance to monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy have been reported. However, it remains unclear whether in vivo emergence of SARS-CoV-2 resistance mutations alters viral replication dynamics or therapeutic efficacy in the immune-competent population. As part of the ACTIV-2/A5401 randomized clinical trial (NCT04518410), non-hospitalized participants with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were given bamlanivimab (700 mg or 7,000 mg) or placebo treatment. Here¸ we report that treatment-emergent resistance mutations [detected through targeted Spike (S) gene next-generation sequencing] were significantly more likely to be detected after bamlanivimab 700 mg treatment compared with the placebo group (7% of 111 vs 0% of 112 participants, P = 0.003). No treatment-emergent resistance mutations among the 48 participants who received 7,000 mg bamlanivimab were recorded. Participants in which emerging mAb resistant virus mutations were identified showed significantly higher pretreatment nasopharyngeal and anterior nasal viral loads. Daily respiratory tract viral sampling through study day 14 showed the dynamic nature of in vivo SARS-CoV-2 infection and indicated a rapid and sustained viral rebound after the emergence of resistance mutations. Participants with emerging bamlanivimab resistance often accumulated additional polymorphisms found in current variants of concern/interest that are associated with immune escape. These results highlight the potential for rapid emergence of resistance during mAb monotherapy treatment that results in prolonged high-level respiratory tract viral loads. Assessment of viral resistance should be prioritized during the development and clinical implementation of antiviral treatments for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Mutation , Antibodies, Monoclonal
4.
Future Oncol ; 18(10): 1185-1198, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065335

ABSTRACT

Cabozantinib inhibits multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, including the TAM kinase family, and may enhance response to immune checkpoint inhibitors. One cohort of the ongoing phase Ib COSMIC-021 study (NCT03170960) evaluating cabozantinib plus the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) that has progressed in soft tissue on/after enzalutamide and/or abiraterone treatment for metastatic disease has shown promising efficacy. Here, we describe the rationale and design of a phase III trial of cabozantinib plus atezolizumab versus a second novel hormone therapy (NHT) in patients who have previously received an NHT for mCRPC, metastatic castration-sensitive PC or nonmetastatic CRPC and have measurable visceral disease and/or extrapelvic adenopathy - a population with a significant unmet need for treatment options. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registration: NCT04446117 (ClinicalTrials.gov) Registered on 24 June 2020.


Subject(s)
Adenocarcinoma/drug therapy , Anilides/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/drug therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Adenocarcinoma/pathology , Androstenes/therapeutic use , Benzamides/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Phenylthiohydantoin/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms, Castration-Resistant/pathology , Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
5.
Crit Care Med ; 50(12): 1788-1798, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063013

