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1.
J Control Release ; 359: 1-11, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242830

ABSTRACT

Data show a decrease in the risk of hospitalization and death from COVID-19. To date, global vaccinations for SARS-CoV-2 protections are underway, but additional treatments are urgently needed to prevent and cure infection among naïve and even vaccinated people. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies are very promising for prophylaxis and therapy of SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, traditional large-scale methods of producing such antibodies are slow, extremely expensive and possess a high risk of contamination with viruses, prions, oncogenic DNA and other pollutants. The present study is aimed at developing an approach of producing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein in plant systems which offers unique advantages, such as the lack of human and animal pathogens or bacterial toxins, relatively low-cost manufacturing, and ease of production scale-up. We selected a single N-terminal domain functional camelid-derived heavy (H)-chain antibody fragments (VHH, AKA nanobodies) targeted to receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and developed methods of their rapid production using transgenic plants and plant cell suspensions. Isolated and purified plant-derived VHH antibodies were compared with mAbs produced in traditional mammalian and bacterial expression systems. It was found that plant generated VHH using the proposed methods of transformation and purification possess the ability to bind to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein comparable to that of monoclonal antibodies derived from bacterial and mammalian cell cultures. The results of the present studies confirm the visibility of producing monoclonal single-chain antibodies with a high ability to bind the targeted COVID-19 spike protein in plant systems within a relatively shorter time span and at a lower cost when compared with traditional methods. Moreover, similar plant biotechnology approaches can be used for producing monoclonal neutralizing antibodies against other types of viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Humans , Animals , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Mammals/metabolism
2.
Adv Immunol ; 154: 1-69, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229796

ABSTRACT

Despite effective spike-based vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues more than two and a half years post-onset. Relentless investigation has outlined a causative dynamic between host-derived antibodies and reciprocal viral subversion. Integration of this paradigm into the architecture of next generation antiviral strategies, predicated on a foundational understanding of the virology and immunology of SARS-CoV-2, will be critical for success. This review aims to serve as a primer on the immunity endowed by antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein through a structural perspective. We begin by introducing the structure and function of spike, polyclonal immunity to SARS-CoV-2 spike, and the emergence of major SARS-CoV-2 variants that evade immunity. The remainder of the article comprises an in-depth dissection of all major epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike in molecular detail, with emphasis on the origins, neutralizing potency, mechanisms of action, cross-reactivity, and variant resistance of representative monoclonal antibodies to each epitope.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Epitopes , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
3.
Talanta ; 251: 123783, 2023 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049948

ABSTRACT

The current approaches of diagnostic platforms for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infections mostly relied on adapting the existing technology. In this work, a simple and low-cost electrochemical sensing platform for detecting SAR-CoV-2 antigen was established. The proposed sensor combined the innovative disposable paper-based immunosensor and cost-effective plant-based anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody CR3022, expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. The cellulose nanocrystal was modified on screen-printed graphene electrode to provide the abundant COOH functional groups on electrode surface, leading to the high ability for antibody immobilization. The quantification of the presence receptor binding domain (RBD) spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 was performed using differential pulse voltammetry by monitoring the changing current of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- redox solution. The current change of [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- before and after the presence of target RBD could be clearly distinguished, providing a linear relationship with RBD concentration in the range from 0.1 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL with the minimum limit of detection of 2.0 fg/mL. The proposed platform was successfully applied to detect RBD in nasopharyngeal swab samples with satisfactory results. Furthermore, the paper-based immunosensor was extended to quantify the RBD level in spiked saliva samples, demonstrating the broadly applicability of this system. This electrochemical paper-based immunosensor has the potential to be employed as a point-of-care testing for COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Graphite , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Cellulose , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Molecules ; 28(3)2023 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200550

