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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(5): 2222-2229, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777590

ABSTRACT

To assess the clinical efficacy and safety of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mABs) for outpatients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) databases were searched from inception to July 19, 2021. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of neutralizing mABs in the treatment of COVID-19 outpatients were included. The Cochrane risk-of-bias tool was used to assess the quality of the included RCTs. The primary outcome was the risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization or emergency department (ED) visits. The secondary outcomes were the risk of death and adverse events (AEs). Five articles were included, in which 3309 patients received neutralizing mAB and 2397 patients received a placebo. A significantly lower rate of hospitalization or ED visits was observed among patients who received neutralizing mABs than those who received a placebo (1.7% vs. 6.5%, odds ratios (OR): 0.26; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.19-0.36; I2 = 0%). In addition, the rate of hospitalization was significantly lower in the patients who received neutralizing mABs than in the control group (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.17-0.34; I2 = 0%). The mortality rate was also significantly lower in the patients who received neutralizing mABs than in the control group (OR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.05-0.58; I2 = 3%). Neutralizing mABs were associated with a similar risk of any AE (OR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.64-1.01; I2 = 52%) and a lower risk of serious AEs (OR: 0.37; 97% CI: 0.19-0.72; I2 = 45%) compared with a placebo. Neutralizing mABs can help reduce the risk of hospitalization or ED visits in COVID-19 outpatients. For these patients, neutralizing mABs are safe and not associated with a higher risk of AEs than a placebo.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Outpatients , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 172: 103623, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748099

ABSTRACT

Daratumumab is approved for newly diagnosed or relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM). The use of daratumumab has improved patient outcomes but has changed the frequency and epidemiology of infections. However, the optimal approach to prophylaxis and supportive therapy for daratumumab-emergent infections is unknown and represents an unmet clinical need in MM. Consequently, an expert panel convened to compose recommendations for optimal infection control in patient candidates to or under daratumumab treatment for MM. Scientific evidence on infections secondary to daratumumab was evaluated, and a consensus was developed by group discussion for key questions selected according to the clinical relevance. The following key issues were addressed: infectious risk assessment and risk stratification, infection mitigation strategies, and management of infectious complications in patients with MM treated with daratumumab.


Subject(s)
Multiple Myeloma , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , Consensus , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy
6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(3): 368-372, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672301

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe outcomes associated with monoclonal antibody use in pregnant persons with mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: We present a retrospective case series of pregnant patients who received anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) monoclonal antibody infusions at a single center from April 1, 2021, through October 16, 2021. Pregnant patients who had a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test result and mild-to-moderate COVID-19 symptoms were eligible for monoclonal antibody infusion. Exclusion criteria for administration included need for supplemental oxygen, hospitalization due to COVID-19, and positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test result more than 7 days before screening. All patients received either bamlanivimab plus etesevimab or casirivimab plus imdevimab based on availability and dosing instructions of the product and emerging resistance patterns in the community. RESULTS: During the study period, monoclonal antibody infusions were administered to 450 individuals at our institution, of whom 15 were pregnant. Of the 15 pregnant persons receiving monoclonal antibody, six (40%) had full-vaccination status at the time of infusion. Two individuals (13%, CI 0-31%) experienced systemic reactions during the infusion, both resulting in temporary changes in the fetal heart rate tracing that recovered with maternal and intrauterine resuscitative efforts. One patient delivered after infusion for worsening maternal and fetal status; the remainder of the patients did not require admission for COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In this case series, pregnant persons who received anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody infusions had generally favorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Female , Fetal Heart/drug effects , Humans , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(12): e507-e509, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625475

ABSTRACT

There is a little data regarding safety or efficacy of monoclonal antibody treatment for mild-to-moderate COVID-19 in pediatric patients despite it being frequently used in adults. This retrospective study of 17 patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 who received monoclonal antibody therapy found that the treatment was well tolerated, safe, and may be effective in halting progression to severe disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Drug Combinations , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
8.
Clin Lung Cancer ; 23(2): 143-150, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588071