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe COVID-19 is associated with exaggerated complement activation. We assessed the efficacy and safety of avdoralimab (an anti-C5aR1 mAb) in severe COVID-19. DESIGN: FOR COVID Elimination (FORCE) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Twelve clinical sites in France (ICU and general hospitals). PATIENTS: Patients receiving greater than or equal to 5 L oxygen/min to maintain Sp o2 greater than 93% (World Health Organization scale ≥ 5). Patients received conventional oxygen therapy or high-flow oxygen (HFO)/noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in cohort 1; HFO, NIV, or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in cohort 2; and IMV in cohort 3. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive avdoralimab or placebo. The primary outcome was clinical status on the World Health Organization ordinal scale at days 14 and 28 for cohorts 1 and 3, and the number of ventilator-free days at day 28 (VFD28) for cohort 2. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We randomized 207 patients: 99 in cohort 1, 49 in cohort 2, and 59 in cohort 3. During hospitalization, 95% of patients received glucocorticoids. Avdoralimab did not improve World Health Organization clinical scale score on days 14 and 28 (between-group difference on day 28 of -0.26 (95% CI, -1.2 to 0.7; p = 0.7) in cohort 1 and -0.28 (95% CI, -1.8 to 1.2; p = 0.6) in cohort 3). Avdoralimab did not improve VFD28 in cohort 2 (between-group difference of -6.3 (95% CI, -13.2 to 0.7; p = 0.96) or secondary outcomes in any cohort. No subgroup of interest was identified. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized trial in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, avdoralimab did not significantly improve clinical status at days 14 and 28 (funded by Innate Pharma, ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04371367).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Treatment Outcome
7.
N Engl J Med ; 387(6): 495-505, 2022 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Teclistamab is a T-cell-redirecting bispecific antibody that targets both CD3 expressed on the surface of T cells and B-cell maturation antigen expressed on the surface of myeloma cells. In the phase 1 dose-defining portion of the study, teclistamab showed promising efficacy in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this phase 1-2 study, we enrolled patients who had relapsed or refractory myeloma after at least three therapy lines, including triple-class exposure to an immunomodulatory drug, a proteasome inhibitor, and an anti-CD38 antibody. Patients received a weekly subcutaneous injection of teclistamab (at a dose of 1.5 mg per kilogram of body weight) after receiving step-up doses of 0.06 mg and 0.3 mg per kilogram. The primary end point was the overall response (partial response or better). RESULTS: Among 165 patients who received teclistamab, 77.6% had triple-class refractory disease (median, five previous therapy lines). With a median follow-up of 14.1 months, the overall response rate was 63.0%, with 65 patients (39.4%) having a complete response or better. A total of 44 patients (26.7%) were found to have no minimal residual disease (MRD); the MRD-negativity rate among the patients with a complete response or better was 46%. The median duration of response was 18.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.9 to not estimable). The median duration of progression-free survival was 11.3 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 17.1). Common adverse events included cytokine release syndrome (in 72.1% of the patients; grade 3, 0.6%; no grade 4), neutropenia (in 70.9%; grade 3 or 4, 64.2%), anemia (in 52.1%; grade 3 or 4, 37.0%), and thrombocytopenia (in 40.0%; grade 3 or 4, 21.2%). Infections were frequent (in 76.4%; grade 3 or 4, 44.8%). Neurotoxic events occurred in 24 patients (14.5%), including immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome in 5 patients (3.0%; all grade 1 or 2). CONCLUSIONS: Teclistamab resulted in a high rate of deep and durable response in patients with triple-class-exposed relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Cytopenias and infections were common; toxic effects that were consistent with T-cell redirection were mostly grade 1 or 2. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; MajesTEC-1 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT03145181 and NCT04557098.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , B-Cell Maturation Antigen , CD3 Complex , Multiple Myeloma , Antibodies, Bispecific/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Bispecific/adverse effects , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , B-Cell Maturation Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , CD3 Complex/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Recurrence , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
9.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(4): e13901, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) are at high-risk for severe infection from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Anti-spike monoclonal antibodies are currently utilized under emergency use authorization to prevent hospitalization in high-risk individuals with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), including SOTRs. However, clinical data for bebtelovimab, the sole currently available anti-spike monoclonal antibody for COVID-19, is limited. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adult SOTRs diagnosed with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 from January 2022 through May 2022 who received either bebtelovimab or sotrovimab. The primary outcome was COVID-19-related hospitalization within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis. Data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Among 361 SOTRs, 92 (25.5%) received bebtelovimab and 269 (74.5%) received sotrovimab. The most common organ transplant was a kidney (42.4%). SOTRs who received bebtelovimab had a higher proportion who had received a booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccine dose and had received their last vaccination dose more recently. Eleven (3.0%) SOTRs were hospitalized, and rates of hospitalization were similar between monoclonal antibody groups (3.3% versus 3.0%; p > .99). Three patients required admission to an intensive care unit, all of who received sotrovimab. Four (1.1%) patients died within 30 days of COVID-19 diagnosis, two from each group. CONCLUSIONS: SOTRs with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 who received bebtelovimab had similar rates of COVID-19-related hospitalization as those who received sotrovimab. While differences in vaccination rates and viral subvariants could act as confounders, bebtelovimab appears to be of similar effectiveness as sotrovimab.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
10.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 119(19): 342-349, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002483