ABSTRACT

While 2021 ended with the world engulfed in the COVID-19 Omicron wave, 2022 has ended in almost all countries, except China, with COVID-19 being likened to the flu. In this context, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized only 37 new drugs this year compared to an average of 52 in the last four years. Thus 2022 is the second lowest harvest after 2016 in the last six years. This ranking may be transient and will be confirmed in the coming years. In this regard, the reduction in the number of drugs accepted by the FDA this year applies only to the so-called small molecules as there has been no variation in the respective numbers of biologics or TIDES (peptides and oligonucleotides). Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) continue to be the class with the most drugs authorized (9), while proteins/enzymes (5) and an antibody-drug conjugate complete the biologics harvest. In 2022, five TIDES and seven drugs inspired by natural products have received the green light, thus showing the same tendency as in previous years. Finally, pharmaceutical agents with nitrogen aromatic heterocycles and/or fluorine atoms continue to be predominant among small molecules this year. Furthermore, three drugs have been approved for imaging, reinforcing the trend in recent years for this class of treatments. A keyword in 2022 is bispecificity since four drugs have this property (two mAbs, one protein, and one peptide). Herein, the 37 new drugs approved by the FDA in 2022 are analyzed. On the basis of chemical structure alone, these drugs are classified as the following: biologics (antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, proteins/enzymes), TIDES (peptide and oligonucleotides), combined drugs, natural products; nitrogen aromatic heterocycles, fluorine-containing molecules, and other small molecules.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Immunoconjugates , United States , Humans , Drug Approval , Fluorine , Pharmaceutical Preparations/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Biological Factors , Peptides/therapeutic use , Biological Products/therapeutic use , Biological Products/chemistry , Drug Industry , United States Food and Drug Administration , Oligonucleotides
5.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 789, 2022 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117221

ABSTRACT

As new variants of SARS-CoV-2 continue to emerge, it is important to assess the cross-neutralizing capabilities of antibodies naturally elicited during wild type SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present study, we evaluate the activity of nine anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), previously isolated from convalescent donors infected with the Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, against the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron. By testing an array of mutated spike receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins, cell-expressed spike proteins from VOCs, and neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 VOCs as pseudoviruses, or as the authentic viruses in culture, we show that mAbs directed against the ACE2 binding site (ACE2bs) are more sensitive to viral evolution compared to anti-RBD non-ACE2bs mAbs, two of which retain their potency against all VOCs tested. At the second part of our study, we reveal the neutralization mechanisms at high molecular resolution of two anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing mAbs by structural characterization. We solve the structures of the Delta-neutralizing ACE2bs mAb TAU-2303 with the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer and RBD at 4.5 Å and 2.42 Å resolutions, respectively, revealing a similar mode of binding to that between the RBD and ACE2. Furthermore, we provide five additional structures (at resolutions of 4.7 Å, 7.3 Å, 6.4 Å, 3.3 Å, and 6.1 Å) of a second antibody, TAU-2212, complexed with the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer. TAU-2212 binds an exclusively quaternary epitope, and exhibits a unique, flexible mode of neutralization that involves transitioning between five different conformations, with both arms of the antibody recruited for cross linking intra- and inter-spike RBD subunits. Our study provides additional mechanistic understanding about how antibodies neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and its emerging variants and provides insights on the likelihood of reinfections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
6.
Sci Adv ; 8(45): eabp9540, 2022 11 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119147

ABSTRACT

De novo design methods hold the promise of reducing the time and cost of antibody discovery while enabling the facile and precise targeting of predetermined epitopes. Here, we describe a fragment-based method for the combinatorial design of antibody binding loops and their grafting onto antibody scaffolds. We designed and tested six single-domain antibodies targeting different epitopes on three antigens, including the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Biophysical characterization showed that all designs are stable and bind their intended targets with affinities in the nanomolar range without in vitro affinity maturation. We further discuss how a high-resolution input antigen structure is not required, as similar predictions are obtained when the input is a crystal structure or a computer-generated model. This computational procedure, which readily runs on a laptop, provides a starting point for the rapid generation of lead antibodies binding to preselected epitopes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 , Humans , Epitopes , Antibody Affinity , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Models, Molecular , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens
7.
Anal Chem ; 94(42): 14761-14768, 2022 10 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062140

ABSTRACT

Antibody drugs have been rapidly developed to cure many diseases including COVID-19 infection. Silicone oil is commonly used as a lubricant coating material for devices used in the pharmaceutical industry to store and administer antibody drug formulations. However, the interaction between silicone oil and antibody molecules could lead to the adsorption, denaturation, and aggregation of antibody molecules, impacting the efficacy of antibody drugs. Here, we studied the molecular interactions between antibodies and silicone oil in situ in real time. The effect of the surfactant on such interactions was also investigated. Specifically, the adsorption dynamics of a bispecific antibody (BsAb) onto a silicone oil surface without and with different concentrations of the surfactant PS80 in antibody solutions were monitored. Also the possible lowest effective PS80 concentrations that can prevent the adsorption of BsAb as well as a monoclonal antibody (mAb) onto silicone oil were measured. It was found that different concentrations of PS80 are required for preventing the adsorption of different antibodies. Both BsAB and mAB denature on silicone oil without a surfactant. However, for a low surfactant concentration in the solution, although the surfactant could not completely prevent the antibody from adsorption, it could maintain the native structures of adsorbed BsAb and mAb antibodies on silicone oil. This is important knowledge, showing that to prevent antibody aggregation on silicone oil it is not necessary to add surfactant to a concentration high enough to completely minimize protein adsorption.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , COVID-19 , Humans , Silicone Oils/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Excipients/chemistry , Adsorption , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Lubricants
8.
Sci Adv ; 8(40): eadd2032, 2022 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053092

