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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 8(1): 179, 2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313877

ABSTRACT

The emergence of adapted variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has led to a surge in breakthrough infections worldwide. A recent analysis of immune responses in people who received inactivated vaccines has revealed that individuals with no prior infection have limited resistance to Omicron and its sub-lineages, while those with previous infections exhibit a significant amount of neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells. However, specific T-cell responses remain largely unaffected by the mutations, indicating that T-cell-mediated cellular immunity can still provide protection. Moreover, the administration of a third dose of vaccine has resulted in a marked increase in the spectrum and duration of neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells in vivo, which has enhanced resistance to emerging variants such as BA.2.75 and BA.2.12.1. These results highlight the need to consider booster immunization for previously infected individuals and the development of novel vaccination strategies. The rapid spread of adapted variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus presents a significant challenge to global health. The findings from this study underscore the importance of tailoring vaccination strategies based on individual immune backgrounds and the potential need for booster shots to combat emerging variants. Continued research and development are crucial to discovering new immunization strategies that will effectively protect public health against the evolving virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , B-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1165606, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2298752

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a re-emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that causes high mortality in neonatal piglets. The addition of trypsin plays a crucial role in the propagation of PEDV, but also increases the complexity of vaccine production and increases its cost. Previous studies have suggested that the S2' site and Y976/977 of the PEDV spike (S) protein might be the determinants of PEDV trypsin independence. In this study, to achieve a recombinant trypsin-independent PEDV strain, we used trypsin-dependent genotype 2 (G2) PEDV variant AJ1102 to generate three recombinant PEDVs with mutations in S (S2' site R894G and/or Y976H). The three recombinant PEDVs were still trypsin dependent, suggesting that the S2' site R894 and Y976 of AJ1102 S are not key sites for PEDV trypsin dependence. Therefore, we used AJ1102 and the classical trypsin-independent genotype 1 (G1) PEDV strain JS2008 to generate a recombinant PEDV carrying a chimeric S protein, and successfully obtained trypsin-independent PEDV strain rAJ1102-S2'JS2008, in which the S2 (amino acids 894-1386) domain was replaced with the corresponding JS2008 sequence. Importantly, immunization with rAJ1102-S2'JS2008 induced neutralizing antibodies against both AJ1102 and JS2008. Collectively, these results suggest that rAJ1102-S2'JS2008 is a novel vaccine candidate with significant advantages, including no trypsin requirement for viral propagation to high titers and the potential provision of protection for pigs against G1 and G2 PEDV infections.


Subject(s)
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Swine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Mutation , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics
3.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0276829, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228656

ABSTRACT

Antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) target multiple epitopes on different domains of the spike protein, and other SARS-CoV-2 proteins. We developed a SARS-CoV-2 multi-antigen protein microarray with the nucleocapsid, spike and its domains (S1, S2), and variants with single (D614G, E484K, N501Y) or double substitutions (N501Y/Deletion69/70), allowing a more detailed high-throughput analysis of the antibody repertoire following infection. The assay was demonstrated to be reliable and comparable to ELISA. We analyzed antibodies from 18 COVID-19 patients and 12 recovered convalescent donors. The S IgG level was higher than N IgG in most of the COVID-19 patients, and the receptor-binding domain of S1 showed high reactivity, but no antibodies were detected against the heptad repeat domain 2 of S2. Furthermore, antibodies were detected against S variants with single and double substitutions in COVID-19 patients who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 early in the pandemic. Here we demonstrated that the SARS-CoV-2 multi-antigen protein microarray is a powerful tool for detailed characterization of antibody responses, with potential utility in understanding the disease progress and assessing current vaccines and therapies against evolving SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/genetics , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immunoglobulin G , Protein Array Analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
J Biol Chem ; 299(3): 102954, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2210672

