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1.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 413(22): 5619-5632, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174032

ABSTRACT

In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, the need for rapid serological tests that allow multiplexing emerged, as antibody seropositivity can instruct about individual immunity after an infection with SARS-CoV-2 or after vaccination. As many commercial antibody tests are either time-consuming or tend to produce false negative or false positive results when only one antigen is considered, we developed an automated, flow-based chemiluminescence microarray immunoassay (CL-MIA) that allows for the detection of IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), spike protein (S1 fragment), and nucleocapsid protein (N) in human serum and plasma in less than 8 min. The CoVRapid CL-MIA was tested with a set of 65 SARS-CoV-2 serology positive or negative samples, resulting in 100% diagnostic specificity and 100% diagnostic sensitivity, thus even outcompeting commercial tests run on the same sample set. Additionally, the prospect of future quantitative assessments (i.e., quantifying the level of antibodies) was demonstrated. Due to the fully automated process, the test can easily be operated in hospitals, medical practices, or vaccination centers, offering a valuable tool for COVID-19 serosurveillance. Graphical abstract.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens, Viral/chemistry , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Automation, Laboratory , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immobilized Proteins/chemistry , Immobilized Proteins/immunology , Immune Sera , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Lab-On-A-Chip Devices , Luminescent Measurements , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors
2.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35(6): 538-543, 2022 Dec.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2206374

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Serological tests have been a valuable tool during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, supporting molecular methods for detection, and monitoring the immune response, caused by vaccination or by natural infection. Within all these techniques, rapid tests are interesting due to their ease of use, rapid response and low cost. METHODS: Two different immunological techniques were evaluated: Realy Tech and Mikrogen Diagnostik recomLine SARS-CoV-2 IgG. SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant antibody test and SARS-CoV-IgG assay, both from Abbott Diagnostics, were used as reference techniques. RESULTS: Mikrogen Diagnostik recomLine SARS-CoV-2 IgG shows the best results (S=0.985; E=0.839). Three techniques offered good positive predictive values, but Realy Tech and Healgen negative predictive values left to be desired. CONCLUSIONS: Mikrogen Diagnostik recomLine SARS-CoV-2 IgG showed good results in the detection of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and could be used as an alternative to automated techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Sensitivity and Specificity , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
3.
Theranostics ; 12(10): 4779-4790, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203050

ABSTRACT

New variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are continuing to spread globally, contributing to the persistence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Increasing resources have been focused on developing vaccines and therapeutics that target the Spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. Recent advances in microfluidics have the potential to recapitulate viral infection in the organ-specific platforms, known as organ-on-a-chip (OoC), in which binding of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) of the host cells occurs. As the COVID-19 pandemic lingers, there remains an unmet need to screen emerging mutations, to predict viral transmissibility and pathogenicity, and to assess the strength of neutralizing antibodies following vaccination or reinfection. Conventional detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants relies on two-dimensional (2-D) cell culture methods, whereas simulating the micro-environment requires three-dimensional (3-D) systems. To this end, analyzing SARS-CoV-2-mediated pathogenicity via microfluidic platforms minimizes the experimental cost, duration, and optimization needed for animal studies, and obviates the ethical concerns associated with the use of primates. In this context, this review highlights the state-of-the-art strategy to engineer the nano-liposomes that can be conjugated with SARS-CoV-2 Spike mutations or genomic sequences in the microfluidic platforms; thereby, allowing for screening the rising SARS-CoV-2 variants and predicting COVID-19-associated coagulation. Furthermore, introducing viral genomics to the patient-specific blood accelerates the discovery of therapeutic targets in the face of evolving viral variants, including B1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), B.1.617.2 (Delta), c.37 (Lambda), and B.1.1.529 (Omicron). Thus, engineering nano-liposomes to encapsulate SARS-CoV-2 viral genomic sequences enables rapid detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants in the long COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Genomics , Humans , Liposomes , Microfluidics , Mutation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
4.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 171-177, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201777