ABSTRACT

In this study, by characterizing several human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from single B cells of the COVID-19-recovered individuals in India who experienced ancestral Wuhan strain (WA.1) of SARS-CoV-2 during early stages of the pandemic, we found a receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific mAb 002-S21F2 that has rare gene usage and potently neutralized live viral isolates of SARS-CoV-2 variants including Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Omicron sublineages (BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5) with IC50 ranging from 0.02 to 0.13 µg/ml. Structural studies of 002-S21F2 in complex with spike trimers of Omicron and WA.1 showed that it targets a conformationally conserved epitope on the outer face of RBD (class 3 surface) outside the ACE2-binding motif, thereby providing a mechanistic insights for its broad neutralization activity. The discovery of 002-S21F2 and the broadly neutralizing epitope it targets have timely implications for developing a broad range of therapeutic and vaccine interventions against SARS-CoV-2 variants including Omicron sublineages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
9.
Int J Pharm ; 627: 122256, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049315

ABSTRACT

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, many prophylactic and therapeutic drugs have been evaluated and introduced. Among these treatments, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to and neutralize SARS-CoV-2 virus have been applied as complementary and alternative treatments to vaccines. Although different methodologies have been utilized to produce mAbs, traditional hybridoma fusion technology is still commonly used for this purpose due to its unmatched performance record. In this study, we coupled the hybridoma fusion strategy with mRNA-lipid nanoparticle (LNP) immunization. This time-saving approach can circumvent biological and technical hurdles, such as difficult-to-express membrane proteins, antigen instability, and the lack of posttranslational modifications on recombinant antigens. We used mRNA-LNP immunization and hybridoma fusion technology to generate mAbs against the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein. Compared with traditional protein-based immunization approaches, inoculation of mice with RBD mRNA-LNP induced higher titers of serum antibodies and markedly increased serum neutralizing activity. The mAbs we obtained can bind to SARS-CoV-2 RBDs from several variants. Notably, RBD-mAb-3 displayed particularly high binding affinities and neutralizing potencies against both Alpha and Delta variants. In addition to introducing specific mAbs against SARS-CoV-2, our data generally demonstrate that mRNA-LNP immunization may be useful to quickly generate highly functional mAbs against emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Mice , Animals , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Pandemics , Antibody Formation , RNA, Messenger , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Immunization
10.
J Proteome Res ; 21(7): 1616-1627, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873398

ABSTRACT

In this study, we used multiple enzyme digestions, coupled with higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) and electron-transfer/higher-energy collision dissociation (EThcD) fragmentation to develop a mass-spectrometric (MS) method for determining the complete protein sequence of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The method was refined on an mAb of a known sequence, a SARS-CoV-1 antireceptor binding domain (RBD) spike monoclonal antibody. The data were searched using Supernovo to generate a complete template-assisted de novo sequence for this and two SARS-CoV-2 mAbs of known sequences resulting in correct sequences for the variable regions and correct distinction of Ile and Leu residues. We then used the method on a set of 25 antihemagglutinin (HA) influenza antibodies of unknown sequences and determined high confidence sequences for >99% of the complementarity determining regions (CDRs). The heavy-chain and light-chain genes were cloned and transfected into cells for recombinant expression followed by affinity purification. The recombinant mAbs displayed binding curves matching the original mAbs with specificity to the HA influenza antigen. Our findings indicate that this methodology results in almost complete antibody sequence coverage with high confidence results for CDR regions on diverse mAb sequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Mass Spectrometry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
11.
Cell ; 185(12): 2116-2131.e18, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850795

ABSTRACT

Highly transmissible Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 currently dominate globally. Here, we compare neutralization of Omicron BA.1, BA.1.1, and BA.2. BA.2 RBD has slightly higher ACE2 affinity than BA.1 and slightly reduced neutralization by vaccine serum, possibly associated with its increased transmissibility. Neutralization differences between sub-lineages for mAbs (including therapeutics) mostly arise from variation in residues bordering the ACE2 binding site; however, more distant mutations S371F (BA.2) and R346K (BA.1.1) markedly reduce neutralization by therapeutic antibody Vir-S309. In-depth structure-and-function analyses of 27 potent RBD-binding mAbs isolated from vaccinated volunteers following breakthrough Omicron-BA.1 infection reveals that they are focused in two main clusters within the RBD, with potent right-shoulder antibodies showing increased prevalence. Selection and somatic maturation have optimized antibody potency in less-mutated epitopes and recovered potency in highly mutated epitopes. All 27 mAbs potently neutralize early pandemic strains, and many show broad reactivity with variants of concern.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Epitopes , Humans , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
12.
Cell Rep ; 39(7): 110812, 2022 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1803708