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, represents a serious worldwide health issue, with continually emerging new variants challenging current therapeutics. One promising alternate therapeutic avenue is represented by nanobodies, small single-chain antibodies derived from camelids with numerous advantageous properties and the potential to neutralize the virus. For identification and characterization of a broad spectrum of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike nanobodies, we further optimized a yeast display method, leveraging a previously published mass spectrometry-based method, using B-cell complementary DNA from the same immunized animals as a source of VHH sequences. Yeast display captured many of the sequences identified by the previous approach, as well as many additional sequences that proved to encode a large new repertoire of nanobodies with high affinities and neutralization activities against different SARS-CoV-2 variants. We evaluated DNA shuffling applied to the three complementarity-determining regions of antiviral nanobodies. The results suggested a surprising degree of modularity to complementarity-determining region function. Importantly, the yeast display approach applied to nanobody libraries from immunized animals allows parallel interrogation of a vast number of nanobodies. For example, we employed a modified yeast display to carry out massively parallel epitope binning. The current yeast display approach proved comparable in efficiency and specificity to the mass spectrometry-based approach, while requiring none of the infrastructure and expertise required for that approach, making these highly complementary approaches that together appear to comprehensively explore the paratope space. The larger repertoires produced maximize the likelihood of discovering broadly specific reagents and those that powerfully synergize in mixtures.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Complementarity Determining Regions , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Cell Chem Biol ; 30(1): 85-96.e6, 2023 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177358

ABSTRACT

As a clinical vaccine, lipid nanoparticle (LNP) mRNA has demonstrated potent and broad antibody responses, leading to speculation about its potential for antibody discovery. Here, we developed RAMIHM, a highly efficient strategy for developing fully human monoclonal antibodies that employs rapid mRNA immunization of humanized mice followed by single B cell sequencing (scBCR-seq). We immunized humanized transgenic mice with RAMIHM and generated 15 top-ranked clones from peripheral blood, plasma B, and memory B cell populations, demonstrating a high rate of antigen-specificity (93.3%). Two Omicron-specific neutralizing antibodies with high potency and one broad-spectrum neutralizing antibody were discovered. Furthermore, we extended the application of RAMIHM to cancer immunotherapy targets, including a single transmembrane protein CD22 and a multi-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor target, GPRC5D, which is difficult for traditional protein immunization methods. RAMIHM-scBCR-seq is a broadly applicable platform for the rapid and efficient development of fully human monoclonal antibodies against an assortment of targets.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Immunization , Mice , Humans , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Mice, Transgenic
7.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(9): 1242-1254.e6, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035852

ABSTRACT

The worldwide spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to the repeated emergence of variants of concern. For the Omicron variant, sub-lineages BA.1 and BA.2, respectively, contain 33 and 29 nonsynonymous and indel spike protein mutations. These amino acid substitutions and indels are implicated in increased transmissibility and enhanced immune evasion. By reverting individual spike mutations of BA.1 or BA.2, we characterize the molecular effects of the Omicron spike mutations on expression, ACE2 receptor affinity, and neutralizing antibody recognition. We identified key mutations enabling escape from neutralizing antibodies at a variety of epitopes. Stabilizing mutations in the N-terminal and S2 domains of the spike protein can compensate for destabilizing mutations in the receptor binding domain, enabling the record number of mutations in Omicron. Our results provide a comprehensive account of the mutational effects in the Omicron spike protein and illustrate previously uncharacterized mechanisms of host evasion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Epitopes , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins
8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 301, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2016658