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Serology testing is essential for immunological surveillance in the population. This serosurvey was conducted to ascertain the cumulative population immunity against SARS-CoV-2 among adults in Jammu district and to understand the association of seropositivity with sociodemographic and clinical correlates. Methods: On September 30 and October 1, 2020, a household survey was done in 20 villages/wards chosen from 10 health blocks in district Jammu, India. Demographic, clinical and exposure information was collected from 2000 adults. Serum samples were screened for IgG antibodies using COVID Kavach MERILISA kit. Tests of association were used to identify risk factors associated with IgG positivity. Crude odds ratio with 95 per cent confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated during univariate analysis followed by logistic regression. Results: Overall adjusted seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2 was 8.8 per cent (95% CI: 8.78-8.82); it varied from 4.1 per cent in Chauki choura to 16.7 per cent Pallanwalla across 10 blocks in the district. Seropositivity was observed to be comparatively higher in 41-50 and 61-70 yr age groups, among males and in rural areas. Fever, sore throat, cough, dyspnoea, myalgias, anosmia, ageusia, fatigue, seizures, history of exposure, medical consultation, hospitalization and missing work showed significant association with seropositivity on univariate analysis. On logistic regression, only sore throat, myalgia and missing work showed significant adjusted odds of IgG positivity. Extrapolation to adult population suggested that exposure to SARS-CoV-2 was 14.4 times higher than reported cases, translating into Infection fatality rate of 0.08 per cent. Interpretation & conclusions: Since a major part of population was immunologically naive, all efforts to contain COVID-19 need to be vigorously followed while these baseline results provide an important yardstick to monitor the trends of COVID-19 and guide locally appropriate control strategies in the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pharyngitis , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Indian J Med Res ; 155(1): 105-122, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2201769

ABSTRACT

The WHO emergency use-listed (EUL) COVID-19 vaccines were developed against early strains of SARS-CoV-2. With the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) - Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Omicron, it is necessary to assess the neutralizing activity of these vaccines against the VOCs. PubMed and preprint platforms were searched for literature on neutralizing activity of serum from WHO EUL vaccine recipients, against the VOCs, using appropriate search terms till November 30, 2021. Our search yielded 91 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The analysis revealed a drop of 0-8.9-fold against Alpha variant, 0.3-42.4-fold against Beta variant, 0-13.8-fold against Gamma variant and 1.35-20-fold against Delta variant in neutralization titres of serum from the WHO EUL COVID-19 vaccine recipients, as compared to early SARS-CoV-2 isolates. The wide range of variability was due to differences in the choice of virus strains selected for neutralization assays (pseudovirus or live virus), timing of serum sample collection after the final dose of vaccine (day 0 to 8 months) and sample size (ranging from 5 to 470 vaccinees). The reasons for this variation have been discussed and the possible way forward to have uniformity across neutralization assays in different laboratories have been described, which will generate reliable data. Though in vitro neutralization studies are a valuable tool to estimate the performance of vaccines against the backdrop of emerging variants, the results must be interpreted with caution and corroborated with field-effectiveness studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 918896, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198845

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective and safe vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are critical to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and will remain the most important tool in limiting the spread of the virus long after the pandemic is over. Methods: We bring pioneering contributions on the maintenance of the immune response over a year on a real-life basis study in 1,587 individuals (18-90 yrs, median 39 yrs; 1,208 female/379 male) who underwent vaccination with two doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 booster after 6-months of primary protocol. Findings: Elevated levels of anti-spike IgG antibodies were detected after CoronaVac vaccination, which significantly decreased after 80 days and remained stable until the introduction of the booster dose. Heterologous booster restored antibody titers up to-1·7-fold, changing overall seropositivity to 96%. Titers of neutralising antibodies to the Omicron variant were lower in all timepoints than those against Delta variant. Individuals presenting neutralising antibodies against Omicron also presented the highest titers against Delta and anti-Spike IgG. Cellular immune response measurement pointed out a mixed immune profile with a robust release of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors on the first month after CoronaVac vaccination followed by a gradual reduction over time and no increase after the booster dose. A stronger interaction between those mediators was noted over time. Prior exposure to the virus leaded to a more robust cellular immune response and a rise in antibody levels 60 days post CoronaVac than in individuals with no previous COVID-19. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated among individuals. Interpretation: Our data approach the effectiveness of CoronaVac association with BNT162b2 from the clinical and biological perspectives, aspects that have important implications for informing decisions about vaccine boosters. Funding: Fiocruz, Brazil.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Brazil , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 906551, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198831