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Extended interval (EI) dosing for immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) mono- or consolidation therapy initiated due to the COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant reduction in ICI-related site visits for patients with stage III and IV non-small cell lung cancer. Here we report the safety and efficacy compared to standard dose (SD) schedules. METHOD: In this retrospective analysis, patients who received ICI mono- or consolidation therapy, or adjuvant ICI therapy were assessed. Safety and efficacy of EI dosing with data of SD schedules were compared. RESULTS: One hundred seventeen patients received EI dosing for ICI and 88 patients SD. Patient characteristics were comparable. We observed 237 adverse events in the EI dosing cohort versus 118 in the SD group (P= .02). Overall, there was no difference in the occurrence of grade ≥3 adverse events (EI dosing: 21/237 [8.9%]; SD group: 20/118 [17.0%], P = .42), except for the pembrolizumab EI dosing cohort. Of all patients who received an EI dosing schedule, however, only 8 (6.8%) were reduced to SD because of toxicity. In 5 (4.3%) patients ICI was permanently stopped because of severe toxicity compared to 11 (12.5%) discontinuations in the SD group. Short-term treatment interruption occurred with similar frequencies in both groups. Progression-free survival and overall survival were comparable in patients receiving pembrolizumab and in those receiving adjuvant durvalumab. Progression-free survival and OS were better in the EI dosing cohort of nivolumab. CONCLUSION: EI dosing for ICI did not lead to an increase of clinically relevant toxicities resulting in dose reduction and/or treatment discontinuation. Efficacy of EI dosing of pembrolizumab and durvalumab were comparable to SD. Based on our safety and efficacy data EI dosing for ICI seems a safe and effective strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Drug Administration Schedule , Female , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Nivolumab/administration & dosage , Nivolumab/adverse effects , Progression-Free Survival , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Clin Transl Sci ; 15(3): 626-637, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550814

ABSTRACT

Factor XII (FXII) is the principal initiator of the plasma contact system and has proinflammatory and prothrombotic activities. This single-center, first-in-human phase I study aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of single escalating doses of garadacimab, a monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits activated FXII (FXIIa), in healthy male volunteers. Volunteers were randomized to eight cohorts, with intravenous (i.v.) doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg and subcutaneous (s.c.) doses of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg. Six volunteers in each cohort received garadacimab or placebo in a ratio of 2:1. Follow-up for safety lasted 85 days after dosing. Blood samples were collected throughout for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis. Forty-eight volunteers were enrolled: 32 received garadacimab and 16 received placebo. Most volunteers experienced at least one treatment-emergent adverse event (TEAE), predominantly grade 1. No serious TEAEs, deaths, or TEAEs leading to discontinuation were reported. No volunteers tested positive for garadacimab antidrug antibodies. Garadacimab plasma concentrations increased in a dose-dependent manner. Sustained inhibition of FXIIa-mediated kallikrein activity beyond day 28 resulted from 3 and 10 mg/kg garadacimab (i.v. and s.c.). A dose-dependent increase in activated partial thromboplastin time with no change in prothrombin time was demonstrated. Garadacimab (single-dose i.v. and s.c.) was well-tolerated in healthy volunteers. Dose-dependent increases in plasma concentration and pharmacodynamic effects in relevant kinin and coagulation pathways were observed. These results support the clinical development of garadacimab, including in phase II studies in hereditary angioedema and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Angioedemas, Hereditary , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Double-Blind Method , Factor XIIa , Humans , Male
10.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 352-355, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540768

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Monoclonal antibody therapy has been reported to be highly effective for preventing hospitalisation and severe cases in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, since the drug is not readily available, it is important to rapidly and appropriately identify high-risk patients who can benefit most from therapy. Therefore, we designed a risk scoring system to identify at-risk COVID-19 patients in our region during the largest surge of COVID-19, from July to September 2021. METHODS: According to the risk scores, confirmed COVID-19 patients were introduced to receive REGN-CoV-2 to our hospital by regional health centre from 18th August (Term 3). The primary outcome was the comparison of the number of hospitalisation and severe condition with other periods, the 4th wave (Term 1) and the early part of the 5th wave (Term 2) in Japan. RESULTS: During Term 3, 115 patients were stratified with the scoring system and administered REGN-COV-2. The number of hospitalisation vs severe cases were 60 (5.2%) vs 14 (1.2%), 8 (1.5%) vs 3 (0.6%) and 21 (1.2%) vs 2 (0.1%), in term 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Among those aged <60 years, compared with term 1, the relative risk of hospitalisation and severe condition were 0.25 (95% CI: 0.12-0.53) and 0.10 (95% CI: 0.01-0.80), respectively, in term 3. Drug adverse events were fever (3: 2.6%), headache (1: 0.9%) and neck rash (1: 0.9%), all events were resolved within 24 h wth no serious adverse event. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of monoclonal antibody therapy using a risk scoring system significantly reduced the number of hospitalisation and disease severity of COVID-19 without any serious adverse events and avoided regional medical collapse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Drug Combinations , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Ther ; 43(10): 1706-1727, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525737