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the purposes of outpatient treatment for COVID-19 patients is to prevent severe disease courses and hospitalization. There is a need for evidence-based recommendations to be applied in primary care and specialized outpatient settings. METHODS: This guideline was developed on the basis of publications that were retrieved by a systematic search for randomized controlled trials in the Cochrane COVID-19 trial registry. The quality of evidence was assessed with GRADE, and structured consensus generation was carried out with MAGICapp. RESULTS: Unvaccinated COVID-19 outpatients with at least one risk factor for a severe disease course may be treated in the early phase of the disease with sotrovimab, remdesivir, or nirmatrelvir/ritonavir. Molnupiravir may also be used for such patients if no other clinically appropriate treatment options are available. Immunosuppressed persons with COVID-19 who are at high risk, and whose response to vaccination is expected to be reduced, ought to be treated with sotrovimab. It should be noted, however, that the clinical efficacy of sotrovimab against infections with the omicron subtype BA.2 is uncertain at the currently used dose, as the drug has displayed reduced activity against this subtype in vitro. COVID-19 patients at risk of a severe course may be offered budesonide inhalation, according to an off-label recommendation of the German College of General Practitioners and Family Physicians (other medical societies do not recommend either for or against this treatment). Thrombo - embolism prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin may be given to elderly patients or those with a pre-existing illness. No recommendation is made concerning fluvoxamine or colchicine. Acetylsalicylic acid, azithromycin, ivermectin, systemic steroids, and vitamin D should not be used for the outpatient treatment of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Drug treatment is now available for outpatients with COVID-19 in the early phase. Nearly all of the relevant trials have been conducted in unvaccinated subjects; this needs to be kept in mind in patient selection.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , COVID-19 , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Treatment Outcome
11.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 18(2): 105-114, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978089

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In recent years, different studies have highlighted the importance of B cells in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS): they secrete cytokines to modulate the inflammatory environment, present antigens for the activation of T lymphocytes, and they secrete antibodies contributing to the destruction of the myelin sheath. Combined, these findings have lead to new possible means for treating MS. AREAS COVERED: In this review, we provide an up-to-date overview of the characteristics of ofatumumab (aka Kesimpta), and the differences between this drug and the other anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies used to treat MS. EXPERT OPINION: The evolution of disease-modifying treatment algorithms in MS underlines the importance of starting treatment as soon as the diagnosis is defined, and with adequate 'treatment intensity.' Monoclonal antibodies and other aggressive treatments are now considered as an option at the clinical presentation of the disease, based to the prognostic profile emerging through clinical and paraclinical investigations. The recent adoption of new diagnostic criteria allows for the early diagnosis of MS. This, together with the availability of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs), such as ofatumumab, with a good efficacy/safety profile and which are easy to administer, could contribute to significant improvements in the long-term prognosis of MS.


Subject(s)
Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy
13.
N Engl J Med ; 387(5): 408-420, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aggregated α-synuclein plays an important role in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Cinpanemab, a human-derived monoclonal antibody that binds to α-synuclein, is being evaluated as a disease-modifying treatment for Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a 52-week, multicenter, double-blind, phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1:2:2 ratio, participants with early Parkinson's disease to receive intravenous infusions of placebo (control) or cinpanemab at a dose of 250 mg, 1250 mg, or 3500 mg every 4 weeks, followed by an active-treatment dose-blinded extension period for up to 112 weeks. The primary end points were the changes from baseline in the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) total score (range, 0 to 236, with higher scores indicating worse performance) at weeks 52 and 72. Secondary end points included MDS-UPDRS subscale scores and striatal binding as assessed on dopamine transporter single-photon-emission computed tomography (DaT-SPECT). RESULTS: Of the 357 enrolled participants, 100 were assigned to the control group, 55 to the 250-mg cinpanemab group, 102 to the 1250-mg group, and 100 to the 3500-mg group. The trial was stopped after the week 72 interim analysis owing to lack of efficacy. The change to week 52 in the MDS-UPDRS score was 10.8 points in the control group, 10.5 points in the 250-mg group, 11.3 points in the 1250-mg group, and 10.9 points in the 3500-mg group (adjusted mean difference vs. control, -0.3 points [95% confidence interval {CI}, -4.9 to 4.3], P = 0.90; 0.5 points [95% CI, -3.3 to 4.3], P = 0.80; and 0.1 point [95% CI, -3.8 to 4.0], P = 0.97, respectively). The adjusted mean difference at 72 weeks between participants who received cinpanemab through 72 weeks and the pooled group of those who started cinpanemab at 52 weeks was -0.9 points (95% CI, -5.6 to 3.8) for the 250-mg dose, 0.6 points (95% CI, -3.3 to 4.4) for the 1250-mg dose, and -0.8 points (95% CI, -4.6 to 3.0) for the 3500-mg dose. Results for secondary end points were similar to those for the primary end points. DaT-SPECT imaging at week 52 showed no differences between the control group and any cinpanemab group. The most common adverse events with cinpanemab were headache, nasopharyngitis, and falls. CONCLUSIONS: In participants with early Parkinson's disease, the effects of cinpanemab on clinical measures of disease progression and changes in DaT-SPECT imaging did not differ from those of placebo over a 52-week period. (Funded by Biogen; SPARK ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03318523.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiparkinson Agents , Parkinson Disease , alpha-Synuclein , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiparkinson Agents/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , alpha-Synuclein/immunology
14.
Br J Haematol ; 198(2): 391-396, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968068

