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1.
J Virol ; 96(22): e0150222, 2022 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314826

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in children. In humans, natural infection with RSV affords only partial long-term protection from reinfection, and there is no licensed RSV vaccine currently available. We have developed a new vaccine candidate, termed RSVNanoVax, composed of polyanhydride nanoparticles encapsulating the RSV prefusion F protein and a CpG 1668 oligodeoxynucleotide adjuvant. We recently reported that vaccination of inbred BALB/c mice with RSVNanoVax induced both RSV-specific cellular and humoral immunity, which provided protection from viral replication and RSV-induced disease. To further assess the efficacy of RSVNanoVax, here, we utilized outbred Swiss Webster mice to examine vaccine efficacy in a more genetically diverse population. Following intranasal prime-boost vaccination with RSVNanoVax, Swiss Webster mice exhibited robust titers of systemic RSV F-directed IgG antibodies and RSV F-directed IgA within the lungs and nasal passages that were sustained out to at least 1 year post-vaccination. Serum antibodies maintained robust neutralizing activity against both RSV A and B strains. Following RSV challenge, vaccinated Swiss Webster mice exhibited rapid viral clearance from the lungs. Overall, our results indicate that RSVNanoVax represents a promising RSV vaccine candidate capable of providing long-term protection and immunity in a genetically diverse population. IMPORTANCE Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection causes thousands of infections and deaths in children and elderly adults each year. Research in this field is of great importance as there remains no licensed vaccine to prevent RSV infections. We developed a novel vaccine candidate, RSVNanoVax, utilizing the RSV prefusion F protein encapsulated in polyanhydride nanoparticles. Here, we show that the intranasal delivery of RSVNanoVax protected outbred mice from viral replication within the lungs when challenged with RSV out to 1 year post-vaccination. Additionally, RSV-specific antibody responses were generated in both the serum and lung tissue and sustained long-term. These results demonstrate that our vaccine is an encouraging candidate for driving long-term protection in the lungs in a genetically diverse population.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Animals , Humans , Mice , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Polyanhydrides , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Viral Fusion Proteins , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Nanoparticles , Administration, Intranasal
2.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 219, 2022 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36115948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus isolates carrying the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) gene is higher in Africa (≈50%) compared to Europe (< 5%). The study aimed to measure anti-PVL-antibodies in Africans and Germans in a multi-center study and to test whether detected antibodies can neutralize the cytotoxic effect of PVL on polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). METHODS: Sera from asymptomatic Africans (n = 22, Nigeria, Gabon) and Caucasians (n = 22, Germany) were used to quantify antibody titers against PVL and α-hemolysin (in arbitrary units [AU]) by ELISA. PMNs from one African and German donor were exposed to 5 nM recombinant PVL to measure the neutralizing effect of serial dilutions of pooled sera from African and Caucasian participants, or donor sera at 0.625 and 2.5% (v/v). RESULTS: Anti-PVL-antibodies were significantly higher in Africans than in Germans (1.9 vs. 0.7 AU, p < 0.0001). The pooled sera from the study participants neutralized the cytotoxic effect of PVL on African and German PMNs in a dose dependent manner. Also, neutralization of PVL on PMNs from the African and German donors had a stronger effect with African sera (half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 0.27 and 0.47%, respectively) compared to Caucasian sera (IC50 = 3.51 and 3.59% respectively). CONCLUSION: Africans have higher levels of neutralizing anti-PVL-antibodies. It remains unclear if or at what level these antibodies protect against PVL-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Leukocidins , Neutrophils , Staphylococcal Infections , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Bacterial Toxins/blood , Bacterial Toxins/immunology , Exotoxins/blood , Exotoxins/immunology , Germany/epidemiology , Hemolysin Proteins , Humans , Leukocidins/blood , Leukocidins/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Nigeria/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/blood , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/immunology , Staphylococcus aureus/immunology , Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(34): e2117089119, 2022 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943976

