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1.
Obstet Gynecol ; 139(2): 181-191, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate immune responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mRNA-based vaccines present in breast milk and transfer of the immune responses to breastfeeding infants. METHODS: We enrolled 30 lactating women who received mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines from January through April 2021 in this cohort study. Women provided serial milk samples, including milk expressed before vaccination, across 2-3 weeks after the first dose, and across 3 weeks after the second dose. Women provided their blood, spotted on cards (dried blood spots), 19 days after the first dose and 21 days after the second dose. Stool samples from the breastfed infants were collected 21 days after mothers' second vaccination. Prepandemic samples of milk, dried blood spots, and infant stool were used as controls. Milk, dried blood spots, and infant stool were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG. Milk samples were tested for the presence of neutralizing antibodies against the spike and four variants of concern: D614G, Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Gamma (P.1). Levels of 10 cytokines were measured in milk samples. RESULTS: Milk from COVID-19-immunized women neutralized the spike and four variants of concern, primarily driven by anti-RBD IgG. The immune response in milk also included significant elevation of interferon-γ. The immune response to maternal vaccination was reflected in breastfed infants: anti-RBD IgG and anti-RBD IgA were detected in 33% and 30% of infant stool samples, respectively. Levels of anti-RBD antibodies in infant stool correlated with maternal vaccine side effects. Median antibody levels against RBD were below the positive cutoffs in prepandemic milk and infant stool samples. CONCLUSION: Humoral and cellular immune responses to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination are present in most women's breast milk. The milk anti-RBD antibodies can neutralize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike and variants of concern. Anti-RBD antibodies are transferred to breastfed infants, with the potential to confer passive immunity against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cytokines/analysis , Milk, Human/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Middle Aged , Vaccination
2.
Cell Rep ; 38(9): 110429, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734242

ABSTRACT

Continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) is fueling the COVID-19 pandemic. Omicron (B.1.1.529) rapidly spread worldwide. The large number of mutations in its Spike raise concerns about a major antigenic drift that could significantly decrease vaccine efficacy and infection-induced immunity. A long interval between BNT162b2 mRNA doses elicits antibodies that efficiently recognize Spikes from different VOCs. Here, we evaluate the recognition of Omicron Spike by plasma from a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 naive and previously infected individuals who received their BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine 16 weeks apart. Omicron Spike is recognized less efficiently than D614G, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta Spikes. We compare with plasma activity from participants receiving a short (4 weeks) interval regimen. Plasma from individuals of the long-interval cohort recognize and neutralize better the Omicron Spike compared with those who received a short interval. Whether this difference confers any clinical benefit against Omicron remains unknown.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Immunization Schedule , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Quebec , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Time Factors , Vaccination/methods , Vaccine Potency , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult , /immunology
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3549, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730319

ABSTRACT

High-throughput detection of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 presents a valuable tool for vaccine trials or investigations of population immunity. We evaluate the performance of the first commercial surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT, GenScript Biotech) against SARS-CoV-2 plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) in convalescent and vaccinated individuals. We compare it to five other ELISAs, two of which are designed to detect neutralizing antibodies. In 491 pre-vaccination serum samples, sVNT missed 23.6% of PRNT-positive samples when using the manufacturer-recommended cutoff of 30% binding inhibition. Introducing an equivocal area between 15 and 35% maximized sensitivity and specificity against PRNT to 72.8-93.1% and 73.5-97.6%, respectively. The overall diagnostic performance of the other ELISAs for neutralizing antibodies was below that of sVNT. Vaccinated individuals exhibited higher antibody titers by PRNT (median 119.8, IQR 56.7-160) and binding inhibition by sVNT (median 95.7, IQR 88.1-96.8) than convalescent patients (median 49.1, IQR 20-62; median 52.9, IQR 31.2-76.2). GenScript sVNT is suitable to screen for SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies; however, to obtain accurate results, confirmatory testing by PRNT in a equivocal area is required. This equivocal area may require adaptation for use in vaccinated individuals, due to higher antibody titers.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 783975, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699418

