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1.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 61, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758178

ABSTRACT

Variants are globally emerging very quickly following pandemic prototypic SARS-CoV-2. To evaluate the cross-protection of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 vaccine against its variants, we vaccinated rhesus monkeys with three doses of prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine, followed by challenging with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs). These vaccinated animals produced neutralizing antibodies against Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants, although there were certain declinations of geometric mean titer (GMT) as compared with prototypic SARS-CoV-2. Of note, in vivo this prototypic vaccine not only reduced the viral loads in nasal, throat and anal swabs, pulmonary tissues, but also improved the pathological changes in the lung infected by variants of Alpha, Beta, and Delta. In summary, the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 inactivated vaccine in this study protected against VOCs to certain extension, which is of great significance for prevention and control of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Protection , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vaccination/methods , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Anal Canal/virology , Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Lung/virology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nasal Cavity/virology , Pharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Viral Load/drug effects
2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(2): e52-e58, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751515

ABSTRACT

As the number of individuals vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 rises worldwide, population-level data regarding the vaccines' ability to reduce infection are being generated. Randomised trials have shown that these vaccines dramatically reduce symptomatic COVID-19; however, less is known about their effects on transmission between individuals. The natural course of infection with SARS-CoV-2 involves infection of the respiratory epithelia and replication within the mucosa to sufficient viral titres for transmission via aerosol particles and droplets. Here we discuss the available data on the existing, approved SARS-CoV-2 vaccines' capacity to reduce transmissibility by reducing primary infection, viral replication, capacity for transmission, and symptomaticity. The potential for mucosal-targeted SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strategies to more effectively limit transmission than intramuscular vaccines is considered with regard to known immunological mechanisms. Finally, we enumerate the population-level effects of approved vaccines on transmission through observational studies following clinical trials and vaccine distribution in real-world settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology
3.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0169521, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752774

ABSTRACT

Global control of COVID-19 will require the deployment of vaccines capable of inducing long-term protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants. In this report, we describe an adjuvanted subunit candidate vaccine that affords elevated, sustained, and cross-variant SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in multiple animal models. Alhydroxiquim-II is a Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 7/8 small-molecule agonist chemisorbed on aluminum hydroxide (Alhydrogel). Vaccination with Alhydroxiquim-II combined with a stabilized, trimeric form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (termed CoVac-II) resulted in high-titer NAbs in mice, with no decay in responses over an 8-month period. NAbs from sera of CoVac-II-immunized mice, horses and rabbits were broadly neutralizing against SARS-CoV-2 variants. Boosting long-term CoVac-II-immunized mice with adjuvanted spike protein from the Beta variant markedly increased levels of NAb titers against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants; notably, high titers against the Delta variant were observed. These data strongly support the clinical assessment of Alhydroxiquim-II-adjuvanted spike proteins to protect against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need for next-generation COVID-19 vaccines that are safe, demonstrate high protective efficacy against SARS-CoV-2 variants and can be manufactured at scale. We describe a vaccine candidate (CoVac-II) that is based on stabilized, trimeric spike antigen produced in an optimized, scalable and chemically defined production process. CoVac-II demonstrates strong and persistent immunity after vaccination of mice, and is highly immunogenic in multiple animal models, including rabbits and horses. We further show that prior immunity can be boosted using a recombinant spike antigen from the Beta variant; importantly, plasma from boosted mice effectively neutralize multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants in vitro, including Delta. The strong humoral and Th1-biased immunogenicity of CoVac-II is driven by use of Alhydroxiquim-II (AHQ-II), the first adjuvant in an authorized vaccine that acts through the dual Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR8 pathways, as part of the Covaxin vaccine. Our data suggest AHQ-II/spike protein combinations could constitute safe, affordable, and mass-manufacturable COVID-19 vaccines for global distribution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Horses , Mice , Rabbits , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
4.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2147-2152, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a high rate of mortality in patients with ESKD, and vaccination is hoped to prevent infection. METHODS: Between January 18 and February 24, 2021, 225 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and 45 patients on hemodialysis (HDPs) received two injections of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. The postvaccinal humoral and cellular response was explored in the first 45 KTRs and ten HDPs. RESULTS: After the second dose, eight HDPs (88.9%) and eight KTRs (17.8%) developed antispike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (P<0.001). Median titers of antibodies in responders were 1052 AU/ml (IQR, 515-2689) in HDPs and 671 AU/ml (IQR, 172-1523) in KTRs (P=0.40). Nine HDPs (100%) and 26 KTRs (57.8%) showed a specific T cell response (P=0.06) after the second injection. In responders, median numbers of spike-reactive T cells were 305 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 95-947) in HDPs and 212 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 61-330) in KTRs (P=0.40). In KTRs, the immune response to BNT162b2 seemed influenced by the immunosuppressive regimen, particularly tacrolimus or belatacept. CONCLUSION: Immunization with BNT162b2 seems more efficient in HDPs, indicating that vaccination should be highly recommended in these patients awaiting a transplant. However, the current vaccinal strategy for KTRs may not provide effective protection against COVID-19 and will likely need to be improved.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transplant Recipients
6.
JCI Insight ; 7(4)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDVaccine-elicited adaptive immunity is a prerequisite for control of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) differentially target humoral and cellular immunity. A comprehensive comparison of the effects of MS DMTs on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-specific immunity is needed, including quantitative and functional B and T cell responses.METHODSSpike-specific Ab and T cell responses were measured before and following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in a cohort of 80 study participants, including healthy controls and patients with MS in 6 DMT groups: untreated and treated with glatiramer acetate (GA), dimethyl fumarate (DMF), natalizumab (NTZ), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators, and anti-CD20 mAbs. Anti-spike-Ab responses were assessed by Luminex assay, VirScan, and pseudovirus neutralization. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were characterized by activation-induced marker and cytokine expression and tetramer.RESULTSAnti-spike IgG levels were similar between healthy control participants and patients with untreated MS and those receiving GA, DMF, or NTZ but were reduced in anti-CD20 mAb- and S1P-treated patients. Anti-spike seropositivity in anti-CD20 mAb-treated patients was correlated with CD19+ B cell levels and inversely correlated with cumulative treatment duration. Spike epitope reactivity and pseudovirus neutralization were reduced in anti-CD20 mAb- and S1P-treated patients. Spike-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivity remained robust across all groups, except in S1P-treated patients, in whom postvaccine CD4+ T cell responses were attenuated.CONCLUSIONThese findings from a large cohort of patients with MS exposed to a wide spectrum of MS immunotherapies have important implications for treatment-specific COVID-19 clinical guidelines.FUNDINGNIH grants 1K08NS107619, K08NS096117, R01AI159260, R01NS092835, R01AI131624, and R21NS108159; NMSS grants TA-1903-33713 and RG1701-26628; Westridge Foundation; Chan Zuckerberg Biohub; Maisin Foundation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology
8.
Mol Cells ; 44(6): 401-407, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687545