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has incurred tremendous costs worldwide and is still threatening public health in the "new normal." The association between neutralizing antibody levels and metabolic alterations in convalescent patients with COVID-19 is still poorly understood. In the present work, we conducted absolutely quantitative profiling to compare the plasma cytokines and metabolome of ordinary convalescent patients with antibodies (CA), convalescents with rapidly faded antibodies (CO), and healthy subjects. As a result, we identified that cytokines such as M-CSF and IL-12p40 and plasma metabolites such as glycylproline (gly-pro) and long-chain acylcarnitines could be associated with antibody fading in COVID-19 convalescent patients. Following feature selection, we built machine-learning-based classification models using 17 features (six cytokines and 11 metabolites). Overall accuracies of more than 90% were attained in at least six machine-learning models. Of note, the dipeptide gly-pro, a product of enzymatic peptide cleavage catalyzed by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), strongly accumulated in CO individuals compared with the CA group. Furthermore, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination experiments in healthy mice demonstrated that supplementation of gly-pro down-regulates SARS-CoV-2-specific receptor-binding domain antibody levels and suppresses immune responses, whereas the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin can counteract the inhibitory effects of gly-pro upon SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Our findings not only reveal the important role of gly-pro in the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection but also indicate a possible mechanism underlying the beneficial outcomes of treatment with DPP4 inhibitors in convalescent COVID-19 patients, shedding light on therapeutic and vaccination strategies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Convalescence , Cytokines , Dipeptides , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Dipeptides/blood , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , Dipeptidyl-Peptidase IV Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Machine Learning , Metabolome , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(33): e2201616119, 2022 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35895717

ABSTRACT

With the rapid increase in SARS-CoV-2 cases in children, a safe and effective vaccine for this population is urgently needed. The MMR (measles/mumps/rubella) vaccine has been one of the safest and most effective human vaccines used in infants and children since the 1960s. Here, we developed live attenuated recombinant mumps virus (rMuV)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates using the MuV Jeryl Lynn (JL2) vaccine strain backbone. The soluble prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (preS) gene, stablized by two prolines (preS-2P) or six prolines (preS-6P), was inserted into the MuV genome at the P-M or F-SH gene junctions in the MuV genome. preS-6P was more efficiently expressed than preS-2P, and preS-6P expression from the P-M gene junction was more efficient than from the F-SH gene junction. In mice, the rMuV-preS-6P vaccine was more immunogenic than the rMuV-preS-2P vaccine, eliciting stronger neutralizing antibodies and mucosal immunity. Sera raised in response to the rMuV-preS-6P vaccine neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, including the Delta variant equivalently. Intranasal and/or subcutaneous immunization of IFNAR1-/- mice and golden Syrian hamsters with the rMuV-preS-6P vaccine induced high levels of neutralizing antibodies, mucosal immunoglobulin A antibody, and T cell immune responses, and were completely protected from challenge by both SARS-CoV-2 USA-WA1/2020 and Delta variants. Therefore, rMuV-preS-6P is a highly promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate, warranting further development as a tetravalent MMR vaccine, which may include protection against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccine Efficacy , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/genetics , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Mesocricetus , Mice , Mumps virus/genetics , Mumps virus/immunology , Proline/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
5.
Science ; 377(6608): 890-894, 2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857529

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern comprises several sublineages, with BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 having replaced the previously dominant BA.1 and with BA.4 and BA.5 increasing in prevalence worldwide. We show that the large number of Omicron sublineage spike mutations leads to enhanced angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding, reduced fusogenicity, and severe dampening of plasma neutralizing activity elicited by infection or seven clinical vaccines relative to the ancestral virus. Administration of a homologous or heterologous booster based on the Wuhan-Hu-1 spike sequence markedly increased neutralizing antibody titers and breadth against BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and BA.5 across all vaccines evaluated. Our data suggest that although Omicron sublineages evade polyclonal neutralizing antibody responses elicited by primary vaccine series, vaccine boosters may provide sufficient protection against Omicron-induced severe disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
J Biol Rhythms ; 37(5): 562-566, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35730571

