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3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1162, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091489

ABSTRACT

The durability of infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 immunity has major implications for reinfection and vaccine development. Here, we show a comprehensive profile of antibody, B cell and T cell dynamics over time in a cohort of patients who have recovered from mild-moderate COVID-19. Binding and neutralising antibody responses, together with individual serum clonotypes, decay over the first 4 months post-infection. A similar decline in Spike-specific CD4+ and circulating T follicular helper frequencies occurs. By contrast, S-specific IgG+ memory B cells consistently accumulate over time, eventually comprising a substantial fraction of circulating the memory B cell pool. Modelling of the concomitant immune kinetics predicts maintenance of serological neutralising activity above a titre of 1:40 in 50% of convalescent participants to 74 days, although there is probably additive protection from B cell and T cell immunity. This study indicates that SARS-CoV-2 immunity after infection might be transiently protective at a population level. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines might require greater immunogenicity and durability than natural infection to drive long-term protection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , Immunity, Cellular , Immunologic Memory , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Models, Theoretical , Neutralization Tests , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1018, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085426

ABSTRACT

Antibodies serve as biomarkers of infection, but if sustained can confer long-term immunity. Yet, for most clinically approved vaccines, binding antibody titers only serve as a surrogate of protection. Instead, the ability of vaccine induced antibodies to neutralize or mediate Fc-effector functions is mechanistically linked to protection. While evidence has begun to point to persisting antibody responses among SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals, cases of re-infection have begun to emerge, calling the protective nature of humoral immunity against this highly infectious pathogen into question. Using a community-based surveillance study, we aimed to define the relationship between titers and functional antibody activity to SARS-CoV-2 over time. Here we report significant heterogeneity, but limited decay, across antibody titers amongst 120 identified seroconverters, most of whom had asymptomatic infection. Notably, neutralization, Fc-function, and SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell responses were only observed in subjects that elicited RBD-specific antibody titers above a threshold. The findings point to a switch-like relationship between observed antibody titer and function, where a distinct threshold of activity-defined by the level of antibodies-is required to elicit vigorous humoral and cellular response. This response activity level may be essential for durable protection, potentially explaining why re-infections occur with SARS-CoV-2 and other common coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Young Adult
5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 628971, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083815

ABSTRACT

Clinical trials on the use of COVID-19 convalescent plasma remain inconclusive. While data on safety is increasingly available, evidence for efficacy is still sparse. Subgroup analyses hint to a dose-response relationship between convalescent plasma neutralizing antibody levels and mortality. In particular, patients with primary and secondary antibody deficiency might benefit from this approach. However, testing of neutralizing antibodies is limited to specialized biosafety level 3 laboratories and is a time- and labor-intense procedure. In this single center study of 206 COVID-19 convalescent patients, clinical data, results of commercially available ELISA testing of SARS-CoV-2 spike-IgG and -IgA, and levels of neutralizing antibodies, determined by plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT), were analyzed. At a medium time point of 58 days after symptom onset, only 12.6% of potential plasma donors showed high levels of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT50 ≥ 1:320). Multivariable proportional odds logistic regression analysis revealed need for hospitalization due to COVID-19 (odds ratio 6.87; p-value 0.0004) and fever (odds ratio 3.00; p-value 0.0001) as leading factors affecting levels of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody titers in convalescent plasma donors. Using penalized estimation, a predictive proportional odds logistic regression model including the most important variables hospitalization, fever, age, sex, and anosmia or dysgeusia was developed. The predictive discrimination for PRNT50 ≥ 1:320 was reasonably good with AUC: 0.86 (with 95% CI: 0.79-0.92). Combining clinical and ELISA-based pre-screening, assessment of neutralizing antibodies could be spared in 75% of potential donors with a maximal loss of 10% of true positives (PRNT50 ≥ 1:320).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Donors , /therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Convalescence , Female , Fever , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Young Adult
6.
Front Immunol ; 11: 618685, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080901