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neutralizing antibodies can reduce SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry, viral titers, and pathologic damage. CT-P59 (regdanvimab), a SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, was examined in 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose, Phase I studies. METHODS: In study 1.1, healthy adults were sequentially enrolled to receive CT-P59 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg or placebo. In study 1.2, adult patients with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled to receive CT-P59 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg or placebo. Primary objectives of both studies were safety and tolerability up to day 14 after infusion. Secondary end points included pharmacokinetic properties. Study 1.2 also measured virology and clinical efficacy. FINDINGS: Thirty-two individuals were randomized to study 1.1 (6 per CT-P59 dose cohort and 8 in the placebo cohort). By day 14 after infusion, adverse events (AEs) were reported in 2 individuals receiving CT-P59 20 mg/kg (headache and elevated C-reactive protein levels) and 1 receiving CT-P59 40 mg/kg (pyrexia) (all Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 1). In study 1.2, 18 patients were randomized (5 per dose cohort and 3 in the placebo cohort). Sixteen AEs were reported in 10 patients receiving CT-P59. No AEs in either study led to study discontinuation. Greater reductions in viral titers were reported with CT-P59 than placebo in those with maximum titers >105 copies/mL. Mean time to recovery was 3.39 versus 5.25 days. IMPLICATIONS: CT-P59 exhibited a promising safety profile in healthy individuals and patients with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, with potential antiviral and clinical efficacy in patients with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04525079 (study 1.1) and NCT04593641 (study 1.2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Carrier Proteins , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunoglobulin G
12.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(1): e13759, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522870

ABSTRACT

Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at high risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Studies suggest that early intervention with monoclonal antibody (MAB) treatment directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein may reduce the risk of emergency department visits or hospitalization for COVID-19, especially in high-risk patients. Herein, we describe our single-center experience of 93 SOT (50 kidney, 17 liver, 11 lung, nine heart, and six dual-organ) recipients with mild to moderate COVID-19 who were treated with bamlanivimab or casirivimab-imdevimab per emergency use authorization guidelines. Median age of recipients was 55 [(Interquartile range) 44-63] years, and 41% were diabetic. Median time from transplant to MAB was 64 (IQR 24-122) months and median time from the onset of COVID-19 symptoms to the infusion was 6 (IQR 4-7) days. All patients had a minimum 30 days of study follow-up. The 30-day hospitalization rate for COVID-19-directed therapy was 8.7%. Infusion-related adverse events were rare and generally mild. Biopsy-proven organ rejection occurred in two patients, and there were no graft losses or deaths. A comparator group of 72 SOT recipients diagnosed with COVID-19 who were eligible but did not receive MAB treatment had a higher 30-day hospitalization rate for COVID-19-directed therapy (15.3%), although this difference was not statistically significant, after adjustment for age (Odds Ratio 0.49 [95% Confidence Interval 0.18-1.32], p = 0.16). Our experience suggests that MAB treatment, with respect to the available MAB formulations and circulating viral variants present during our study period, may provide favorable outcomes for mild to moderate COVID-19 in SOT recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Humans , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transplant Recipients
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(1): 119-126, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497808

