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1.
MAbs ; 13(1): 1978130, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442969

ABSTRACT

Recent years have seen unparalleled development of microfluidic applications for antibody discovery in both academic and pharmaceutical research. Microfluidics can support native chain-paired library generation as well as direct screening of antibody secreting cells obtained by rodent immunization or from the human peripheral blood. While broad diversities of neutralizing antibodies against infectious diseases such as HIV, Ebola, or COVID-19 have been identified from convalescent individuals, microfluidics can expedite therapeutic antibody discovery for cancer or immunological disease indications. In this study, a commercially available microfluidic device, Cyto-Mine, was used for the rapid identification of natively paired antibodies from rodents or human donors screened for specific binding to recombinant antigens, for direct screening with cells expressing the target of interest, and, to our knowledge for the first time, for direct broad functional IgG antibody screening in droplets. The process time from cell preparation to confirmed recombinant antibodies was four weeks. Application of this or similar microfluidic devices and methodologies can accelerate and enhance pharmaceutical antibody hit discovery.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Microfluidics/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Antibodies, Bacterial/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antibody Specificity , Antigens/immunology , Antigens, Neoplasm/immunology , Blood Preservation , COVID-19/immunology , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , Humans , Hybridomas/immunology , Immunomagnetic Separation , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Mice , Microfluidics/instrumentation , Muromonab-CD3/immunology , Plasma Cells , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tetanus Toxoid/immunology , Vaccination
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5061, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361634

ABSTRACT

The extent to which immune responses to natural infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and immunization with vaccines protect against variants of concern (VOC) is of increasing importance. Accordingly, here we analyse antibodies and T cells of a recently vaccinated, UK cohort, alongside those recovering from natural infection in early 2020. We show that neutralization of the VOC compared to a reference isolate of the original circulating lineage, B, is reduced: more profoundly against B.1.351 than for B.1.1.7, and in responses to infection or a single dose of vaccine than to a second dose of vaccine. Importantly, high magnitude T cell responses are generated after two vaccine doses, with the majority of the T cell response directed against epitopes that are conserved between the prototype isolate B and the VOC. Vaccination is required to generate high potency immune responses to protect against these and other emergent variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Carrier Proteins , Epitopes , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
3.
Science ; 373(6559): 1109-1116, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341301
4.
EMBO J ; 40(17): e108588, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332432

ABSTRACT

The humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 results in antibodies against spike (S) and nucleoprotein (N). However, whilst there are widely available neutralization assays for S antibodies, there is no assay for N-antibody activity. Here, we present a simple in vitro method called EDNA (electroporated-antibody-dependent neutralization assay) that provides a quantitative measure of N-antibody activity in unpurified serum from SARS-CoV-2 convalescents. We show that N antibodies neutralize SARS-CoV-2 intracellularly and cell-autonomously but require the cytosolic Fc receptor TRIM21. Using EDNA, we show that low N-antibody titres can be neutralizing, whilst some convalescents possess serum with high titres but weak activity. N-antibody and N-specific T-cell activity correlates within individuals, suggesting N antibodies may protect against SARS-CoV-2 by promoting antigen presentation. This work highlights the potential benefits of N-based vaccines and provides an in vitro assay to allow the antibodies they induce to be tested.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Nucleoproteins/blood , Nucleoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1865(11): 129974, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330651

ABSTRACT

Background Since December 2019, the newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to infect humans and many people died from severe Covid-19 during the last 2 years worldwide. Different approaches are being used for treatment of this infection and its consequences, but limited results have been achieved and new therapeutics are still needed. One of the most interesting biotherapeutics in this era are Nanobodies which have shown very promising results in recent researches. Scope of review Here, we have reviewed the potentials of Nanobodies in Covid-19 treatment. We have also discussed the properties of these biotherapeutics that make them very suitable for pulmonary drug delivery, which seems to be very important route of administration in this disease. Major conclusion Nanobodies with their special biological and biophysical characteristics and their resistance against harsh manufacturing condition, can be considered as promising, targeted biotherapeutics which can be administered by pulmonary delivery pharmaceutical systems against Covid-19. General significance Covid-19 has become a global problem during the last two years and with emerging mutant strains, prophylactic and therapeutic approaches are still highly needed. Nanobodies with their specific properties can be considered as valuable and promising candidates in Covid-19 therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Single-Domain Antibodies/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Camelus , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/biosynthesis , Immunologic Factors/isolation & purification , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Peptide Library , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/biosynthesis , Single-Domain Antibodies/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Cell Rep ; 36(2): 109385, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283972