ABSTRACT

Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can be used to treat immune thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (iTTP) during acute presentation or disease relapse. Undesirable side-effects include severe hypersensitivity reactions, particularly anaphylaxis and rituximab-induced serum sickness, with a minority not maintaining a response to treatment. Alternative humanised anti-CD20 treatments, obinutuzumab and ofatumumab, have been used. A review of the UK TTP Registry showed 15 patients received these drugs over 26 treatment episodes (eight obinutuzumab and 18 ofatumumab). Indications for alternative anti-CD20 treatment were severe infusion-related reactions, acute rituximab-induced serum sickness and a short duration of disease remission. All patients achieved disease remission (ADAMTS13 [A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13] activity ≥30 iu/dl) after a median 15 days and 92% of episodes achieved complete remission (≥60 iu/dl). Seven patients required further treatment for disease relapse with a median relapse-free survival of 17.4 months. All patients continued to respond to re-treatment with the preceding drug when relapse occurred. There were four adverse events in 26 treatment episodes (15%) - two infections and two infusion reactions. These results suggest that obinutuzumab and ofatumumab may be considered as an alternative option to rituximab in the treatment of iTTP with a comparable safety profile, absence of significant hypersensitivity reactions and sustained normalisation of ADAMTS13.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic , ADAMTS13 Protein , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antigens, CD20 , Humans , Purpura, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic/drug therapy , Recurrence , Rituximab/adverse effects , Serum Sickness/chemically induced
15.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(6)2022 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964025

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: One of the most serious clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The aim is to analyze pharmacological treatment, survival and the main mortality predictors. Materials and Methods: A real-world data study from COVID-19-hospitalized patients with SARS from 1 March to 31 May 2020 has been carried out. Variables such as hospital length of stay, ventilation type and clinical outcomes have been taken into account. Results: In Castile and Leon, 14.03% of the 7307 in-hospital COVID-19 patients developed SARS, with a mortality rate of 42.53%. SARS prevalence was doubled in males compared to females, and 78.54% had an age of 65 years or more. The most commonly used medicines were antibiotics (89.27%), antimalarials (68.1%) and corticosteroids (55.9%). Survival of patients developing SARS was lower compared to patients without this complication (12 vs. 13 days). The main death predictors were disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (OR: 13.87) and age (>65 years) (OR: 7.35). Conclusions: Patients older than 65 years who develop DIC have a higher probability of hospital death. Tocilizumab and steroids have been linked to a lower incidence of hospital death, being the main treatment for COVID-19 hospitalized patients with SARS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dacarbazine , Female , Humans , Male , Registries , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(655): eabn3041, 2022 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962063

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic evolves and vaccine rollout progresses, the availability and demand for monoclonal antibodies for the prevention and treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are also accelerating. This longitudinal serological study evaluated the magnitude and potency of the endogenous antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination in participants who first received a COVID-19 monoclonal antibody in a prevention study. Over the course of 6 months, serum samples were collected from a population of nursing home residents and staff enrolled in a clinical trial who were randomized to either bamlanivimab treatment or placebo. In an unplanned component of this trial, a subset of these participants was subsequently fully vaccinated with two doses of either SpikeVax (Moderna) or Comirnaty (BioNTech/Pfizer) COVID-19 mRNA vaccines. This post hoc analysis assessed the immune response to vaccination for 135 participants without prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibody titers and potency were assessed using three assays against SARS-CoV-2 proteins that bamlanivimab does not efficiently bind to, thereby reflecting the endogenous antibody response. All bamlanivimab and placebo recipients mounted a robust immune response to full COVID-19 vaccination, irrespective of age, risk category, and vaccine type with any observed differences of uncertain clinical importance. These findings are pertinent for informing public health policy with results that suggest that the benefit of receiving COVID-19 vaccination at the earliest opportunity outweighs the minimal effect on the endogenous immune response due to prior prophylactic COVID-19 monoclonal antibody infusion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2200592119, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960616