ABSTRACT

To examine whether immunization time affects the immune responses elicited by the BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine, we investigated the possible association between total SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (TAbs-RBD) and neutralizing (NAbs-RBD) antibodies with vaccination time. A cohort of 468 healthcare workers (mean age [±SD]: 48 [±13] years), were included in the study. One month after the second dose, healthcare workers who were vaccinated between 1500-2200 h had higher TAbs-RBD compared to 0700-1100 h and 1100-1500 h (p = 0.006). One month after the third dose, healthcare workers who were vaccinated between 0700-1100 h and 1500-2200 h had significantly higher TAbs-RBD compared to 1100-1500 h (p = 0.034). However, no association of NAbs-RBD with vaccination time was detected after each of the 3 doses (p > 0.4). Despite the possible effect of BNT162b2 vaccination time in TAbs-RBD levels, possibly due to rhythmic expression of clock genes, neutralizing activity was not associated with vaccination time and, therefore, further investigation is required.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Circadian Rhythm , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
7.
Vet Microbiol ; 271: 109491, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35714529

ABSTRACT

Viral infectious pathogens, such as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza virus, can cause extremely high infection rates and mortality in humans. Therefore, it is urgent to develop an effective vaccine against coronavirus and influenza virus infection. Herein, we used the influenza virus as a vector to express the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) and hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion (HEF) protein of the influenza C virus. We then evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of this design strategy through experiments in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that the chimeric viruses could stably express the HEF protein and the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD at a high level. BALB/c mice, infected with the chimeric virus, exhibited mild clinical symptoms, yet produced high specific antibody levels against RBD and HEF, including neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, high neutralizing antibodies could be retained in the sera of mice for at least 20 weeks. Altogether, our data provided a new strategy for developing safe and effective COVID-19 and influenza virus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Orthomyxoviridae , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
8.
J Virol ; 96(13): e0038322, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35699445

ABSTRACT

Despite the rapid deployment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants and reports of their immune evasion characteristics have led to an urgent need for novel vaccines that confer potent cross-protective immunity. In this study, we constructed three different SARS-CoV-2 spike S1-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine candidates that exhibited high structural homogeneity and stability. Notably, these vaccines elicited up to 50-times-higher neutralizing antibody titers than the S1 monomer in mice. Crucially, it was found that the S1-conjugated nanoparticle vaccine could elicit comparable levels of neutralizing antibodies against wild-type or emerging variant SARS-CoV-2, with cross-reactivity to SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), the effect of which could be further enhanced using our designed nanoparticles. Our results indicate that the S1-conjugated nanoparticles are promising vaccine candidates with the potential to elicit potent and cross-reactive immunity against not only wild-type SARS-CoV-2, but also its variants of concern, variants of interest, and even other pathogenic betacoronaviruses. IMPORTANCE The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants led to an urgent demand for a broadly effective vaccine against the threat of variant infection. The spike protein S1-based nanoparticle designed in our study could elicit a comprehensive humoral response toward different SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and variants of interest and will be helpful to combat COVID-19 globally.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(24): e2202069119, 2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679343

ABSTRACT

Current vaccines have greatly diminished the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, even though they do not entirely prevent infection and transmission, likely due to insufficient immunity in the upper respiratory tract. Here, we compare intramuscular and intranasal administration of a live, replication-deficient modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-based Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) vaccine to raise protective immune responses in the K18-hACE2 mouse model. Using a recombinant MVA expressing firefly luciferase for tracking, live imaging revealed luminescence of the respiratory tract of mice within 6 h and persisting for 3 d following intranasal inoculation, whereas luminescence remained at the site of intramuscular vaccination. Intramuscular vaccination induced S-binding-Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralizing antibodies in the lungs, whereas intranasal vaccination also induced Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and higher levels of antigen-specific CD3+CD8+IFN-γ+ T cells. Similarly, IgG and neutralizing antibodies were present in the blood of mice immunized intranasally and intramuscularly, but IgA was detected only after intranasal inoculation. Intranasal boosting increased IgA after intranasal or intramuscular priming. While intramuscular vaccination prevented morbidity and cleared SARS-CoV-2 from the respiratory tract within several days after challenge, intranasal vaccination was more effective as neither infectious virus nor viral messenger (m)RNAs were detected in the nasal turbinates or lungs as early as 2 d after challenge, indicating prevention or rapid elimination of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Additionally, we determined that neutralizing antibody persisted for more than 6 mo and that serum induced to the Wuhan S protein neutralized pseudoviruses expressing the S proteins of variants, although with less potency, particularly for Beta and Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunoglobulin A , Respiratory System , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccinia virus , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Respiratory System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Vaccinia virus/immunology
10.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 172, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35665745