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is still rapidly spreading worldwide. Many drugs and vaccines have been approved for clinical use show efficacy in the treatment and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs), such as Delta (B.1.617.2) and the recently emerged Omicron (B.1.1.529), has seriously challenged the application of current therapeutics. Therefore, there is still a pressing need for identification of new broad-spectrum antivirals. Here, we further characterized a human antibody (58G6), which we previously isolated from a patient, with a broadly authentic virus-neutralizing activity that inhibits the Delta and Omicron variants with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 1.69 ng/ml and 54.31 ng/ml, respectively. 58G6 shows prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in hamsters challenged with the Delta and Omicron variants through nasal delivery. Notably, a very low dosage (2 mg/kg daily) of 58G6 efficiently prevented Omicron variant replication in the lungs. These advantages may overcome the efficacy limitation of currently approved neutralizing antibodies that can be administered only by intravenous injection. In general, 58G6 is a promising prophylactic and therapeutic candidate against current circulating VOCs and even future emerging mutants. To the best of our knowledge, 58G6 is one of the most potent neutralizing antibodies against Omicron, with a broader spectrum than those approved for clinical use. 58G6 could be developed as a nebulized therapy, which would be more cost effective and user friendly and enhance the clinical outcome compared to that obtained with direct nasal delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cricetinae , Humans
9.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4958, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2000890

ABSTRACT

Omicron SARS-CoV-2 is rapidly spreading worldwide. To delineate the impact of emerging mutations on spike's properties, we performed systematic structural analyses on apo Omicron spike and its complexes with human ACE2 or S309 neutralizing antibody (NAb) by cryo-EM. The Omicron spike preferentially adopts the one-RBD-up conformation both before and after ACE2 binding, which is in sharp contrast to the orchestrated conformational changes to create more up-RBDs upon ACE2 binding as observed in the prototype and other four variants of concern (VOCs). Furthermore, we found that S371L, S373P and S375F substitutions enhance the stability of the one-RBD-up conformation to prevent exposing more up-RBDs triggered by ACE2 binding. The increased stability of the one-RBD-up conformation restricts the accessibility of S304 NAb, which targets a cryptic epitope in the closed conformation, thus facilitating the immune evasion by Omicron. These results expand our understanding of Omicron spike's conformation, receptor binding and antibody evasion mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Humans , Mutation , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 627: 168-175, 2022 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996029

ABSTRACT

Recent times witnessed an upsurge in the number of COVID19 cases which is primarily attributed to the emergence of several omicron variants, although there is substantial population vaccination coverage across the globe. Currently, many therapeutic antibodies have been approved for emergency usage. The present study critically evaluates the effect of mutations observed in several omicron variants on the binding affinities of different classes of RBD-specific antibodies using a combined approach of immunoinformatics and binding free energy calculations. Our binding affinity data clearly show that omicron variants achieve antibody escape abilities by incorporating mutations at the immunogenic hotspot residues for each specific class of antibody. K417N and Y505H point mutations are primarily accountable for the loss of class I antibody binding affinities. The K417N/Q493R/Q498R/Y505H combined mutant significantly reduces binding affinities for all the class I antibodies. E484A single mutation, on the other hand, drastically reduces binding affinities for most of the class II antibodies. E484A and E484A/Q493R double mutations cause a 33-38% reduction in binding affinity for an approved therapeutic monoclonal antibody. The Q498R RBD mutation observed across all the omicron variants can reduce ∼12% binding affinity for REGN10987, a class III therapeutic antibody, and the L452R/Q498R double mutation causes a ∼6% decrease in binding affinities for another class III therapeutic antibody, LY-CoV1404. Our data suggest that achieving the immune evasion abilities appears to be the selection pressure behind the emergence of omicron variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Binding Sites , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
11.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 257, 2022 07 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967591

ABSTRACT

Highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants have continuously emerged and spread around the world, and updated vaccines and innovative vaccination strategies are urgently needed to address the global SARS-COV2 pandemic. Here, we established a series of Ad5-vectored SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines encoding multiple spike proteins derived from the Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Epsilon, Kappa, Delta and Omicron lineages and analyzed the antibody immune responses induced by single-dose and prime-boost vaccination strategies against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). Single-dose vaccination with SARS-CoV-2 variant vaccines tended to elicit the optimal self-matched neutralizing effects, and Ad5-B.1.351 produced more broad-spectrum cross-neutralizing antibodies against diverse variants. In contrast, prime-boost vaccination further strengthened and broadened the neutralizing antibody responses against highly divergent SARS-CoV-2 variants. The heterologous administration of Ad5-B.1.617.2 and Ad5-B.1.429 to Ad5-WT-primed mice resulted in superior antibody responses against most VOCs. In particular, the Omicron spike could only stimulate self-matched neutralizing antibodies with infrequent cross-reactivities to other variants used in single-dose vaccination strategies; moreover, with prime-boost regimens, this vaccine elicited an optimal specific neutralizing antibody response to Omicron, and prompted cross-antibody responses against other VOCs that were very similar to those obtained with Ad5-WT booster. Overall, this study delineated the unique characteristics of antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 VOC spikes with the single-dose or prime-boost vaccination strategies and provided insight into the vaccine development of next SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(31): e2205412119, 2022 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947766