ABSTRACT

Background: Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element with high relevance for the immune system, and its deficiency is associated with elevated infection risk and severe disease course. The association of Zn status with the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is unknown. Methods: A cohort of adult health care workers (n=126) received two doses of BNT162B2, and provided up to four serum samples over a time course of 6 months. Total SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibody potency was determined, along with total as well as free Zn concentrations. Results: The SARS-CoV-2 antibodies showed the expected rise in response to vaccination, and decreased toward the last sampling point, with highest levels measured three weeks after the second dose. Total serum Zn concentrations were relatively stable over time, and showed no significant association with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Baseline total serum Zn concentration and supplemental intake of Zn were both unrelated to the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Time resolved analysis of free Zn indicated a similar dynamic as the humoral response. A positive correlation was observed between free Zn concentrations and both the induced antibodies and neutralizing antibody potency. Conclusion: While the biomarkers of Zn status and supplemental Zn intake appeared unrelated to the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, the observed correlation of free Zn to the induced antibodies indicates a diagnostic value of this novel biomarker for the immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination , Zinc
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 978440, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198706

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study was conducted in order to properly understand whether prior seasonal human coronavirus (HCoV) immunity could impact the potential cross-reactivity of humoral responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, thereby devising universal coronavirus vaccines for future outbreaks. Methods: We performed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to quantify the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels to spike (S) protein and S1 subunit of HCoVs (HCoV-OC43, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-229E), and ELISA [anti-RBD and anti-nucleoprotein (N)], chemiluminescence immunoassay assays (anti-RBD), pseudovirus neutralization test, and authentic viral neutralization test to detect the binding and neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in the vaccinees. Results: We found that the antibody of seasonal HCoVs did exist before vaccination and could be boosted by SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. A further analysis demonstrated that the prior S and S1 IgG antibodies of HCoV-OC43 were positively correlated with anti-RBD and neutralization antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 at 12 and 24 weeks after the second vaccination, and the correlation is more statistically significant at 24 weeks. The persistent antibody levels of SARS-CoV-2 were observed in vaccinees with higher pre-existing HCoV-OC43 antibodies. Conclusion: Our data indicate that inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may confer cross-protection against seasonal coronaviruses in most individuals, and more importantly, the pre-existing HCoV-OC43 antibody was associated with protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2, supporting the development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus OC43, Human , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 932563, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198700