ABSTRACT

The increased coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) breakthrough cases pose the need of booster vaccination. We conducted a randomised, double-blinded, controlled, phase 2 trial to assess the immunogenicity and safety of the heterologous prime-boost vaccination with an inactivated COVID-19 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) followed by a recombinant protein-based vaccine (NVSI-06-07), using homologous boost with BBIBP-CorV as control. Three groups of healthy adults (600 individuals per group) who had completed two-dose BBIBP-CorV vaccinations 1-3 months, 4-6 months and ≥6 months earlier, respectively, were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either NVSI-06-07 or BBIBP-CorV boost. Immunogenicity assays showed that in NVSI-06-07 groups, neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers (GMTs) against the prototype SARS-CoV-2 increased by 21.01-63.85 folds on day 28 after vaccination, whereas only 4.20-16.78 folds of increases were observed in control groups. For Omicron variant, the neutralizing antibody GMT elicited by homologous boost was 37.91 on day 14, however, a significantly higher neutralizing GMT of 292.53 was induced by heterologous booster. Similar results were obtained for other SARS-CoV-2 variants of concerns (VOCs), including Alpha, Beta and Delta. Both heterologous and homologous boosters have a good safety profile. Local and systemic adverse reactions were absent, mild or moderate in most participants, and the overall safety was quite similar between two booster schemes. Our findings indicated that NVSI-06-07 is safe and immunogenic as a heterologous booster in BBIBP-CorV recipients and was immunogenically superior to the homologous booster against not only SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain but also VOCs, including Omicron.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632710

ABSTRACT

Serological detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleocapsid (N), spike (S), and neutralizing antibodies (Abs) is commonly undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination. However, the relative efficiency of different SARS-CoV-2 Ab detection systems has not been extensively investigated. Here, we evaluated serological test systems in vaccinated Japanese. SARS-CoV-2 N, S, and neutralizing Abs in sera of 375 healthy subjects a mean 253 days after vaccination were assessed. The sensitivity of Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche S) and Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S IgG (Fujirebio S) was 100% and 98.9%, respectively, with a specificity of 100% for both. The sensitivity of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing Ab (MBL Neu) was 2.7%, and the specificity was 100%. Fujirebio S correlated with Roche S (rho = 0.9182, p = 3.97 × 10-152). Fujirebio S (rho = 0.1295, p = 0.0121) and Roche S (rho = 0.1232, p = 0.0170) correlated weakly with MBL Neu. However, Roche S did correlate with MBL Neu in patients with COVID-19 (rho = 0.8299, p = 1.01 × 10-12) and in healthy subjects more recently after vaccination (mean of 90 days, rho = 0.5306, p = 0.0003). Thus, the Fujirebio S and Roche S results were very similar, but neither correlated with neutralizing antibody titers by MBL Neu at a later time after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Japan , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(21): e2200413119, 2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35576468