ABSTRACT

Administration of convalescent plasma or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is a potent therapeutic option for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants with mutations in the spike protein have emerged in many countries. To evaluate the efficacy of neutralizing antibodies induced in convalescent patients against emerging variants, we isolate anti-spike mAbs from two convalescent COVID-19 patients infected with prototypic SARS-CoV-2 by single-cell sorting of immunoglobulin-G-positive (IgG+) memory B cells. Anti-spike antibody induction is robust in these patients, and five mAbs have potent neutralizing activities. The efficacy of most neutralizing mAbs and convalescent plasma samples is maintained against B.1.1.7 and mink cluster 5 variants but is significantly decreased against variants B.1.351 from South Africa and P.1 from Brazil. However, mAbs with a high affinity for the receptor-binding domain remain effective against these neutralization-resistant variants. Rapid spread of these variants significantly impacts antibody-based therapies and vaccine strategies against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
7.
Transfus Apher Sci ; 60(5): 103193, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272760

ABSTRACT

For more than a year the whole world is suffering from the COVID-19 pandemic with no treatment option in sight. Administration of plasma from convalescent donors containing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, though promising according to case reports, failed to show a clear benefit in a greater number of trials. One reason could be varying and low antibody contents in a majority of plasma units hampering standardization and clinical efficacy. Besides, other plasma components unnecessarily transfused like coagulation factors might promote hypercoagulation seen in severe COVID-19 etiopathology. We therefore hypothesized that instead of collecting whole plasma units, convalescent donors could donate solely immunoglobulins by undergoing immunoadsorption, a mode of therapy regularly applied in autoimmune diseases. Here, we report the results of the first two antibody donations performed at the University Hospital Düsseldorf. In both cases, immunoadsorptions were very well tolerated with no side effects. Collected and neutralized eluates were concentrated using tangential flow filtration increasing the concentration of immunoglobulins 10fold as compared to peripheral blood and leading to probably eight times more neutralizing antibodies than in one plasma unit. Therefore, immunoadsorption can be used as a method of antibody donation. Whether these donated antibodies can be used as passive immunization in acutely infected patients remains to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Immunosorbent Techniques , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods
8.
Nature ; 595(7866): 278-282, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258586

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 has caused millions of deaths worldwide. Although a number of vaccines have been deployed, the continual evolution of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the virus has challenged their efficacy. In particular, the emerging variants B.1.1.7, B.1.351 and P.1 (first detected in the UK, South Africa and Brazil, respectively) have compromised the efficacy of sera from patients who have recovered from COVID-19 and immunotherapies that have received emergency use authorization1-3. One potential alternative to avert viral escape is the use of camelid VHHs (variable heavy chain domains of heavy chain antibody (also known as nanobodies)), which can recognize epitopes that are often inaccessible to conventional antibodies4. Here, we isolate anti-RBD nanobodies from llamas and from mice that we engineered to produce VHHs cloned from alpacas, dromedaries and Bactrian camels. We identified two groups of highly neutralizing nanobodies. Group 1 circumvents antigenic drift by recognizing an RBD region that is highly conserved in coronaviruses but rarely targeted by human antibodies. Group 2 is almost exclusively focused to the RBD-ACE2 interface and does not neutralize SARS-CoV-2 variants that carry E484K or N501Y substitutions. However, nanobodies in group 2 retain full neutralization activity against these variants when expressed as homotrimers, and-to our knowledge-rival the most potent antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 that have been produced to date. These findings suggest that multivalent nanobodies overcome SARS-CoV-2 mutations through two separate mechanisms: enhanced avidity for the ACE2-binding domain and recognition of conserved epitopes that are largely inaccessible to human antibodies. Therefore, although new SARS-CoV-2 mutants will continue to emerge, nanobodies represent promising tools to prevent COVID-19 mortality when vaccines are compromised.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Camelids, New World/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , CRISPR-Cas Systems , Camelids, New World/genetics , Female , Gene Editing , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/isolation & purification , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin/genetics
10.
Nat Protoc ; 16(7): 3639-3671, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243308

ABSTRACT

As exemplified by the ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, there is a strong demand for rapid high-throughput isolation pipelines to identify potent neutralizing antibodies for prevention and therapy of infectious diseases. However, despite substantial progress and extensive efforts, the identification and production of antigen-specific antibodies remains labor- and cost-intensive. We have advanced existing concepts to develop a highly efficient high-throughput protocol with proven application for the isolation of potent antigen-specific antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus 1, hepatitis C virus, human cytomegalovirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 and Ebola virus. It is based on computationally optimized multiplex primer sets (openPrimeR), which guarantee high coverage of even highly mutated immunoglobulin gene segments as well as on optimized antibody cloning and production strategies. Here, we provide the detailed protocol, which covers all critical steps from sample collection to antibody production within 12-14 d.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , High-Throughput Screening Assays/methods , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
11.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 131(6): 696-702, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141952