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant contains extensive sequence changes relative to the earlier-arising B.1, B.1.1, and Delta SARS-CoV-2 variants that have unknown effects on viral infectivity and response to existing vaccines. Using SARS-CoV-2 virus-like particles (VLPs), we examined mutations in all four structural proteins and found that Omicron and Delta showed 4.6-fold higher luciferase delivery overall relative to the ancestral B.1 lineage, a property conferred mostly by enhancements in the S and N proteins, while mutations in M and E were mostly detrimental to assembly. Thirty-eight antisera samples from individuals vaccinated with Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna, or Johnson & Johnson vaccines and convalescent sera from unvaccinated COVID-19 survivors had 15-fold lower efficacy to prevent cell transduction by VLPs containing the Omicron mutations relative to the ancestral B.1 spike protein. A third dose of Pfizer vaccine elicited substantially higher neutralization titers against Omicron, resulting in detectable neutralizing antibodies in eight out of eight subjects compared to one out of eight preboosting. Furthermore, the monoclonal antibody therapeutics casirivimab and imdevimab had robust neutralization activity against B.1 and Delta VLPs but no detectable neutralization of Omicron VLPs, while newly authorized bebtelovimab maintained robust neutralization across variants. Our results suggest that Omicron has similar assembly efficiency and cell entry compared to Delta and that its rapid spread is due mostly to reduced neutralization in sera from previously vaccinated subjects. In addition, most currently available monoclonal antibodies will not be useful in treating Omicron-infected patients with the exception of bebtelovimab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
19.
Dermatol Ther ; 35(7): e15524, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956743

ABSTRACT

Recent knowledge on the key role of interleukin (IL) 23/17 axis in psoriasis pathogenesis, led to development of new biologic drugs. Risankizumab is a humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody specifically targeting IL23. Its efficacy and safety were showed by both clinical trials and real-life experiences. However, real-life data on effectiveness and safety of risankizumab in patients who previously failed anti-IL17 are scant. To assess the efficacy and safety of risankizumab in patients who previously failed anti-IL17. A 52-week real-life retrospective study was performed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of risankizumab in patients who previously failed anti-IL17. A total of 39 patients (26 male, 66.7%; mean age 50.5 ± 13.7 years) were enrolled. A statistically significant reduction of psoriasis area severity index (PASI) and body surface area (BSA) was assessed at each follow-up (PASI at baseline vs. week 52: 13.7 ± 5.8 vs. 0.9 ± 0.8, p < 0.0001; BSA 21.9 ± 14.6 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7, p < 0.0001). Nail psoriasis severity index improved as well, being statistically significative only at week 16 and thereafter [9.3 ± 4.7 at baseline, 4.1 ± 2.4 (p < 0.01) at week 16, 1.4 ± 0.8 (p < 0.0001) at week 52]. Treatment was discontinued for primary and secondary inefficacy in 1(2.6%) and 3(7.7%) patients, respectively. No cases of serious adverse events were assessed. Our real-life study confirmed the efficacy and safety of risankizumab, suggesting it as a valuable therapeutic weapon among the armamentarium of biologics, also in psoriasis patients who previously failed anti-IL17 treatments.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Psoriasis , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Interleukin-23 , Male , Middle Aged , Psoriasis/chemically induced , Psoriasis/diagnosis , Psoriasis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
20.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 140(5): 627-635, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause cytokine release syndrome (CRS), which leads to high mortality rates. Tocilizumab suppresses CRS by blocking the signal transduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical and laboratory parameters associated with mortality among patients receiving tocilizumab treatment. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective observational study conducted in the chest disease departments of two different training and research hospitals in the center of Ankara, Turkey. METHODS: Patients who were hospitalized and treated with tocilizumab in September 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Their laboratory parameters and clinical characteristics were obtained from the hospital information system database. Comparative analyses were performed between the patients who died and the ones who survived. RESULTS: A total of 58 patients who received tocilizumab treatment were included in this study, among whom 35 (60.3%) died. There was no difference between the mortality and survival groups in terms of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, ferritin or C-reactive protein (CRP) levels detected on admission. WBC, lymphocyte, neutrophil and CRP levels measured on the third and fifth days after tocilizumab administration were found to be significantly lower in the survival group (P < 0.05). In multiple logistic regression analysis, age and oxygen saturation were determined to be independent risk factors for mortality. CONCLUSION: Persistently high WBC, CRP and neutrophil levels and low lymphocyte levels could be considered to be valuable indicators of mortality among COVID-19 patients treated with tocilizumab. Age and low oxygen saturation are independent risk factors for mortality among patients receiving tocilizumab treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Leukocyte Count , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
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