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection fatality rate (IFR) doubles with every 5 y of age from childhood onward. Circulating autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α, IFN-ω, and/or IFN-ß are found in ∼20% of deceased patients across age groups, and in ∼1% of individuals aged <70 y and in >4% of those >70 y old in the general population. With a sample of 1,261 unvaccinated deceased patients and 34,159 individuals of the general population sampled before the pandemic, we estimated both IFR and relative risk of death (RRD) across age groups for individuals carrying autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs, relative to noncarriers. The RRD associated with any combination of autoantibodies was higher in subjects under 70 y old. For autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, the RRDs were 17.0 (95% CI: 11.7 to 24.7) and 5.8 (4.5 to 7.4) for individuals <70 y and ≥70 y old, respectively, whereas, for autoantibodies neutralizing both molecules, the RRDs were 188.3 (44.8 to 774.4) and 7.2 (5.0 to 10.3), respectively. In contrast, IFRs increased with age, ranging from 0.17% (0.12 to 0.31) for individuals <40 y old to 26.7% (20.3 to 35.2) for those ≥80 y old for autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, and from 0.84% (0.31 to 8.28) to 40.5% (27.82 to 61.20) for autoantibodies neutralizing both. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs increase IFRs, and are associated with high RRDs, especially when neutralizing both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω. Remarkably, IFRs increase with age, whereas RRDs decrease with age. Autoimmunity to type I IFNs is a strong and common predictor of COVID-19 death.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Autoantibodies , Autoimmunity , COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Autoantibodies/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk
13.
N Engl J Med ; 386(21): 2011-2023, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35544369

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccination of children to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is an urgent public health need. The safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the mRNA-1273 vaccine in children 6 to 11 years of age are unknown. METHODS: Part 1 of this ongoing phase 2-3 trial was open label for dose selection; part 2 was an observer-blinded, placebo-controlled expansion evaluation of the selected dose. In part 2, we randomly assigned children (6 to 11 years of age) in a 3:1 ratio to receive two injections of mRNA-1273 (50 µg each) or placebo, administered 28 days apart. The primary objectives were evaluation of the safety of the vaccine in children and the noninferiority of the immune response in these children to that in young adults (18 to 25 years of age) in a related phase 3 trial. Secondary objectives included determination of the incidences of confirmed Covid-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection, regardless of symptoms. Interim analysis results are reported. RESULTS: In part 1 of the trial, 751 children received 50-µg or 100-µg injections of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and on the basis of safety and immunogenicity results, the 50-µg dose level was selected for part 2. In part 2 of the trial, 4016 children were randomly assigned to receive two injections of mRNA-1273 (50 µg each) or placebo and were followed for a median of 82 days (interquartile range, 14 to 94) after the first injection. This dose level was associated with mainly low-grade, transient adverse events, most commonly injection-site pain, headache, and fatigue. No vaccine-related serious adverse events, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, myocarditis, or pericarditis were reported as of the data-cutoff date. One month after the second injection (day 57), the neutralizing antibody titer in children who received mRNA-1273 at a 50-µg level was 1610 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1457 to 1780), as compared with 1300 (95% CI, 1171 to 1443) at the 100-µg level in young adults, with serologic responses in at least 99.0% of the participants in both age groups, findings that met the prespecified noninferiority success criterion. Estimated vaccine efficacy was 88.0% (95% CI, 70.0 to 95.8) against Covid-19 occurring 14 days or more after the first injection, at a time when B.1.617.2 (delta) was the dominant circulating variant. CONCLUSIONS: Two 50-µg doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine were found to be safe and effective in inducing immune responses and preventing Covid-19 in children 6 to 11 years of age; these responses were noninferior to those in young adults. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; KidCOVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04796896.).


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Child , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vaccine Efficacy , Young Adult
14.
Virol Sin ; 37(2): 229-237, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35527224