ABSTRACT

Understanding humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection will play a critical role in the development of vaccines and antibody-based interventions. We report systemic and mucosal antibody responses in convalescent individuals who experienced varying severity of disease. Whereas assessment of neutralization and antibody-mediated effector functions revealed polyfunctional antibody responses in serum, only robust neutralization and phagocytosis were apparent in nasal wash samples. Serum neutralization and effector functions correlated with systemic SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response magnitude, while mucosal neutralization was associated with nasal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA. Antibody depletion experiments support the mechanistic relevance of these correlations. Associations between nasal IgA responses, virus neutralization at the mucosa, and less severe disease suggest the importance of assessing mucosal immunity in larger natural infection cohorts. Further characterization of antibody responses at the portal of entry may define their ability to contribute to protection from infection or reduced risk of hospitalization, informing public health assessment strategies and vaccine development efforts.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/immunology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
7.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(2): e1009165, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079380

ABSTRACT

The interactions between antibodies, SARS-CoV-2 and immune cells contribute to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and protective immunity. To understand the differences between antibody responses in mild versus severe cases of COVID-19, we analyzed the B cell responses in patients 1.5 months post SARS-CoV-2 infection. Severe, and not mild, infection correlated with high titers of IgG against Spike receptor binding domain (RBD) that were capable of ACE2:RBD inhibition. B cell receptor (BCR) sequencing revealed that VH3-53 was enriched during severe infection. Of the 22 antibodies cloned from two severe donors, six exhibited potent neutralization against authentic SARS-CoV-2, and inhibited syncytia formation. Using peptide libraries, competition ELISA and mutagenesis of RBD, we mapped the epitopes of the neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to three different sites on the Spike. Finally, we used combinations of nAbs targeting different immune-sites to efficiently block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Analysis of 49 healthy BCR repertoires revealed that the nAbs germline VHJH precursors comprise up to 2.7% of all VHJHs. We demonstrate that severe COVID-19 is associated with unique BCR signatures and multi-clonal neutralizing responses that are relatively frequent in the population. Moreover, our data support the use of combination antibody therapy to prevent and treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Convalescence , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cloning, Molecular , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes/genetics , Epitopes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
8.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246731, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079371

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 antibodies develop within two weeks of infection, but wane relatively rapidly post-infection, raising concerns about whether antibody responses will provide protection upon re-exposure. Here we revisit T-B cooperation as a prerequisite for effective and durable neutralizing antibody responses centered on a mutationally constrained RBM B cell epitope. T-B cooperation requires co-processing of B and T cell epitopes by the same B cell and is subject to MHC-II restriction. We evaluated MHC-II constraints relevant to the neutralizing antibody response to a mutationally-constrained B cell epitope in the receptor binding motif (RBM) of the spike protein. Examining common MHC-II alleles, we found that peptides surrounding this key B cell epitope are predicted to bind poorly, suggesting a lack MHC-II support in T-B cooperation, impacting generation of high-potency neutralizing antibodies in the general population. Additionally, we found that multiple microbial peptides had potential for RBM cross-reactivity, supporting previous exposures as a possible source of T cell memory.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Amino Acid Motifs , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Computer Simulation , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Humans , Models, Molecular , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 944, 2021 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078588

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), exhibits high levels of mortality and morbidity and has dramatic consequences on human life, sociality and global economy. Neutralizing antibodies constitute a highly promising approach for treating and preventing infection by this novel pathogen. In the present study, we characterize and further evaluate the recently identified human monoclonal MD65 antibody for its ability to provide protection against a lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection of K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. Eighty percent of the untreated mice succumbed 6-9 days post-infection, while administration of the MD65 antibody as late as 3 days after exposure rescued all infected animals. In addition, the efficiency of the treatment is supported by prevention of morbidity and ablation of the load of infective virions in the lungs of treated animals. The data demonstrate the therapeutic value of human monoclonal antibodies as a life-saving treatment for severe COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Immunoglobulin G/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , /physiology , Seroconversion , Vero Cells , Viral Load
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 897, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075219

ABSTRACT

The dynamics, duration, and nature of immunity produced during SARS-CoV-2 infection are still unclear. Here, we longitudinally measured virus-neutralising antibody, specific antibodies against the spike (S) protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), and the nucleoprotein (N) of SARS-CoV-2, as well as T cell responses, in 25 SARS-CoV-2-infected patients up to 121 days post-symptom onset (PSO). All patients seroconvert for IgG against N, S, or RBD, as well as IgM against RBD, and produce neutralising antibodies (NAb) by 14 days PSO, with the peak levels attained by 15-30 days PSO. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and NAb remain detectable and relatively stable 3-4 months PSO, whereas IgM antibody rapidly decay. Approximately 65% of patients have detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ or CD8+ T cell responses 3-4 months PSO. Our results thus provide critical evidence that IgG, NAb, and T cell responses persist in the majority of patients for at least 3-4 months after infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /virology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Kinetics , Leukocyte Common Antigens/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Receptors, CCR7/metabolism
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069830