ABSTRACT

As the fourth wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic encircles the globe, there remains an urgent challenge to identify safe and effective treatment and prevention strategies that can be implemented in a range of health care and clinical settings. Substantial advances have been made in the use of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies to mitigate the morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19. On 15 June 2021, the National Institutes of Health, in collaboration with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, convened a virtual summit to summarize existing knowledge on anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and to identify key unanswered scientific questions to further catalyze the clinical development and implementation of antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , National Institutes of Health (U.S.) , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
14.
Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 36(8): 611-617, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: CGRP, a neuropeptide involved in migraine pathophysiology, is also known to play a role in the respiratory system and in immunological conditions such as sepsis. We analyzed the impact of the use of CGRP antagonists in patients with migraine during the COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. METHODS: This is a multicentre cross-sectional study. From May to November 2020, through a national survey distributed by the Spanish Society of Neurology, we collected data about the presence of COVID-19 symptoms including headache and their characteristics and severity in patients with migraine treated with anti-CGRP monoclonal antibodies (mAb), and compared them with patients with migraine not receiving this treatment. We also conducted a subanalysis of patients with COVID-19 symptoms. RESULTS: We recruited 300 patients with migraine: 51.7% (155/300) were taking anti-CGRP mAbs; 87.3% were women (262/300). Mean age (standard deviation) was 47.1 years (11.6). Forty-one patients (13.7%) met diagnostic criteria for COVID-19, with no statistically significant difference between patients with and without anti-CGRP mAb treatment (16.1% vs 11.0%, respectively; P=.320). Of the patients with COVID-19, 48.8% (20/41) visited the emergency department and 12.2% (5/41) were hospitalised. Likewise, no clinical differences were found between the groups of patients with and without anti-CGRP mAb treatment. CONCLUSION: Anti-CGRP mAbs may be safe in clinical practice, presenting no association with increased risk of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Migraine Disorders , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Migraine Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Clin Ther ; 43(10): 1706-1727, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433085

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Neutralizing antibodies can reduce SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry, viral titers, and pathologic damage. CT-P59 (regdanvimab), a SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody, was examined in 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single ascending dose, Phase I studies. METHODS: In study 1.1, healthy adults were sequentially enrolled to receive CT-P59 10, 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg or placebo. In study 1.2, adult patients with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled to receive CT-P59 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg or placebo. Primary objectives of both studies were safety and tolerability up to day 14 after infusion. Secondary end points included pharmacokinetic properties. Study 1.2 also measured virology and clinical efficacy. FINDINGS: Thirty-two individuals were randomized to study 1.1 (6 per CT-P59 dose cohort and 8 in the placebo cohort). By day 14 after infusion, adverse events (AEs) were reported in 2 individuals receiving CT-P59 20 mg/kg (headache and elevated C-reactive protein levels) and 1 receiving CT-P59 40 mg/kg (pyrexia) (all Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 1). In study 1.2, 18 patients were randomized (5 per dose cohort and 3 in the placebo cohort). Sixteen AEs were reported in 10 patients receiving CT-P59. No AEs in either study led to study discontinuation. Greater reductions in viral titers were reported with CT-P59 than placebo in those with maximum titers >105 copies/mL. Mean time to recovery was 3.39 versus 5.25 days. IMPLICATIONS: CT-P59 exhibited a promising safety profile in healthy individuals and patients with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, with potential antiviral and clinical efficacy in patients with mild SARS-CoV-2 infection. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04525079 (study 1.1) and NCT04593641 (study 1.2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Carrier Proteins , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Immunoglobulin G
17.
Transplantation ; 106(2): e153-e157, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: (COVID-19) has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. In December 2020, at the peak of the Los Angeles outbreak, our center rapidly implemented a protocol to improve outpatient management and provide bamlanivimab or casirivimab-imdevimab [COVID monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies] to all eligible COVID-19 positive liver and kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: A retrospective review of all abdominal organ transplant recipients who were COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction positive between February 2020 and February 2021 from our center was performed. Patient demographics, COVID-19 treatments, hospitalizations, and survival were reviewed. Patients were considered eligible for COVID mAb therapy if they met outpatient criteria at the time of diagnosis. RESULTS: In the study period, 121 patients in the kidney transplant recipients group (KG) and 105 patients in the liver or combined liver/kidney transplant recipients group (LG) were COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction positive. Hospitalization rates were similar for the KG (45%) versus LG (35%) (P = 0.20), but mortality was higher for the KG (22%) when compared to LG (10%) (P = 0.02). Our programmatic response, including outpatient COVID mAb therapies, reduced hospitalizations (P = 0.01) and deaths (P = 0.01). Ninety-four KG and 87 LG patients were identified as potentially eligible for COVID mAb therapy, and 17 KG and 17 LG patients were treated. COVID mAb therapies reduced hospitalization from 32% to 15% (P = 0.045) and eliminated mortality (13% versus 0%, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: An aggressive approach including outpatient COVID mAb therapy in the COVID positive abdominal organ transplant recipients significantly decreased hospitalization and death. Early outpatient intervention for COVID-19 disease in transplant patients should be considered where possible.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transplant Recipients , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
18.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 65(11): e0106321, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398568