ABSTRACT

Background: There is limited information on the functional neutralizing capabilities of breastmilk SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies and the potential adulteration of breastmilk with vaccine mRNA after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of lactating healthcare workers who received the BNT162b2 vaccine and their infants. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies, antibody isotypes (IgG, IgA, IgM) and intact mRNA in serum and breastmilk was evaluated at multiple time points using a surrogate neutralizing assay, ELISA, and PCR, over a 6 week period of the two-dose vaccination given 21 days apart. Results: Thirty-five lactating mothers, median age 34 years (IQR 32-36), were included. All had detectable neutralizing antibodies in the serum immediately before dose 2, with significant increase in neutralizing antibody levels 7 days after this dose [median 168.4 IU/ml (IQR 100.7-288.5) compared to 2753.0 IU/ml (IQR 1627.0-4712.0), p <0.001]. Through the two vaccine doses, all mothers had detectable IgG1, IgA and IgM isotypes in their serum, with a notable increase in all three antibody isotypes after dose 2, especially IgG1 levels. Neutralizing antibodies were detected in majority of breastmilk samples a week after dose 2 [median 13.4 IU/ml (IQR 7.0-28.7)], with persistence of these antibodies up to 3 weeks after. Post the second vaccine dose, all (35/35, 100%) mothers had detectable breastmilk SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD-specific IgG1 and IgA antibody and 32/35 (88.6%) mothers with IgM. Transient, low intact vaccine mRNA levels was detected in 20/74 (27%) serum samples from 21 mothers, and 5/309 (2%) breastmilk samples from 4 mothers within 1 weeks of vaccine dose. Five infants, median age 8 months (IQR 7-16), were also recruited - none had detectable neutralizing antibodies or vaccine mRNA in their serum. Conclusion: Majority of lactating mothers had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibody isotypes and neutralizing antibodies in serum and breastmilk, especially after dose 2 of BNT162b2 vaccination. Transient, low levels of vaccine mRNA were detected in the serum of vaccinated mothers with occasional transfer to their breastmilk, but we did not detect evidence of infant sensitization. Importantly, the presence of breastmilk neutralising antibodies likely provides a foundation for passive immunisation of the breastmilk-fed infant.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Milk, Human/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/analysis , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Infant , Lactation , Milk, Human/chemistry , Prospective Studies
5.
PLoS Med ; 18(12): e1003868, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People infected with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) experience a wide range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic and mild illness to severe illness and death, influenced by age and a variety of comorbidities. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) are thought to be a primary immune defense against the virus. Large, diverse, well-characterized cohorts of convalescent individuals provide standardized values to benchmark nAb responses to past SARS-CoV-2 infection and define potentially protective levels of immunity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This analysis comprises an observational cohort of 329 HIV-seronegative adults in the United States (n = 167) and Peru (n = 162) convalescing from SARS-CoV-2 infection from May through October 2020. The mean age was 48 years (range 18 to 86), 54% of the cohort overall was Hispanic, and 34% identified as White. nAb titers were measured in serum by SARS-CoV-2.D614G Spike-pseudotyped virus infection of 293T/ACE2 cells. Multiple linear regression was applied to define associations between nAb titers and demographic variables, disease severity and time from infection or disease onset, and comorbidities within and across US and Peruvian cohorts over time. nAb titers peaked 28 to 42 days post-diagnosis and were higher in participants with a history of severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) (p < 0.001). Diabetes, age >55 years, male sex assigned at birth, and, in some cases, body mass index were also independently associated with higher nAb titers, whereas hypertension was independently associated with lower nAb titers. nAb titers did not differ by race, underlying pulmonary disease or smoking. Two months post-enrollment, nAb ID50 (ID80) titers declined 3.5 (2.8)-fold overall. Study limitations in this observational, convalescent cohort include survivorship bias and missing early viral loads and acute immune responses to correlate with the convalescent responses we observed. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, in our cohort, nAb titers after SARS-CoV-2 infection peaked approximately 1 month post-diagnosis and varied by age, sex assigned at birth, disease severity, and underlying comorbidities. Our data show great heterogeneity in nAb responses among people with recent COVID-19, highlighting the challenges of interpreting natural history studies and gauging responses to vaccines and therapeutics among people with recent infection. Our observations illuminate potential correlations of demographic and clinical characteristics with nAb responses, a key element for protection from COVID-19, thus informing development and implementation of preventative and therapeutic strategies globally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04403880.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peru , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , United States , Young Adult
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(6): 1481-1492.e2, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555521