ABSTRACT

Camelid single-domain antibodies, also known as nanobodies, can be readily isolated from naïve libraries for specific targets but often bind too weakly to their targets to be immediately useful. Laboratory-based genetic engineering methods to enhance their affinity, termed maturation, can deliver useful reagents for different areas of biology and potentially medicine. Using the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein and a naïve library, we generated closely related nanobodies with micromolar to nanomolar binding affinities. By analyzing the structure-activity relationship using X-ray crystallography, cryoelectron microscopy, and biophysical methods, we observed that higher conformational entropy losses in the formation of the spike protein-nanobody complex are associated with tighter binding. To investigate this, we generated structural ensembles of the different complexes from electron microscopy maps and correlated the conformational fluctuations with binding affinity. This insight guided the engineering of a nanobody with improved affinity for the spike protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Affinity , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Affinity/genetics , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Entropy , Genetic Engineering , Humans , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
Molecules ; 27(12)2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911483

ABSTRACT

We analyzed the epitope evolution of the spike protein in 1,860,489 SARS-CoV-2 genomes. The structural dynamics of these epitopes was determined by molecular modeling approaches. The D614G mutation, selected in the first months of the pandemic, is still present in currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains. This mutation facilitates the conformational change leading to the demasking of the ACE2 binding domain. D614G also abrogated the binding of facilitating antibodies to a linear epitope common to SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2. The main neutralizing epitope of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the spike protein showed extensive structural variability in SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially Delta and Omicron. This epitope is located on the flat surface of the NTD, a large electropositive area which binds to electronegatively charged lipid rafts of host cells. A facilitating epitope located on the lower part of the NTD appeared to be highly conserved among most SARS-CoV-2 variants, which may represent a risk of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). Overall, this retrospective analysis revealed an early divergence between conserved (facilitating) and variable (neutralizing) epitopes of the spike protein. These data aid in the designing of new antiviral strategies that could help to control COVID-19 infection by mimicking neutralizing antibodies or by blocking facilitating antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Epitopes/genetics , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869639