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 exploits angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor to invade cells. It has been reported that the UK and South African strains may have higher transmission capabilities, eventually in part due to amino acid substitutions on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. The pathogenicity seems modified but is still under investigation. Here we used the experimental structure of the Spike RBD domain co-crystallized with part of the ACE2 receptor, several in silico methods and numerous experimental data reported recently to analyze the possible impacts of three amino acid replacements (Spike K417N, E484K, N501Y) with regard to ACE2 binding. We found that the N501Y replacement in this region of the interface (present in both the UK and South African strains) should be favorable for the interaction with ACE2, while the K417N and E484K substitutions (South African strain) would seem neutral or even unfavorable. It is unclear if the N501Y substitution in the South African strain could counterbalance the K417N and E484K Spike replacements with regard to ACE2 binding. Our finding suggests that the UK strain should have higher affinity toward ACE2 and therefore likely increased transmissibility and possibly pathogenicity. If indeed the South African strain has a high transmission level, this could be due to the N501Y replacement and/or to substitutions in regions located outside the direct Spike-ACE2 interface but not so much to the K417N and E484K replacements. Yet, it should be noted that amino acid changes at Spike position 484 can lead to viral escape from neutralizing antibodies. Further, these amino acid substitutions do not seem to induce major structural changes in this region of the Spike protein. This structure-function study allows us to rationalize some observations made for the UK strain but raises questions for the South African strain.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Substitution , /virology , Computer Simulation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , /chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , Humans , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , /metabolism , South Africa/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3318, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069119

ABSTRACT

Despite unprecedented global efforts to rapidly develop SARS-CoV-2 treatments, in order to reduce the burden placed on health systems, the situation remains critical. Effective diagnosis, treatment, and prophylactic measures are urgently required to meet global demand: recombinant antibodies fulfill these requirements and have marked clinical potential. Here, we describe the fast-tracked development of an alpaca Nanobody specific for the receptor-binding-domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein with potential therapeutic applicability. We present a rapid method for nanobody isolation that includes an optimized immunization regimen coupled with VHH library E. coli surface display, which allows single-step selection of Nanobodies using a simple density gradient centrifugation of the bacterial library. The selected single and monomeric Nanobody, W25, binds to the SARS-CoV-2 S RBD with sub-nanomolar affinity and efficiently competes with ACE-2 receptor binding. Furthermore, W25 potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 wild type and the D614G variant with IC50 values in the nanomolar range, demonstrating its potential as antiviral agent.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity/genetics , /immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Camelids, New World/immunology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Immunization , Male , Neutralization Tests , Peptide Library , Protein Binding/genetics , /isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Transfection
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 844, 2021 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069105

ABSTRACT

There are only few data concerning persistence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) among SARS-CoV-2-infected healthcare workers (HCW). These individuals are particularly exposed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and at potential risk of reinfection. We followed 26 HCW with mild COVID-19 three weeks (D21), two months (M2) and three months (M3) after the onset of symptoms. All the HCW had anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgA at D21, decreasing to 38.5% at M3 (p < 0.0001). Concomitantly a significant decrease in NAb titers was observed between D21 and M2 (p = 0.03) and between D21 and M3 (p < 0.0001). Here, we report that SARS-CoV-2 can elicit a NAb response correlated with anti-RBD antibody levels. However, this neutralizing activity declines, and may even be lost, in association with a decrease in systemic IgA antibody levels, from two months after disease onset. This short-lasting humoral protection supports strong recommendations to maintain infection prevention and control measures in HCW, and suggests that periodic boosts of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may be required.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , /immunology , Adult , Binding Sites/immunology , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Protein Binding , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Time Factors
14.
Cell Rep ; 34(4): 108666, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064915