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the complexities of immune memory to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is key to gain insights into the durability of protective immunity against reinfection. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent patients with longer follow-up time. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses were assessed in convalescent patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 1 year postinfection. RESULTS: A total of 78 convalescent patients with COVID-19 (26 moderate, 43 severe, and 9 critical) were recruited after 1 year of recovery. The positive rates of both anti-receptor-binding domain and antinucleocapsid antibodies were 100%, whereas we did not observe a statistical difference in antibody levels among different severity groups. Accordingly, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) reached 93.59% in convalescent patients. Although nAb titers displayed an increasing trend in convalescent patients with increased severity, the difference failed to achieve statistical significance. Notably, there was a significant correlation between nAb titers and anti-receptor-binding domain levels. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells could be robustly maintained in convalescent patients, and their number was positively correlated with both nAb titers and anti-receptor-binding domain levels. Amplified SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells mainly produced a single cytokine, accompanying with increased expression of exhaustion markers including PD-1, Tim-3, TIGIT, CTLA-4, and CD39, while the proportion of multifunctional cells was low. CONCLUSIONS: Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses are maintained in convalescent patients with COVID-19 at 1 year postinfection. However, the dysfunction of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells supports the notion that vaccination is needed in convalescent patients for preventing reinfection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744887, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497079

ABSTRACT

Background: Although the serological antibody responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are well characterized, little is known about their ability to elicit mucosal immunity. Objectives: This study aims to examine and compare the mucosal and systemic responses of recipients of two different vaccination platforms: mRNA (Comirnaty) and inactivated virus (CoronaVac). Methods: Serial blood and nasal epithelial lining fluid (NELF) samples were collected from the recipients of either Comirnaty or CoronaVac. The plasma and NELF immunoglobulins A and G (IgA and IgG) specific to SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein (S1) and their neutralization effects were quantified. Results: Comirnaty induced nasal S1-specific immunoglobulin responses, which were evident as early as 14 ± 2 days after the first dose. In 64% of the subjects, the neutralizing effects of NELF persisted for at least 50 days. Moreover, 85% of Comirnaty recipients exhibited S1-specific IgA and IgG responses in plasma by 14 ± 2 days after the first dose. By 7 ± 2 days after the booster, all plasma samples possessed S1-specific IgA and IgG responses and were neutralizing. The induction of S1-specific plasma antibodies by CoronaVac was IgG dominant, and 83% of the subjects possessed S1-specific IgG by 7 ± 2 days after the booster, with neutralizing effects. Conclusion: Comirnaty induces S1-specific IgA and IgG responses with neutralizing activity in the nasal mucosa; a similar response is not seen with CoronaVac. Clinical Implication: The presence of a nasal response with mRNA vaccine may provide additional protection compared with inactivated virus vaccine. However, whether such widespread immunological response may produce inadvertent adverse effects in other tissues warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
9.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444331

ABSTRACT

Both the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and emergence of variants of concern have highlighted the need for functional antibody assays to monitor the humoral response over time. Antibodies directed against the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 are an important component of the neutralizing antibody response. In this work, we report that in a subset of patients-despite a decline in total S-specific antibodies-neutralizing antibody titers remain at a similar level for an average of 98 days in longitudinal sampling of a cohort of 59 Hispanic/Latino patients exposed to SARS-CoV-2. Our data suggest that 100% of seroconverting patients make detectable neutralizing antibody responses which can be quantified by a surrogate viral neutralization test. Examination of sera from ten out of the 59 subjects which received mRNA-based vaccination revealed that both IgG titers and neutralizing activity of sera were higher after vaccination compared to a cohort of 21 SARS-CoV-2 naïve subjects. One dose was sufficient for the induction of a neutralizing antibody, but two doses were necessary to reach 100% surrogate virus neutralization in subjects irrespective of previous SARS-CoV-2 natural infection status. Like the pattern observed after natural infection, the total anti-S antibodies titers declined after the second vaccine dose; however, neutralizing activity remained relatively constant for more than 80 days after the first vaccine dose. Furthermore, our data indicates that-compared with mRNA vaccination-natural infection induces a more robust humoral immune response in unexposed subjects. This work is an important contribution to understanding the natural immune response to the novel coronavirus in a population severely impacted by SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, by comparing the dynamics of the immune response after the natural infection vs. the vaccination, these findings suggest that functional neutralizing antibody tests are more relevant indicators than the presence or absence of binding antibodies.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Humoral/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/genetics , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Binding/genetics , Protein Domains/genetics , Puerto Rico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5621, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437680