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created a global public crisis and heavily affected personal lives, healthcare systems, and global economies. Virus variants are continuously emerging, and, thus, the pandemic has been ongoing for over two years. Vaccines were rapidly developed based on the original SARS-CoV-2 (Wuhan-Hu-1) to build immunity against the coronavirus disease. However, they had a very low effect on the virus' variants due to their low cross-reactivity. In this study, a multivalent SARS-CoV-2 vaccine was developed using ferritin nanocages, which display the spike protein from the Wuhan-Hu-1, B.1.351, or B.1.429 SARS-CoV-2 on their surfaces. We show that the mixture of three SARS-CoV-2 spike-protein-displaying nanocages elicits CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and B-cell immunity successfully in vivo. Furthermore, they generate a more consistent antibody response against the B.1.351 and B.1.429 variants than a monovalent vaccine. This leads us to believe that the proposed ferritin-nanocage-based multivalent vaccine platform will provide strong protection against emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ferritins/genetics , Humans , Immunity , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Combined
15.
Med (N Y) ; 3(7): 468-480.e5, 2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Much remains unknown regarding the response of the immune system to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. METHODS: We employed circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) to assess the turnover of specific immune cell types following administration of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. FINDINGS: The levels of B cell cfDNA after the primary dose correlated with development of neutralizing antibodies and memory B cells after the booster, revealing a link between early B cell turnover-potentially reflecting affinity maturation-and later development of effective humoral response. We also observed co-elevation of B cell, T cell, and monocyte cfDNA after the booster, underscoring the involvement of innate immune cell turnover in the development of humoral and cellular adaptive immunity. Actual cell counts remained largely stable following vaccination, other than a previously demonstrated temporary reduction in neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. CONCLUSIONS: Immune cfDNA dynamics reveal the crucial role of the primary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in shaping responses of the immune system following the booster vaccine. FUNDING: This work was supported by a generous gift from Shlomo Kramer. Supported by grants from Human Islet Research Network (HIRN UC4DK116274 and UC4DK104216 to R.S. and Y.D.), Ernest and Bonnie Beutler Research Program of Excellence in Genomic Medicine, The Alex U Soyka Pancreatic Cancer Fund, The Israel Science Foundation, the Waldholtz/Pakula family, the Robert M. and Marilyn Sternberg Family Charitable Foundation, the Helmsley Charitable Trust, Grail, and the DON Foundation (to Y.D.). Y.D. holds the Walter and Greta Stiel Chair and Research Grant in Heart Studies. I.F.-F. received a fellowship from the Glassman Hebrew University Diabetes Center.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/genetics , Cell-Free Nucleic Acids/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Male , Memory B Cells/immunology , Memory B Cells/metabolism , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
16.
Curr Pharm Des ; 28(36): 2953-2964, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834104

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the whole world came together to confront a life-threatening virus named SARS-CoV-2, causing COVID-19 illness. The virus infected the human host by attaching to the ACE2 and CD147 receptors in some human cells, resulting in cytokine storm and death. The new variants of the virus that caused concern are Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon, according to the WHO label. However, Pango lineages designated them as B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.617.2, and B.1.429. Variants may be progressively formed in one chronic COVID-19 patient and transmitted to others. They show some differences in cellular and molecular mechanisms. Mutations in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domain (NTD) lead to alterations in the host's physiological responses. They show significantly higher transmissibility rates and viral load while evading neutralizing antibodies at different rates. These effects are through mutations, deletion, and conformational alterations in the virus, resulting in the enhanced affinity of RBD to PD of ACE2 protein, virus entry, and spike conformational change. In the clinical laboratory, new variants may diagnose from other variants using specific primers for RBD or NTD. There are some controversial findings regarding the efficacy of the developed vaccines against the new variants. This research aimed to discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms beyond COVID-19 pathogenesis, focusing on the new variants. We glanced at why the mutations and the ability to transmit the virus increase and how likely the available vaccines will be effective against these variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Mutation
17.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 132, 2022 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805597

ABSTRACT

Understanding the decay and maintenance of long-term SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in infected or vaccinated people and how vaccines protect against other SARS-CoV-2 variants is critical for assessing public vaccination plans. Here, we measured different plasm antibody levels 2 and 12 months after disease onset, including anti-RBD, anti-N, total neutralizing antibodies, and two neutralizing-antibody clusters. We found that total neutralizing antibodies declined more slowly than total anti-RBD and anti-N IgG, and the two neutralizing-antibody clusters decayed even more slowly than total neutralizing antibodies. Interestingly, the level of neutralizing antibodies at 12 months after disease onset was significantly lower than that at 2 months but more broadly neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Lambda (C.37). Significant immune escape by the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) was also observed 2 months post-recovery. Furthermore, we revealed that a high percentage of virus-specific CD4+ T cells and cTfh1 were associated with a slower decline in humoral immunity, accompanied by higher levels of CXCR3 ligands such as CXCL9 and CXCL10, higher frequency of cTfh1, and lower levels of cTfh2 and cTfh17. Our data highlight the importance of coordinating T-cell and humoral immunity to achieve long-term protective immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Humans , T-Lymphocytes
18.
J Virol ; 96(4): e0160021, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759291