ABSTRACT

Although vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are under development, the antigen epitopes on the virus and their immunogenicity are poorly understood. Here, we simulate the 3D structures and predict the B cell epitopes on the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2 using structure-based approaches and validate epitope immunogenicity by immunizing mice. Almost all 33 predicted epitopes effectively induce antibody production, six of these are immunodominant epitopes in individuals, and 23 are conserved within SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and bat coronavirus RaTG13. We find that the immunodominant epitopes of individuals with domestic (China) SARS-CoV-2 are different from those of individuals with imported (Europe) SARS-CoV-2, which may be caused by mutations on the S (G614D) and N proteins. Importantly, we find several epitopes on the S protein that elicit neutralizing antibodies against D614 and G614 SARS-CoV-2, which can contribute to vaccine design against coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Matrix Proteins/immunology , /immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , /therapy , Child , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Middle Aged , Young Adult
15.
J Clin Invest ; 131(3)2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDSARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies may protect from reinfection and disease, providing rationale for administration of plasma containing SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) as a treatment for COVID-19. Clinical factors and laboratory assays to streamline plasma donor selection, and the durability of nAb responses, are incompletely understood.METHODSPotential convalescent plasma donors with virologically documented SARS-CoV-2 infection were tested for serum IgG against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 domain and against nucleoprotein (NP), and for nAb.RESULTSAmong 250 consecutive persons, including 27 (11%) requiring hospitalization, who were studied a median of 67 days since symptom onset, 97% were seropositive on 1 or more assays. Sixty percent of donors had nAb titers ≥1:80. Correlates of higher nAb titers included older age (adjusted OR [AOR] 1.03 per year of age, 95% CI 1.00-1.06), male sex (AOR 2.08, 95% CI 1.13-3.82), fever during illness (AOR 2.73, 95% CI 1.25-5.97), and disease severity represented by hospitalization (AOR 6.59, 95% CI 1.32-32.96). Receiver operating characteristic analyses of anti-S1 and anti-NP antibody results yielded cutoffs that corresponded well with nAb titers, with the anti-S1 assay being slightly more predictive. nAb titers declined in 37 of 41 paired specimens collected a median of 98 days (range 77-120) apart (P < 0.001). Seven individuals (2.8%) were persistently seronegative and lacked T cell responses.CONCLUSIONnAb titers correlated with COVID-19 severity, age, and sex. SARS-CoV-2 IgG results can serve as useful surrogates for nAb testing. Functional nAb levels declined, and a small proportion of convalescent individuals lacked adaptive immune responses.FUNDINGThe project was supported by the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research with support from the NIAID under contract number 75N91019D00024, and was supported by the Fred Hutchinson Joel Meyers Endowment, Fast-Grants, a New Investigator award from the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, and NIH contracts 75N93019C0063, 75N91019D00024, and HHSN272201800013C, and NIH grants T32-AI118690, T32-AI007044, K08-AI119142, and K23-AI140918.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , Immunoglobulin G , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , /metabolism
16.
Science ; 371(6530): 735-741, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066809

ABSTRACT

Protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and SARS-related emergent zoonotic coronaviruses is urgently needed. We made homotypic nanoparticles displaying the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 or co-displaying SARS-CoV-2 RBD along with RBDs from animal betacoronaviruses that represent threats to humans (mosaic nanoparticles with four to eight distinct RBDs). Mice immunized with RBD nanoparticles, but not soluble antigen, elicited cross-reactive binding and neutralization responses. Mosaic RBD nanoparticles elicited antibodies with superior cross-reactive recognition of heterologous RBDs relative to sera from immunizations with homotypic SARS-CoV-2-RBD nanoparticles or COVID-19 convalescent human plasmas. Moreover, after priming, sera from mosaic RBD-immunized mice neutralized heterologous pseudotyped coronaviruses as well as or better than sera from homotypic SARS-CoV-2-RBD nanoparticle immunizations, demonstrating no loss of immunogenicity against particular RBDs resulting from co-display. A single immunization with mosaic RBD nanoparticles provides a potential strategy to simultaneously protect against SARS-CoV-2 and emerging zoonotic coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Nanoparticles , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Immune Sera/immunology , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , /virology
17.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066792