ABSTRACT

The Getah virus (GETV), a mosquito-borne RNA virus, is widely distributed in Oceania and Asia. GETV is not the only pathogenic to horses, pigs, cattle, foxes and boars, but it can also cause fever in humans. Since its first reported case in Chinese mainland in 2017, the number of GETV-affected provinces has increased to seventeen till now. Therefore, we performed an epidemiologic investigation of GETV in the Xinjiang region, located in northwestern China, during the period of 2017-2020. ELISA was used to analyze 3299 serum samples collected from thoroughbred horse, local horse, sheep, goat, cattle, and pigs, with thoroughbred horse (74.8%), local horse (67.3%), goat (11.7%), sheep (10.0%), cattle (25.1%) and pigs (51.1%) being positive for anti-GETV antibodies. Interestingly, the neutralizing antibody titer in horses was much higher than in other species. Four samples from horses and pigs were positive for GETV according to RT-PCR. Furthermore, from the serum of a local horse, we isolated GETV which was designated as strain XJ-2019-07, and determined its complete genome sequence. From the phylogenetic relationships, it belongs to the Group III lineage. This is the first evidence of GETV associated to domestic animals in Xinjiang. Overall, GETV is prevalent in Xinjiang and probably has been for several years. Since no vaccine against GETV is available in China, detection and monitoring strategies should be improved in horses and pigs, especially imported and farmed, in order to prevent economic losses.


Subject(s)
Alphavirus , Culicidae , Alphavirus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cattle/virology , China/epidemiology , Culicidae/virology , Goats/virology , Horses/virology , Male , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Sheep/virology , Swine/virology
15.
N Engl J Med ; 386(17): 1615-1626, 2022 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35476650

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major cause of illness and death in infants worldwide, could be prevented by vaccination during pregnancy. The efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of a bivalent RSV prefusion F protein-based (RSVpreF) vaccine in pregnant women and their infants are uncertain. METHODS: In a phase 2b trial, we randomly assigned pregnant women, at 24 through 36 weeks' gestation, to receive either 120 or 240 µg of RSVpreF vaccine (with or without aluminum hydroxide) or placebo. The trial included safety end points and immunogenicity end points that, in this interim analysis, included 50% titers of RSV A, B, and combined A/B neutralizing antibodies in maternal serum at delivery and in umbilical-cord blood, as well as maternal-to-infant transplacental transfer ratios. RESULTS: This planned interim analysis included 406 women and 403 infants; 327 women (80.5%) received RSVpreF vaccine. Most postvaccination reactions were mild to moderate; the incidence of local reactions was higher among women who received RSVpreF vaccine containing aluminum hydroxide than among those who received RSVpreF vaccine without aluminum hydroxide. The incidences of adverse events in the women and infants were similar in the vaccine and placebo groups; the type and frequency of these events were consistent with the background incidences among pregnant women and infants. The geometric mean ratios of 50% neutralizing titers between the infants of vaccine recipients and those of placebo recipients ranged from 9.7 to 11.7 among those with RSV A neutralizing antibodies and from 13.6 to 16.8 among those with RSV B neutralizing antibodies. Transplacental neutralizing antibody transfer ratios ranged from 1.41 to 2.10 and were higher with nonaluminum formulations than with aluminum formulations. Across the range of assessed gestational ages, infants of women who were immunized had similar titers in umbilical-cord blood and similar transplacental transfer ratios. CONCLUSIONS: RSVpreF vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody responses with efficient transplacental transfer and without evident safety concerns. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04032093.).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Viral Fusion Proteins , Aluminum Hydroxide/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Vaccination , Viral Fusion Proteins/immunology
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(6): 1949-1957, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) are at increased risk of severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Effective vaccination against COVID-19 is therefore of great importance in this group, but little is known about the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccines in these patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to study humoral and cellular immune responses after mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccination in adult patients with IEI. METHODS: In a prospective, controlled, multicenter study, 505 patients with IEI (common variable immunodeficiency [CVID], isolated or undefined antibody deficiencies, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, phagocyte defects) and 192 controls were included. All participants received 2 doses of the mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Levels of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2-specific binding antibodies, neutralizing antibodies, and T-cell responses were assessed at baseline, 28 days after first vaccination, and 28 days after second vaccination. RESULTS: Seroconversion rates in patients with clinically mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects were similar to those in healthy controls, but seroconversion rates in patients with more severe IEI, such as CVID and combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency, were lower. Binding antibody titers correlated well to the presence of neutralizing antibodies. T-cell responses were comparable to those in controls in all IEI cohorts, with the exception of patients with CVID. The presence of noninfectious complications and the use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with CVID were negatively correlated with the antibody response. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with mRNA-1273 was immunogenic in mild antibody deficiencies and phagocyte defects and in most patients with combined B- and T-cell immunodeficiency and CVID. Lowest response was detected in patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and in patients with CVID with noninfectious complications. The assessment of longevity of immune responses in these vulnerable patient groups will guide decision making for additional vaccinations.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/blood , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/immunology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Adult , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/genetics , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/immunology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/blood , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/blood , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/genetics , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/genetics , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
17.
Transplantation ; 106(7): 1440-1444, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417115