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic spread rapidly in a heterogeneous way, mainly due to the different socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics of different regional populations and different evaluation periods. We performed a cross-sectional study including 1,337 individuals (first wave = 736/second wave = 601) after the first two waves of COVID-19 in the city of Belém, the capital of the state of Pará. The detection of IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was performed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test followed by statistical analysis using the RStudio program. Our results showed an increase in the seroprevalence (first wave= 39.1%/second wave= 50.1%) of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) IgG antibodies in the population of Belém from the first to the second pandemic wave. Advanced age, primary or secondary education level, lack of social isolation, and a low frequency of protective mask use were considered risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first wave compared to the second wave. This study is one of the firsts to provide important information about the dynamics of virus circulation and the groups vulnerable to exposure in the two major periods. Our data emphasize the socioeconomic characteristics of the affected population and that nonpharmacological prevention measures are crucial for combating the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
10.
PLoS Med ; 19(10): e1003979, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines can be less immunogenic in people living with HIV (PLWH), but for SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations this is unknown. In this study we set out to investigate, for the vaccines currently approved in the Netherlands, the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations in PLWH. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the immunogenicity of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, ChAdOx1-S, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines in adult PLWH without prior COVID-19, and compared to HIV-negative controls. The primary endpoint was the anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG response after mRNA vaccination. Secondary endpoints included the serological response after vector vaccination, anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response, and reactogenicity. Between 14 February and 7 September 2021, 1,154 PLWH (median age 53 [IQR 44-60] years, 85.5% male) and 440 controls (median age 43 [IQR 33-53] years, 28.6% male) were included in the final analysis. Of the PLWH, 884 received BNT162b2, 100 received mRNA-1273, 150 received ChAdOx1-S, and 20 received Ad26.COV2.S. In the group of PLWH, 99% were on antiretroviral therapy, 97.7% were virally suppressed, and the median CD4+ T-cell count was 710 cells/µL (IQR 520-913). Of the controls, 247 received mRNA-1273, 94 received BNT162b2, 26 received ChAdOx1-S, and 73 received Ad26.COV2.S. After mRNA vaccination, geometric mean antibody concentration was 1,418 BAU/mL in PLWH (95% CI 1322-1523), and after adjustment for age, sex, and vaccine type, HIV status remained associated with a decreased response (0.607, 95% CI 0.508-0.725, p < 0.001). All controls receiving an mRNA vaccine had an adequate response, defined as >300 BAU/mL, whilst in PLWH this response rate was 93.6%. In PLWH vaccinated with mRNA-based vaccines, higher antibody responses were predicted by CD4+ T-cell count 250-500 cells/µL (2.845, 95% CI 1.876-4.314, p < 0.001) or >500 cells/µL (2.936, 95% CI 1.961-4.394, p < 0.001), whilst a viral load > 50 copies/mL was associated with a reduced response (0.454, 95% CI 0.286-0.720, p = 0.001). Increased IFN-γ, CD4+ T-cell, and CD8+ T-cell responses were observed after stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides in ELISpot and activation-induced marker assays, comparable to controls. Reactogenicity was generally mild, without vaccine-related serious adverse events. Due to the control of vaccine provision by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, there were some differences between vaccine groups in the age, sex, and CD4+ T-cell counts of recipients. CONCLUSIONS: After vaccination with BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273, anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were reduced in PLWH compared to HIV-negative controls. To reach and maintain the same serological responses as HIV-negative controls, additional vaccinations are probably required. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register (NL9214). https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/9214.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ad26COVS1 , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Chem ; 68(7): 953-962, 2022 07 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA detection in the nasopharynx is considered a biomarker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We evaluated its performance as a reflex test to triage EBV seropositives within an NPC screening program in China. METHODS: The study population was embedded within an ongoing NPC screening trial and included 1111 participants who screened positive for anti-EBV VCA (antibodies against EBV capsid antigens)/EBNA1 (EBV nuclear antigen1)-IgA antibodies (of 18 237 screened). Nasopharynx swabs were collected/tested for EBNA1 gene EBV DNA load. We evaluated performance of EBV DNA in the nasopharynx swab as a reflex test to triage EBV serological high-risk (those referred to endoscopy/MRI) and medium-risk (those referred to accelerated screening) individuals. RESULTS: By the end of 2019, we detected 20 NPC cases from 317 serological high-risk individuals and 4 NPC cases from 794 medium-risk individuals. When used to triage serological high-risk individuals, nasopharynx swab EBV DNA was detected in 19/20 cases (positivity rate among cases: 95.0%; 95% CI, 75.1%-99.9%), with a referral rate of 63.4% (201/317, 95% CI, 57.8%-68.7%) and NPC detection rate among positives of 9.5% (19/201, 95% CI, 5.8%-14.4%). The performance of an algorithm that combined serology with triage of serology high-risk individuals using EBV DNA testing yielded a sensitivity of 72.4% (95% CI, 3.0%-81.4%) and specificity of 97.6% (95% CI, 97.2%-97.9%). When used to triage EBV serological medium-risk individuals, the positivity rate among cases was 75.0% (95% CI, 19.4%-99.4%), with a referral rate of 61.8% (95% CI, 58.4%-65.2%) and NPC detection rate among positives of 0.6% (95% CI, 0.1%-1.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Nasopharynx swab EBV DNA showed promise as a reflex test to triage serology high-risk individuals, reducing referral by ca. 40% with little reduction in sensitivity compared to a serology-only screening program.