ABSTRACT

SCTA01 is a novel monoclonal antibody with promising prophylactic and therapeutic potential for COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK) and immunogenicity of SCTA01 in healthy adults. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalation phase I clinical trial. Healthy adults were randomly assigned to cohort 1 (n = 5; 3:2), cohort 2 (n = 8; 6:2), cohort 3, or cohort 4 (both n = 10; 8:2) to receive SCTA01 (5, 15, 30, and 50 mg/kg, respectively) versus placebo. All participants were followed up for clinical, laboratory, PK, and immunogenicity assessments for 84 days. The primary outcomes were the dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximal tolerable dose (MTD), and the secondary outcomes included PK parameters, immunogenicity, and adverse events (AE). Of the 33 participants, 18 experienced treatment-related AEs; the frequency was 52.0% (13/25) in participants receiving SCTA01 and 62.5% (5/8) in those receiving placebo. All AEs were mild. There was no serious AE or death. No DLT was reported, and the MTD of SCTA01 was not reached. SCTA01 with a dose range of 5 to 50 mg/kg had nearly linear dose-proportional increases in Cmax and AUC parameters. An antidrug antibody response was detected in four (16.0%) participants receiving SCTA01, with low titers, between the baseline and day 28, but all became negative later. In conclusion, SCTA01 up to 50 mg/kg was safe and well-tolerated in healthy participants. Its PK parameters were nearly linear dose-proportional. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT04483375.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Viral , Double-Blind Method , Humans
19.
N Engl J Med ; 385(9): 803-814, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Additional interventions are needed to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by malaria. METHODS: We conducted a two-part, phase 1 clinical trial to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of CIS43LS, an antimalarial monoclonal antibody with an extended half-life, and its efficacy against infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Part A of the trial assessed the safety, initial side-effect profile, and pharmacokinetics of CIS43LS in healthy adults who had never had malaria. Participants received CIS43LS subcutaneously or intravenously at one of three escalating dose levels. A subgroup of participants from Part A continued to Part B, and some received a second CIS43LS infusion. Additional participants were enrolled in Part B and received CIS43LS intravenously. To assess the protective efficacy of CIS43LS, some participants underwent controlled human malaria infection in which they were exposed to mosquitoes carrying P. falciparum sporozoites 4 to 36 weeks after administration of CIS43LS. RESULTS: A total of 25 participants received CIS43LS at a dose of 5 mg per kilogram of body weight, 20 mg per kilogram, or 40 mg per kilogram, and 4 of the 25 participants received a second dose (20 mg per kilogram regardless of initial dose). No safety concerns were identified. We observed dose-dependent increases in CIS43LS serum concentrations, with a half-life of 56 days. None of the 9 participants who received CIS43LS, as compared with 5 of 6 control participants who did not receive CIS43LS, had parasitemia according to polymerase-chain-reaction testing through 21 days after controlled human malaria infection. Two participants who received 40 mg per kilogram of CIS43LS and underwent controlled human malaria infection approximately 36 weeks later had no parasitemia, with serum concentrations of CIS43LS of 46 and 57 µg per milliliter at the time of controlled human malaria infection. CONCLUSIONS: Among adults who had never had malaria infection or vaccination, administration of the long-acting monoclonal antibody CIS43LS prevented malaria after controlled infection. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; VRC 612 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04206332.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Malaria, Falciparum/prevention & control , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacokinetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacokinetics , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , Antimalarials/adverse effects , Antimalarials/pharmacokinetics , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous/adverse effects , Injections, Subcutaneous/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Plasmodium falciparum/immunology , Plasmodium falciparum/isolation & purification
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