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can reduce the risk of hospitalization from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) when administered early. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have negatively affected therapeutic use of some authorized mAbs. Using a high-throughput B cell screening pipeline, we isolated LY-CoV1404 (bebtelovimab), a highly potent SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein receptor binding domain (RBD)-specific antibody. LY-CoV1404 potently neutralizes authentic SARS-CoV-2, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.617.2. In pseudovirus neutralization studies, LY-CoV1404 potently neutralizes variants, including B.1.1.7, B.1.351, B.1.617.2, B.1.427/B.1.429, P.1, B.1.526, B.1.1.529, and the BA.2 subvariant. Structural analysis reveals that the contact residues of the LY-CoV1404 epitope are highly conserved, except for N439 and N501. The binding and neutralizing activity of LY-CoV1404 is unaffected by the most common mutations at these positions (N439K and N501Y). The broad and potent neutralization activity and the relatively conserved epitope suggest that LY-CoV1404 has the potential to be an effective therapeutic agent to treat all known variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans
13.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 114, 2022 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778593

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 are among the most promising strategies to prevent and treat COVID-19. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) profoundly reduced the efficacies of most of mAbs and vaccines approved for clinical use. Herein, we demonstrated mAb 35B5 efficiently neutralizes both wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs, including B.1.617.2 (delta) variant, in vitro and in vivo. Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) revealed that 35B5 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 by targeting a unique epitope that avoids the prevailing mutation sites on RBD identified in circulating VOCs, providing the molecular basis for its pan-neutralizing efficacy. The 35B5-binding epitope could also be exploited for the rational design of a universal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Sci Adv ; 8(12): eabm0220, 2022 03 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765069

ABSTRACT

Conventional approaches to isolate and characterize nanobodies are laborious. We combine phage display, multivariate enrichment, next-generation sequencing, and a streamlined screening strategy to identify numerous anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nanobodies. We characterize their potency and specificity using neutralization assays and hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). The most potent nanobodies bind to the receptor binding motif of the receptor binding domain (RBD), and we identify two exceptionally potent members of this category (with monomeric half-maximal inhibitory concentrations around 13 and 16 ng/ml). Other nanobodies bind to a more conserved epitope on the side of the RBD and are able to potently neutralize the SARS-CoV-2 founder virus (42 ng/ml), the Beta variant (B.1.351/501Y.V2) (35 ng/ml), and also cross-neutralize the more distantly related SARS-CoV-1 (0.46 µg/ml). The approach presented here is well suited for the screening of phage libraries to identify functional nanobodies for various biomedical and biochemical applications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Camelids, New World , Single-Domain Antibodies , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral , Camelids, New World/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism
15.
Science ; 375(6579): 449-454, 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1723472

ABSTRACT

Understanding broadly neutralizing sarbecovirus antibody responses is key to developing countermeasures against SARS-CoV-2 variants and future zoonotic sarbecoviruses. We describe the isolation and characterization of a human monoclonal antibody, designated S2K146, that broadly neutralizes viruses belonging to SARS-CoV- and SARS-CoV-2-related sarbecovirus clades which use ACE2 as an entry receptor. Structural and functional studies show that most of the virus residues that directly bind S2K146 are also involved in binding to ACE2. This allows the antibody to potently inhibit receptor attachment. S2K146 protects against SARS-CoV-2 Beta challenge in hamsters and viral passaging experiments reveal a high barrier for emergence of escape mutants, making it a good candidate for clinical development. The conserved ACE2-binding residues present a site of vulnerability that might be leveraged for developing vaccines eliciting broad sarbecovirus immunity.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Cross Reactions , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mesocricetus , Models, Molecular , Molecular Mimicry , Mutation , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/chemistry , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
16.
Nat Immunol ; 23(3): 423-430, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713201