Subject(s)
Epstein-Barr Virus Infections , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Antibodies, Viral , DNA , DNA, Viral , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/diagnosis , Herpesvirus 4, Human/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma/diagnosis , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms/diagnosis , Nasopharynx , Reflex , Triage
12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e314-e321, 2022 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An immunodiagnostic assay that sensitively detects a cell-mediated immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is needed for epidemiological investigation and for clinical assessment of T- cell-mediated immune response to vaccines, particularly in the context of emerging variants that might escape antibody responses. METHODS: The performance of a whole blood interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific T cells was evaluated in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescents tested serially up to 10 months post-infection and in healthy blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 IGRA was applied in contacts of households with index cases. Freshly collected blood in the lithium heparin tube was left unstimulated, stimulated with a SARS-CoV-2 peptide pool, and stimulated with mitogen. RESULTS: The overall sensitivity and specificity of IGRA were 84.5% (153/181; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 79.0-89.0) and 86.6% (123/142; 95% CI: 80.0-91.2), respectively. The sensitivity declined from 100% (16/16; 95% CI: 80.6-100) at 0.5-month post-infection to 79.5% (31/39; 95% CI: 64.4-89.2) at 10 months post-infection (P < .01). The IFN-γ response remained relatively robust at 10 months post-infection (3.8 vs 1.3 IU/mL, respectively). In 14 households, IGRA showed a positivity rate of 100% (12/12) and 65.2% (15/23), and IgG of 50.0% (6/12) and 43.5% (10/23) in index cases and contacts, respectively, exhibiting a difference of + 50% (95% CI: +25.4 to +74.6) and +21.7% (95% CI: +9.23 to +42.3), respectively. Either IGRA or IgG was positive in 100% (12/12) of index cases and 73.9% (17/23) of contacts. CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 IGRA is a useful clinical diagnostic tool for assessing cell-mediated immune response to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Interferon-gamma Release Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 20(5): 423-428, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188054

ABSTRACT

Background: Antibodies with the specialized ability to fight infection can be found in the blood of individuals who have recovered from or have been vaccinated against COVID-19. As a result, plasma from these individuals could be used to treat critically ill patients. This treatment is known as convalescent plasma (CCP) therapy. Methods: Plasma units from 1555 consented healthy blood bank donors were collected from February to September 2021. Blood units were tested for the quantitative determination of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus using one of the following assays based on the availability of the kits: The LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG assay or the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay. Results: Among the tested donors, 1027 participants tested positive for neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies (66.04%). There were 484 donors whose plasma qualified to be used for CCP therapy (47.13%) and 214 CCP units were stored in the COVID-19 convalescent biobank. Conclusion: We were able to identify and store 214 fresh frozen plasma units qualified for CCP-plasma therapy for COVID-19 patients according to World Health Organization standards. Hence, we established the first COVID-19-convalescent plasma data and plasma biobank for treating COVID-19-infected cancer patients in Jordan and the region.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/therapy , Antibodies, Viral , Jordan , Biological Specimen Banks , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Blood Donors , Immunoglobulin G , Plasma
16.
Eur J Cancer ; 171: 143-149, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2178267