ABSTRACT

The profound consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mandate urgent development of effective vaccines. Here, we evaluated an Amphiphile (AMP) vaccine adjuvant, AMP-CpG, composed of diacyl lipid-modified CpG, admixed with the SARS-CoV-2 Spike-2 receptor binding domain protein as a candidate vaccine (ELI-005) in mice. AMP modification efficiently delivers CpG to lymph nodes, where innate and adaptive immune responses are generated. Compared to alum, immunization with AMP-CpG induced >25-fold higher antigen-specific T cells that produced multiple T helper 1 (TH1) cytokines and trafficked into lung parenchyma. Antibody responses favored TH1 isotypes (IgG2c and IgG3) and potently neutralized Spike-2-ACE2 receptor binding, with titers 265-fold higher than natural convalescent patient COVID-19 responses; T cell and antibody responses were maintained despite 10-fold dose reduction in Spike antigen. Both cellular and humoral immune responses were preserved in aged mice. These advantages merit clinical translation to SARS-CoV-2 and other protein subunit vaccines.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Surface-Active Agents/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , /immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neutralization Tests , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/administration & dosage , Oligodeoxyribonucleotides/immunology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
18.
J Exp Med ; 218(4)2021 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066211

ABSTRACT

Yellow fever virus (YFV) live attenuated vaccine can, in rare cases, cause life-threatening disease, typically in patients with no previous history of severe viral illness. Autosomal recessive (AR) complete IFNAR1 deficiency was reported in one 12-yr-old patient. Here, we studied seven other previously healthy patients aged 13 to 80 yr with unexplained life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease. One 13-yr-old patient had AR complete IFNAR2 deficiency. Three other patients vaccinated at the ages of 47, 57, and 64 yr had high titers of circulating auto-Abs against at least 14 of the 17 individual type I IFNs. These antibodies were recently shown to underlie at least 10% of cases of life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia. The auto-Abs were neutralizing in vitro, blocking the protective effect of IFN-α2 against YFV vaccine strains. AR IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency and neutralizing auto-Abs against type I IFNs thus accounted for more than half the cases of life-threatening YFV vaccine-associated disease studied here. Previously healthy subjects could be tested for both predispositions before anti-YFV vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases , Genetic Diseases, Inborn , Interferon-alpha , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta , Yellow Fever Vaccine , Yellow fever virus , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , /immunology , Female , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/genetics , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interferon-alpha/genetics , Interferon-alpha/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/deficiency , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/immunology , /immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/genetics , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Yellow Fever Vaccine/adverse effects , Yellow Fever Vaccine/genetics , Yellow Fever Vaccine/immunology , Yellow fever virus/genetics , Yellow fever virus/immunology
19.
Nat Med ; 27(2): 279-288, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065913

ABSTRACT

More than 190 vaccines are currently in development to prevent infection by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Animal studies suggest that while neutralizing antibodies against the viral spike protein may correlate with protection, additional antibody functions may also be important in preventing infection. Previously, we reported early immunogenicity and safety outcomes of a viral vector coronavirus vaccine, ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222), in a single-blinded phase 1/2 randomized controlled trial of healthy adults aged 18-55 years ( NCT04324606 ). Now we describe safety and exploratory humoral and cellular immunogenicity of the vaccine, from subgroups of volunteers in that trial, who were subsequently allocated to receive a homologous full-dose (SD/SD D56; n = 20) or half-dose (SD/LD D56; n = 32) ChAdOx1 booster vaccine 56 d following prime vaccination. Previously reported immunogenicity data from the open-label 28-d interval prime-boost group (SD/SD D28; n = 10) are also presented to facilitate comparison. Additionally, we describe volunteers boosted with the comparator vaccine (MenACWY; n = 10). In this interim report, we demonstrate that a booster dose of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 is safe and better tolerated than priming doses. Using a systems serology approach we also demonstrate that anti-spike neutralizing antibody titers, as well as Fc-mediated functional antibody responses, including antibody-dependent neutrophil/monocyte phagocytosis, complement activation and natural killer cell activation, are substantially enhanced by a booster dose of vaccine. A booster dose of vaccine induced stronger antibody responses than a dose-sparing half-dose boost, although the magnitude of T cell responses did not increase with either boost dose. These data support the two-dose vaccine regime that is now being evaluated in phase 3 clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/immunology , /immunology , Immunization, Secondary , /immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Humans , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
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