ABSTRACT

Although serological studies have shown that antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 play an important role in protection against (re)infection, the dynamics of mucosal antibodies during primary infection and their potential impact on viral load and the resolution of disease symptoms remain unclear. During the first pandemic wave, we assessed the longitudinal nasal antibody response in index cases with mild COVID-19 and their household contacts. Nasal and serum antibody responses were analysed for up to nine months. Higher nasal receptor binding domain and spike protein-specific antibody levels at study inclusion were associated with lower viral load. Older age was correlated with more frequent COVID-19 related symptoms. Receptor binding domain and spike protein-specific mucosal antibodies were associated with the resolution of systemic, but not respiratory symptoms. Finally, receptor binding domain and spike protein-specific mucosal antibodies remained elevated up to nine months after symptom onset.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Viral Load , Young Adult
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 701411, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430694

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared a global health emergency-the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Since then, the development and implementation of vaccines against the virus amidst emerging cases of re-infection has prompted researchers to work towards understanding how immunity develops and is sustained. Serological testing has been instrumental in monitoring the development and persistence of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 infection, however inconsistencies in detection have been reported by different methods. As serological testing becomes more commonplace, it is important to establish widespread and repeatable processes for monitoring vaccine efficacy. Therefore, we present enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) compatible for antibody detection in saliva as highly accurate, efficacious, and scalable tools for studying the immune response in individuals vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 148(6): 1481-1492.e2, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1428085

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding the complexities of immune memory to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is key to gain insights into the durability of protective immunity against reinfection. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate the immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent patients with longer follow-up time. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses were assessed in convalescent patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 1 year postinfection. RESULTS: A total of 78 convalescent patients with COVID-19 (26 moderate, 43 severe, and 9 critical) were recruited after 1 year of recovery. The positive rates of both anti-receptor-binding domain and antinucleocapsid antibodies were 100%, whereas we did not observe a statistical difference in antibody levels among different severity groups. Accordingly, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) reached 93.59% in convalescent patients. Although nAb titers displayed an increasing trend in convalescent patients with increased severity, the difference failed to achieve statistical significance. Notably, there was a significant correlation between nAb titers and anti-receptor-binding domain levels. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells could be robustly maintained in convalescent patients, and their number was positively correlated with both nAb titers and anti-receptor-binding domain levels. Amplified SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells mainly produced a single cytokine, accompanying with increased expression of exhaustion markers including PD-1, Tim-3, TIGIT, CTLA-4, and CD39, while the proportion of multifunctional cells was low. CONCLUSIONS: Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses are maintained in convalescent patients with COVID-19 at 1 year postinfection. However, the dysfunction of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cells supports the notion that vaccination is needed in convalescent patients for preventing reinfection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Memory , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18428, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415954

ABSTRACT

Here we describe a homogeneous bioluminescent immunoassay based on the interaction between Fc-tagged SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD and human ACE2, and its detection by secondary antibodies labeled with NanoLuc luciferase fragments LgBit and SmBit. The assay utility for the discovery of novel inhibitors was demonstrated with a panel of anti-RBD antibodies, ACE2-derived miniproteins and soluble ACE2. Studying the effect of RBD mutations on ACE2 binding showed that the N501Y mutation increased RBD apparent affinity toward ACE2 tenfold that resulted in escaping inhibition by some anti-RBD antibodies. In contrast, while E484K mutation did not highly change the binding affinity, it still escaped antibody inhibition likely due to changes in the epitope recognized by the antibody. Also, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) from COVID-19 positive samples from two distinct regions (USA and Brazil) were successfully detected and the results further suggest the persistence of NAbs for at least 6 months post symptom onset. Finally, sera from vaccinated individuals were tested for NAbs and showed varying neutralizing activity after first and second doses, suggesting the assay can be used to assess immunity of vaccinated populations. Our results demonstrate the broad utility and ease of use of this methodology both for drug discovery and clinical research applications.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Brazil , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Luciferases/genetics , Luciferases/metabolism , Luminescent Measurements , Mutation , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , United States , Vaccination
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257191, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412845