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infection by the third booster dose of mRNA vaccines in cancer patients with solid malignancies is presently unknown. We prospectively investigated the occurrence of COVID-19 in cancer patients on active therapy after the booster vaccine dose. METHODS: Cancer patients on treatment at the Center for Immuno-Oncology (CIO) of the University Hospital of Siena, Italy, and health care workers at CIO who had received a booster third dose of mRNA vaccine entered a systematic follow-up monitoring period to prospectively assess their potential risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Serological and microneutralization assay were utilized to assess levels of anti-spike IgG, and of neutralizing antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 Wild Type, Delta and Omicron variants, respectively, after the booster dose and after negativization of the nasopharyngeal swab for those who had developed COVID-19. RESULTS: Ninety cancer patients with solid tumors on active treatment (Cohort 1) and 30 health care workers (Cohort 2) underwent a booster third dose of mRNA vaccine. After the booster dose, the median value of anti-spike IgG was higher (p = 0.009) in patients than in healthy subjects. Remarkably, 11/90 (12%) patients and 11/30 (37%) healthy subjects tested positive to SARS-CoV-2 infection during the monitoring period. Similar levels of anti-spike IgG and of neutralizing antibodies against all the investigated variants, with geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron being the lowest were detected after the booster dose and after COVID-19 in both Cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection we observed in a sizable proportion of booster-dosed cancer patients and in healthy subjects during the Omicron outbreak indicates that highly specific vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 variants are urgently required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , mRNA Vaccines
17.
Sci Immunol ; 5(54)2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161788

ABSTRACT

Understanding the nature of immunity following mild/asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 is crucial to controlling the pandemic. We analyzed T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in 136 healthcare workers (HCW) 16-18 weeks after United Kingdom lockdown, 76 of whom had mild/asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection captured by serial sampling. Neutralizing antibodies (nAb) were present in 89% of previously infected HCW. T cell responses tended to be lower following asymptomatic infection than in those reporting case-definition symptoms of COVID-19, while nAb titers were maintained irrespective of symptoms. T cell and antibody responses were sometimes discordant. Eleven percent lacked nAb and had undetectable T cell responses to spike protein but had T cells reactive with other SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Our findings suggest that the majority of individuals with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection carry nAb complemented by multispecific T cell responses at 16-18 weeks after mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10721, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154859

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) are at increased risk for COVID-19-associated complications. We aimed to describe the evolving epidemiology and outcome of PCR-documented SARS-CoV-2 infection in KTR followed at our institution from March 2020 to May 2022. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for COVID-19-related symptoms or death within 28 days from diagnosis. Overall, 243 cases were included of which 68 (28%) developed the primary outcome. A significant decrease in the incidence of the primary outcome was observed (p < 0.001, r -0.342) during the study period. Anti-Spike monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were administered as early treatment (within 5-7 days of onset of symptoms) in 101 patients (14 with casirivimab/imdevimab and 87 with sotrovimab). Among 145 patients who had received at least one vaccination dose before infection, 109 patients were considered as adequately vaccinated. Multivariate analysis revealed that the Charlson Comorbidity Index (P 0.001; OR 1.28, CI 1.11-1.48) was associated with the primary outcome, while early administration of mAbs (P 0.032; OR 0.39, CI 0.16-0.92) was associated with a better outcome, but not infection during the period of the omicron variant predominance or adequate vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transplant Recipients
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1008285, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154728

ABSTRACT

Since immune system and internal environment in vivo are large and complex, the interpretation of the observed immune effect from the perspective of a single immune cell or antibody seems a little feeble. Many studies have shown that specific antibodies against " former" viruses have a reduced ability to neutralize "new" mutant strains. However, there is no comprehensive and clear view of whether there will be Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). We review the latest relevant studies, hoping to explain the ADE of SARS-CoV-2 infection sometimes observed in some patients.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral
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