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies are extremely valuable functional biomaterials that are widely used not only in life science research but also in antibody drugs and test drugs. There is also a strong need to develop high-quality neutralizing antibodies as soon as possible in order to stop the rapid spread of new infectious diseases such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study has developed a membrane-type immunoglobulin-directed hybridoma screening (MIHS) method for obtaining high-quality monoclonal antibodies with high efficiency and high speed. In addition to these advantages, this paper demonstrates that the MIHS method can selectively obtain monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize the functional structure of proteins. The MIHS method is a useful technology that greatly contributes to the research community because it can be easily introduced in any laboratory that uses a flow cytometer.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Hybridomas/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/immunology , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hybridomas/cytology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes , Immunoprecipitation , Mice , Time Factors
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1577, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132068

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a new recently emerged sarbecovirus. This virus uses the human ACE2 enzyme as receptor for cell entry, recognizing it with the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the S1 subunit of the viral spike protein. We present the use of phage display to select anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies from the human naïve antibody gene libraries HAL9/10 and subsequent identification of 309 unique fully human antibodies against S1. 17 antibodies are binding to the RBD, showing inhibition of spike binding to cells expressing ACE2 as scFv-Fc and neutralize active SARS-CoV-2 virus infection of VeroE6 cells. The antibody STE73-2E9 is showing neutralization of active SARS-CoV-2 as IgG and is binding to the ACE2-RBD interface. Thus, universal libraries from healthy human donors offer the advantage that antibodies can be generated quickly and independent from the availability of material from recovering patients in a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Antibody Affinity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Gene Library , Healthy Volunteers , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/genetics , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Pandemics , Peptide Library , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
13.
Nature ; 593(7857): 136-141, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1127162

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is uncontrolled in many parts of the world; control is compounded in some areas by the higher transmission potential of the B.1.1.7 variant1, which has now been reported in 94 countries. It is unclear whether the response of the virus to vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of the prototypic strain will be affected by the mutations found in B.1.1.7. Here we assess the immune responses of individuals after vaccination with the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b22. We measured neutralizing antibody responses after the first and second immunizations using pseudoviruses that expressed the wild-type spike protein or a mutated spike protein that contained the eight amino acid changes found in the B.1.1.7 variant. The sera from individuals who received the vaccine exhibited a broad range of neutralizing titres against the wild-type pseudoviruses that were modestly reduced against the B.1.1.7 variant. This reduction was also evident in sera from some patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Decreased neutralization of the B.1.1.7 variant was also observed for monoclonal antibodies that target the N-terminal domain (9 out of 10) and the receptor-binding motif (5 out of 31), but not for monoclonal antibodies that recognize the receptor-binding domain that bind outside the receptor-binding motif. Introduction of the mutation that encodes the E484K substitution in the B.1.1.7 background to reflect a newly emerged variant of concern (VOC 202102/02) led to a more-substantial loss of neutralizing activity by vaccine-elicited antibodies and monoclonal antibodies (19 out of 31) compared with the loss of neutralizing activity conferred by the mutations in B.1.1.7 alone. The emergence of the E484K substitution in a B.1.1.7 background represents a threat to the efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
14.
Cell ; 184(7): 1821-1835.e16, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095899