ABSTRACT

A comprehensive study of the B cell response against SARS-CoV-2 could be significant for understanding the immune response and developing therapeutical antibodies and vaccines. To define the dynamics and characteristics of the antibody repertoire following SARS-CoV-2 infection, we analyzed the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) repertoires of 24 peripheral blood samples collected between 3 and 111 days after symptom onset from 10 COVID-19 patients. Massive clonal expansion of naive B cells with limited somatic hypermutation (SHM) was observed in the second week after symptom onset. The proportion of low-SHM IgG clones strongly correlated with spike-specific IgG antibody titers, highlighting the significant activation of naive B cells in response to a novel virus infection. The antibody isotype switching landscape showed a transient IgA surge in the first week after symptom onset, followed by a sustained IgG elevation that lasted for at least 3 months. SARS-CoV-2 infection elicited poly-germ line reactive antibody responses. Interestingly, 17 different IGHV germ line genes recombined with IGHJ6 showed significant clonal expansion. By comparing the IgH repertoires that we sequenced with the 774 reported SARS-CoV-2-reactive monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), 13 shared spike-specific IgH clusters were found. These shared spike-specific IgH clusters are derived from the same lineage of several recently published neutralizing MAbs, including CC12.1, CC12.3, C102, REGN10977, and 4A8. Furthermore, identical spike-specific IgH sequences were found in different COVID-19 patients, suggesting a highly convergent antibody response to SARS-CoV-2. Our analysis based on sequencing antibody repertoires from different individuals revealed key signatures of the systemic B cell response induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Although the canonical delineation of serum antibody responses following SARS-CoV-2 infection has been well established, the dynamics of antibody repertoire at the mRNA transcriptional level has not been well understood, especially the correlation between serum antibody titers and the antibody mRNA transcripts. In this study, we analyzed the IgH transcripts and characterized the B cell clonal expansion and differentiation, isotype switching, and somatic hypermutation in COVID-19 patients. This study provided insights at the repertoire level for the B cell response after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology
19.
Geroscience ; 44(2): 619-637, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729366

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant has been detected in nearly 150 countries. We analyzed the mutational landscape of Omicron throughout the genome, focusing the S-glycoprotein. We also evaluated mutations in the antibody-binding regions and observed some important mutations overlapping those of previous variants including N501Y, D614G, H655Y, N679K, and P681H. Various new receptor-binding domain mutations were detected, including Q493K, G496S, Q498R, S477N, G466S, N440K, and Y505H. New mutations were found in the NTD (Δ143-145, A67V, T95I, L212I, and Δ211) including one new mutation in fusion peptide (D796Y). There are several mutations in the antibody-binding region including K417N, E484A, Q493K, Q498R, N501Y, and Y505H and several near the antibody-binding region (S477N, T478K, G496S, G446S, and N440K). The impact of mutations in regions important for the affinity between spike proteins and neutralizing antibodies was evaluated. Furthermore, we examined the effect of significant antibody-binding mutations (K417N, T478K, E484A, and N501Y) on antibody affinity, stability to ACE2 interaction, and possibility of amino acid substitution. All the four mutations destabilize the antibody-binding affinity. This study reveals future directions for developing neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Glycoproteins/genetics , Humans , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
20.
Nat Biotechnol ; 40(8): 1270-1275, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730301

ABSTRACT

Although several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been approved for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) therapy, development was generally inefficient, with lead generation often requiring the production and testing of numerous antibody candidates. Here, we report that the integration of target-ligand blocking with a previously described B cell receptor-sequencing approach (linking B cell receptor to antigen specificity through sequencing (LIBRA-seq)) enables the rapid and efficient identification of multiple neutralizing mAbs that prevent the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The combination of target-ligand blocking and high-throughput antibody sequencing promises to increase the throughput of programs aimed at discovering new neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Humans , Ligands , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
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