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Humoral responses to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are attenuated in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs), necessitating additional booster vaccinations. The Omicron variant demonstrates substantial immune evasion, and it is unknown whether additional vaccine doses increase neutralizing capacity versus this variant of concern (VOC) among SOTRs. METHODS: Within an observational cohort, 25 SOTRs with low seroresponse underwent anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin (Ig)G testing using a commercially available multiplex ELISA before and after a fourth COVID-19 vaccine dose (D4). Surrogate neutralization (percent angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 inhibition [%ACE2i], range 0%-100% with >20% correlating with live virus neutralization) was measured against full-length spike proteins of the vaccine strain and 5 VOCs including Delta and Omicron. Changes in IgG level and %ACE2i were compared using the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. RESULTS: Anti-receptor-binding domain and anti-spike seropositivity increased post-D4 from 56% to 84% and 68% to 88%, respectively. Median (interquartile range) anti-spike antibody significantly increased post-D4 from 42.3 (4.9-134.2) to 228.9 (1115.4-655.8) World Health Organization binding antibody units. %ACE2i (median [interquartile range]) also significantly increased against the vaccine strain (5.8% [0%-16.8%] to 20.6% [5.8%-45.9%]) and the Delta variant (9.1% [4.9%-12.8%] to 17.1% [10.3%-31.7%]), yet neutralization versus Omicron was poor, did not increase post-D4 (4.1% [0%-6.9%] to 0.5% [0%-5.7%]), and was significantly lower than boosted healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Although a fourth vaccine dose increases anti-spike IgG and neutralizing capacity against many VOCs, some SOTRs may remain at high risk for Omicron infection despite boosting. Thus, additional protective interventions or alternative vaccination strategies should be urgently explored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Transplant Recipients , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0038922, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35412347

ABSTRACT

Increasing cases of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections from immunization with current spike protein-based COVID-19 vaccines highlight the need to develop alternative vaccines using different platforms and/or antigens. In this study, we expressed SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins based on a novel vaccinia virus (VACV) ACAM2000 platform (rACAM2000). In this platform, the vaccinia virus host range and immunoregulatory gene E3L was deleted to make the virus attenuated and to enhance innate immune responses, and another host range gene, K3L, was replaced with a poxvirus ortholog gene, taterapox virus 037 (TATV037), to make virus replication competent in both hamster and human cells. Following a single intramuscular immunization, the rACAM2000 coexpressing the spike and nucleocapsid proteins induced significantly improved protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in comparison to rACAM2000 expressing the individual proteins in a hamster model, as shown by reduced weight loss and shorter recovery time. The protection was associated with reduced viral loads, increased neutralizing antibody titer, and reduced neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. Thus, our study demonstrates that rACAM2000 expressing a combination of the spike and nucleocapsid antigens is a promising COVID-19 vaccine candidate, and further studies will investigate if the rACAM2000 vaccine candidate can induce a long-lasting immunity against infection by SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. IMPORTANCE Continuous emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants which cause breakthrough infection from the immunity induced by current spike protein-based COVID-19 vaccines highlights the need for new generations of vaccines that will induce long-lasting immunity against a wide range of the variants. To this end, we investigated the protective efficacy of the recombinant COVID-19 vaccine candidates based on a novel VACV ACAM2000 platform, in which an immunoregulatory gene, E3L, was deleted and both the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) antigens were expressed. Thus, it is expected that the vaccine candidate we constructed should be more immunogenic and safer. In the initial study described in this work, we demonstrated that the vaccine candidate expressing both the S and N proteins is superior to the constructs expressing an individual protein (S or N) in protecting hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 challenge after a single-dose immunization, and further investigation against different SARS-CoV-2 variants will warrant future clinical evaluations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cricetinae , Humans , Immunization , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Smallpox Vaccine , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccinia virus
19.
J Virol ; 96(9): e0033622, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35404082