ABSTRACT

Human monoclonal antibodies are safe, preventive, and therapeutic tools that can be rapidly developed to help restore the massive health and economic disruption caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. By single-cell sorting 4,277 SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-specific memory B cells from 14 COVID-19 survivors, 453 neutralizing antibodies were identified. The most potent neutralizing antibodies recognized the spike protein receptor-binding domain, followed in potency by antibodies that recognize the S1 domain, the spike protein trimer, and the S2 subunit. Only 1.4% of them neutralized the authentic virus with a potency of 1-10 ng/mL. The most potent monoclonal antibody, engineered to reduce the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement and prolong half-life, neutralized the authentic wild-type virus and emerging variants containing D614G, E484K, and N501Y substitutions. Prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in the hamster model was observed at 0.25 and 4 mg/kg respectively in absence of Fc functions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Convalescence , 3T3 Cells , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disease Models, Animal , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Male , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells
15.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246864, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presence of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is an indicator of protective immunity for most viral infections. A newly developed surrogate viral neutralization assay (sVNT) offers the ability to detect total receptor binding domain-targeting NAbs in an isotype-independent manner, increasing the test sensitivity. Thus, specimens with low IgM/ IgG antibody levels showed strong neutralization activity in sVNT. METHODS: This study aimed to measure the %inhibition of NAbs measured by sVNT in PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients. The sensitivity of sVNT for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its kinetics were determined. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included in this study. Majority of the patients were 21-40 years old (67%) and 63% had mild symptoms. The sensitivity of sVNT for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 99% (95% confidence interval (CI) 94.4-100%) and the specificity was 100% (95% CI 98.3-100%). The negative predictive value of sVNT from the samples collected before and after 7 days of symptom onset was 99.5% (95% CI 97.4-100%) and 100% (95% CI 93.8-100%), respectively. The level of inhibition at days 8-14 were significantly higher than days 0-7 (p<0.001). The median %inhibition values by severity of COVID-19 symptoms were 79.9% (interquartile range (IQR) 49.7-91.8%); 89.0% (IQR 71.2-92.4%); and 86.6% (IQR 69.5-92.8%), for mild, moderate and severe/critical symptoms respectively. The median level of sVNT %inhibition of severe was significantly higher than the mild group (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: The sVNT is a practical and robust serological test for SARS-CoV-2 infection and does not require specialized biosafety containment. It can be used clinically to aid diagnosis in both early and late infection especially in cases when the real-time RT-PCR results in weakly negative or weakly positive, and to determine the protective immune response from SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Thailand , Young Adult
16.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056842

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has developed into a global pandemic since its first outbreak in the winter of 2019. An extensive investigation of SARS-CoV-2 is critical for disease control. Various recombinant monoclonal antibodies of human origin that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection have been isolated from convalescent patients and will be applied as therapies and prophylaxis. However, the need for dedicated monoclonal antibodies suitable for molecular pathology research is not fully addressed. Here, we produced six mouse anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike monoclonal antibodies that not only exhibit robust performance in immunoassays including western blotting, ELISA, immunofluorescence, and immunoprecipitation, but also demonstrate neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection to VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells. Due to their mouse origin, our monoclonal antibodies are compatible with the experimental immunoassay setups commonly used in basic molecular biology research laboratories, providing a useful tool for future research. Furthermore, in the hope of applying the antibodies of clinical setting, we determined the variable regions of the antibodies and used them to produce recombinant human/mouse chimeric antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cloning, Molecular , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Humans , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Subunits/administration & dosage , Protein Subunits/genetics , Protein Subunits/immunology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
19.
JCI Insight ; 6(4)2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039950

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become the worst public health crisis in a century. However, knowledge about the dynamics of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19 is still poorly understood. In this study, we performed a serological study with serum specimens collected at the acute and the convalescent phases from 104 patients with severe COVID-19 who were part of the first wave of COVID-19 cases in Wuhan, China. Our findings revealed that neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are persistent for at least 6 months in patients with severe COVID-19, despite that IgG levels against the receptor binding domain (RBD) and nucleocapsid protein (N) IgG declined from the acute to the convalescent phase. Moreover, we demonstrate that the level of RBD-IgG is capable of correlating with SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing activities in COVID-19 serum. In summary, our findings identify the magnitude, functionality, and longevity of antibody responses in patients with COVID-19, which sheds light on the humoral immune response to COVID-19 and would be beneficial for developing vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , China , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immune Sera , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Survivors , Time Factors
20.
Cell ; 182(4): 828-842.e16, 2020 08 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027977

ABSTRACT

Neutralizing antibody responses to coronaviruses mainly target the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the trimeric spike. Here, we characterized polyclonal immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs) and Fabs from COVID-19 convalescent individuals for recognition of coronavirus spikes. Plasma IgGs differed in their focus on RBD epitopes, recognition of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, and contributions of avidity to increased binding/neutralization of IgGs over Fabs. Using electron microscopy, we examined specificities of polyclonal plasma Fabs, revealing recognition of both S1A and RBD epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 spike. Moreover, a 3.4 Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of a neutralizing monoclonal Fab-spike complex revealed an epitope that blocks ACE2 receptor binding. Modeling based on these structures suggested different potentials for inter-spike crosslinking by IgGs on viruses, and characterized IgGs would not be affected by identified SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations. Overall, our studies structurally define a recurrent anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody class derived from VH3-53/VH3-66 and similarity to a SARS-CoV VH3-30 antibody, providing criteria for evaluating vaccine-elicited antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cross Reactions , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/blood , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/ultrastructure , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin G/ultrastructure , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/chemistry , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Models, Molecular , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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