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 in humans is caused by Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) that belongs to the beta family of coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-2 causes severe respiratory illness in 10-15% of infected individuals and mortality in 2-3%. Vaccines are urgently needed to prevent infection and to contain viral spread. Although several mRNA- and adenovirus-based vaccines are highly effective, their dependence on the "cold chain" transportation makes global vaccination a difficult task. In this context, a stable lyophilized vaccine may present certain advantages. Accordingly, establishing additional vaccine platforms remains vital to tackle SARS-CoV-2 and any future variants that may arise. Vaccinia virus (VACV) has been used to eradicate smallpox disease, and several attenuated viral strains with enhanced safety for human applications have been developed. We have generated two candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on two vaccinia viral strains, MVA and v-NY, that express full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Whereas MVA is growth-restricted in mammalian cells, the v-NY strain is replication-competent. We demonstrate that both candidate recombinant vaccines induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated according to prime-boost regimens. Furthermore, our vaccination regimens generated TH1-biased immune responses in mice. Most importantly, prime-boost vaccination of a Syrian hamster infection model with MVA-S and v-NY-S protected the hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 infection, supporting that these two vaccines are promising candidates for future development. Finally, our vaccination regimens generated neutralizing antibodies that partially cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Female , Immunization, Secondary , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17325, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379337

ABSTRACT

Two-dose messenger RNA vaccines against the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are highly effective in preventing symptomatic COVID-19 infection. However, the durability of protection is not known, nor is the effectiveness against emerging viral variants. Additionally, vaccine responses may differ based on prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure history. To investigate protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants we measured binding and neutralizing antibody responses following both vaccine doses. We document significant declines in antibody levels three months post-vaccination, and reduced neutralization of emerging variants, highlighting the need to identify correlates of clinical protection to inform the timing of and indications for booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Time Factors , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
17.
Nat Med ; 27(3): 454-462, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319036

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues to spread relentlessly, associated with a high frequency of respiratory failure and mortality. Children experience largely asymptomatic disease, with rare reports of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Identifying immune mechanisms that result in these disparate clinical phenotypes in children could provide critical insights into coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis. Using systems serology, in this study we observed in 25 children with acute mild COVID-19 a functional phagocyte and complement-activating IgG response to SARS-CoV-2, similar to the acute responses generated in adults with mild disease. Conversely, IgA and neutrophil responses were significantly expanded in adults with severe disease. Moreover, weeks after the resolution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, children who develop MIS-C maintained highly inflammatory monocyte-activating SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies, distinguishable from acute disease in children but with antibody levels similar to those in convalescent adults. Collectively, these data provide unique insights into the potential mechanisms of IgG and IgA that might underlie differential disease severity as well as unexpected complications in children infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age of Onset , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier State/blood , Carrier State/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity/physiology , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
J Immunol ; 207(1): 344-351, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286955

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike pseudotyped virus (PSV) assays are widely used to measure neutralization titers of sera and of isolated neutralizing Abs (nAbs). PSV neutralization assays are safer than live virus neutralization assays and do not require access to biosafety level 3 laboratories. However, many PSV assays are nevertheless somewhat challenging and require at least 2 d to carry out. In this study, we report a rapid (<30 min), sensitive, cell-free, off-the-shelf, and accurate assay for receptor binding domain nAb detection. Our proximity-based luciferase assay takes advantage of the fact that the most potent SARS-CoV-2 nAbs function by blocking the binding between SARS-CoV-2 and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. The method was validated using isolated nAbs and sera from spike-immunized animals and patients with coronavirus disease 2019. The method was particularly useful in patients with HIV taking antiretroviral therapies that interfere with the conventional PSV assay. The method provides a cost-effective and point-of-care alternative to evaluate the potency and breadth of the predominant SARS-CoV-2 nAbs elicited by infection or vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
J Vis Exp ; (172)2021 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278530

ABSTRACT

As the COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to evolve, it has become evident that the presence of neutralizing antibodies against the virus may provide protection against future infection. Thus, as the creation and translation of effective COVID-19 vaccines continues at an unprecedented speed, the development of fast and effective methods to measure neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 will become increasingly important to determine long-term protection against infection for both previously infected and immunized individuals. This paper describes a high-throughput protocol using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotyped with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to measure the presence of neutralizing antibodies in convalescent serum from patients who have recently recovered from COVID-19. The use of a replicating pseudotyped virus eliminates the necessity for a containment level 3 facility required for SARS-CoV-2 handling, making this protocol accessible to virtually any containment level 2 lab. The use of a 96-well format allows for many samples to be run at the same time with a short turnaround time of 24 h.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Optical Imaging/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology
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