ABSTRACT

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the first identified human tumor virus, is etiologically associated with various kinds of malignant and benign diseases, accounting for 265,000 cancer incident cases and 164,000 cancer deaths in 2017. EBV prophylactic vaccine development has been gp350 centered for several decades. However, clinical studies show that gp350-centered vaccines fail to prevent EBV infection. Advances in the EBV infection mechanisms shed light on gB and gHgL, the two key components of the infection apparatus. In this study, for the first time, we utilized recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) to display EBV gB (VSV-ΔG-gB/gB-G) or gHgL (VSV-ΔG-gHgL). In vitro studies confirmed successful virion production and glycoprotein presentation on the virion surface. In mouse models, VSV-ΔG-gB/gB-G or VSV-ΔG-gHgL elicited potent humoral responses. Neutralizing antibodies elicited by VSV-ΔG-gB/gB-G were prone to prevent B cell infection, while those elicited by VSV-ΔG-gHgL were prone to prevent epithelial cell infection. Combinatorial vaccination yields an additive effect. The ratio of endpoint neutralizing antibody titers to the endpoint total IgG titers immunized with VSV-ΔG-gHgL was approximately 1. The ratio of IgG1/IgG2a after VSV-ΔG-gB/gB-G immunization was approximately 1 in a dose-dependent, adjuvant-independent manner. Taken together, VSV-based EBV vaccines can elicit a high ratio of epithelial and B lymphocyte neutralizing antibodies, implying their unique potential as EBV prophylactic vaccine candidates. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), one of the most common human viruses and the first identified human oncogenic virus, accounted for 265,000 cancer incident cases and 164,000 cancer deaths in 2017 as well as millions of nonmalignant disease cases. So far, no prophylactic vaccine is available to prevent EBV infection. In this study, for the first time, we reported the VSV-based EBV vaccines presenting two key components of the EBV infection apparatus, gB and gHgL. We confirmed potent antigen-specific antibody generation; these antibodies prevented EBV from infecting epithelial cells and B cells, and the IgG1/IgG2a ratio indicated balanced humoral-cellular responses. Taken together, we suggest VSV-based EBV vaccines are potent prophylactic candidates for clinical studies and help eradicate numerous EBV-associated malignant and benign diseases.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Vesiculovirus , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/prevention & control , Herpesvirus 4, Human/physiology , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice , Vesiculovirus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/immunology
20.
J Immunol ; 208(7): 1711-1718, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35321882

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has had an unprecedented global impact on human health. Understanding the Ab memory responses to infection is one tool needed to effectively control the pandemic. Among 173 outpatients who had virologically confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we evaluated serum Ab concentrations, microneutralization activity, and enumerated SARS-CoV-2-specific B cells in convalescent human blood specimens. Serum Ab concentrations were variable, allowing for stratification of the cohort into high and low responders. Neither participant sex, the timing of blood sampling following the onset of illness, nor the number of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific B cells correlated with serum Ab concentration. Serum Ab concentration was positively associated with microneutralization activity and participant age, with participants under the age of 30 showing the lowest Ab level. These data suggest that young adult outpatients did not generate as robust Ab memory, compared with older adults. Body mass index was also positively correlated with serum Ab levels. Multivariate analyses showed that participant age and body mass index were independently associated with Ab levels. These findings have direct implications for public health policy and current vaccine efforts. Knowledge gained regarding Ab memory following infection will inform the need for vaccination in those previously infected and allow for a better approximation of population-wide protective immunity.


Subject(s)
Age Factors , Antibody Formation , Body Mass Index , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Outpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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