ABSTRACT

The global severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic requires effective therapies against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and neutralizing antibodies are a promising therapy. A noncompeting pair of human neutralizing antibodies (B38 and H4) blocking SARS-CoV-2 binding to its receptor, ACE2, have been described previously. Here, we develop bsAb15, a bispecific monoclonal antibody (bsAb) based on B38 and H4. bsAb15 has greater neutralizing efficiency than these parental antibodies, results in less selective pressure and retains neutralizing ability to most SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (with more potent neutralizing activity against the Delta variant). We also selected for escape mutants of the two parental mAbs, a mAb cocktail and bsAb15, demonstrating that bsAb15 can efficiently neutralize all single-mAb escape mutants. Furthermore, prophylactic and therapeutic application of bsAb15 reduced the viral titer in infected nonhuman primates and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Therefore, this bsAb is a feasible and effective strategy to treat and prevent severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Bispecific/chemistry , Antibodies, Bispecific/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Cloning, Molecular , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Epitopes , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Protein Engineering/methods , Structure-Activity Relationship
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 830527, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686478

ABSTRACT

The new SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern "Omicron" was recently spotted in South Africa and spread quickly around the world due to its enhanced transmissibility. The variant became conspicuous as it harbors more than 30 mutations in the Spike protein with 15 mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) alone, potentially dampening the potency of therapeutic antibodies and enhancing the ACE2 binding. More worrying, Omicron infections have been reported in vaccinees in South Africa and Hong Kong, and that post-vaccination sera poorly neutralize the new variant. Here, we investigated the binding strength of Omicron with ACE2 and monoclonal antibodies that are either approved by the FDA for COVID-19 therapy or undergoing phase III clinical trials. Computational mutagenesis and free energy perturbation could confirm that Omicron RBD binds ACE2 ~2.5 times stronger than prototype SARS-CoV-2. Notably, three substitutions, i.e., T478K, Q493K, and Q498R, significantly contribute to the binding energies and almost doubled the electrostatic potential (ELE) of the RBDOmic-ACE2 complex. Omicron also harbors E484A substitution instead of the E484K that helped neutralization escape of Beta, Gamma, and Mu variants. Together, T478K, Q493K, Q498R, and E484A substitutions contribute to a significant drop in the ELE between RBDOmic-mAbs, particularly in etesevimab, bamlanivimab, and CT-p59. AZD1061 showed a slight drop in ELE and sotrovimab that binds a conserved epitope on the RBD; therefore, it could be used as a cocktail therapy in Omicron-driven COVID-19. In conclusion, we suggest that the Spike mutations prudently devised by the virus facilitate the receptor binding, weakening the mAbs binding to escape the immune response.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Mutation, Missense , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 23, 2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655541
19.
Science ; 375(6583): 864-868, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650843

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern evades antibody-mediated immunity that comes from vaccination or infection with earlier variants due to accumulation of numerous spike mutations. To understand the Omicron antigenic shift, we determined cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystal structures of the spike protein and the receptor-binding domain bound to the broadly neutralizing sarbecovirus monoclonal antibody (mAb) S309 (the parent mAb of sotrovimab) and to the human ACE2 receptor. We provide a blueprint for understanding the marked reduction of binding of other therapeutic mAbs that leads to dampened neutralizing activity. Remodeling of interactions between the Omicron receptor-binding domain and human ACE2 likely explains the enhanced affinity for the host receptor relative to the ancestral virus.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Immune Evasion , Receptors, Coronavirus/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antigenic Drift and Shift , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/chemistry , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/metabolism , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Crystallography, X-Ray , Humans , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 24(5): 3410-3419, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650366

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Among all the potential targets studied for developing drugs and antibodies, the spike (S) protein is the most striking one, which is on the surface of the virus. In contrast with the intensively investigated immunodominant receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the protein, little is known about the neutralizing antibody binding mechanisms of the N-terminal domain (NTD), let alone the effects of NTD mutations on antibody binding and thereby the risk of immune evasion. Based on 400 ns molecular dynamics simulation for 11 NTD-antibody complexes together with other computational approaches in this study, we investigated critical residues for NTD-antibody binding and their detailed mechanisms. The results show that 36 residues on the NTD including R246, Y144, K147, Y248, L249 and P251 are critically involved in the direct interaction of the NTD with many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), indicating that the viruses harboring these residue mutations may have a high risk of immune evasion. Binding free energy calculations and an interaction mechanism study reveal that R246I, which is present in the Beta (B.1.351/501Y.V2) variant, may have various impacts on current NTD antibodies through abolishing the hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interaction with the antibodies or affecting other interface residues. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the mutations of these key residues in future antibody and vaccine design and development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Immune Evasion/genetics , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Hydrogen Bonding , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Thermodynamics
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