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is an ongoing pandemic disease. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses have been detected and characterized not only in COVID-19 patients and convalescents, but also unexposed individuals. Here, we review the phenotypes and functions of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in COVID-19 patients and the relationships between SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses and COVID-19 severity. In addition, we describe the phenotypes and functions of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells after recovery from COVID-19 and discuss the presence of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in unexposed individuals and SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses elicited by COVID-19 vaccines. A better understanding of T-cell responses is important for effective control of the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/classification , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/classification , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Convalescence , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Cytotoxicity, Immunologic , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 44, 2022 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683982

ABSTRACT

The wide transmission and host adaptation of SARS-CoV-2 have led to the rapid accumulation of mutations, posing significant challenges to the effectiveness of vaccines and therapeutic antibodies. Although several neutralizing antibodies were authorized for emergency clinical use, convalescent patients derived natural antibodies are vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 Spike mutation. Here, we describe the screen of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) targeted nanobodies (Nbs) from a synthetic library and the design of a biparatopic Nb, named Nb1-Nb2, with tight affinity and super-wide neutralization breadth against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Deep-mutational scanning experiments identify the potential binding epitopes of the Nbs on the RBD and demonstrate that biparatopic Nb1-Nb2 has a strong escape-resistant feature against more than 60 tested RBD amino acid substitutions. Using pseudovirion-based and trans-complementation SARS-CoV-2 tools, we determine that the Nb1-Nb2 broadly neutralizes multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants at sub-nanomolar levels, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Gamma (P.1), Delta (B.1.617.2), Lambda (C.37), Kappa (B.1.617.1), and Mu (B.1.621). Furthermore, a heavy-chain antibody is constructed by fusing the human IgG1 Fc to Nb1-Nb2 (designated as Nb1-Nb2-Fc) to improve its neutralization potency, yield, stability, and potential half-life extension. For the new Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) that harbors unprecedented multiple RBD mutations, Nb1-Nb2-Fc keeps a firm affinity (KD < 1.0 × 10-12 M) and strong neutralizing activity (IC50 = 1.46 nM for authentic Omicron virus). Together, we developed a tetravalent biparatopic human heavy-chain antibody with ultrapotent and broad-spectrum SARS-CoV-2 neutralization activity which highlights the potential clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/pharmacology , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Single-Domain Antibodies/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/genetics , Antibody Affinity , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Epitopes/chemistry , Epitopes/immunology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/biosynthesis , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/genetics , Models, Molecular , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding/drug effects , Protein Conformation , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Domain Antibodies/biosynthesis , Single-Domain Antibodies/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
11.
Sci Immunol ; 7(68): eabn8014, 2022 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1651046

ABSTRACT

Current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines effectively reduce overall morbidity and mortality and are vitally important to controlling the pandemic. Individuals who previously recovered from COVID-19 have enhanced immune responses after vaccination (hybrid immunity) compared with their naïve-vaccinated peers; however, the effects of post-vaccination breakthrough infections on humoral immune response remain to be determined. Here, we measure neutralizing antibody responses from 104 vaccinated individuals, including those with breakthrough infections, hybrid immunity, and no infection history. We find that human immune sera after breakthrough infection and vaccination after natural infection broadly neutralize SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2) variants to a similar degree. Although age negatively correlates with antibody response after vaccination alone, no correlation with age was found in breakthrough or hybrid immune groups. Together, our data suggest that the additional antigen exposure from natural infection substantially boosts the quantity, quality, and breadth of humoral immune response regardless of whether it occurs before or after vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , THP-1 Cells , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Viral Load
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(3): 907-911.e3, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649500

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the safety and efficacy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination in people with a range of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are lacking because these patients were excluded from COVID-19 vaccine trials. This information may help in clinical management of this vulnerable patient group. OBJECTIVE: We assessed humoral and T-cell immune responses after 2 doses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines in patients with PID and functional B-cell defects. METHODS: A double-center retrospective review was performed of patients with PID who completed COVID-19 mRNA vaccination and who had humoral responses assessed through SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG antibody levels with reflex assessment of the antibody to block RBD binding to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2; hereafter referred to as ACE2 receptor blocking activity, as a surrogate test for neutralization) and T-cell response evaluated by an IFN-γ release assay. Immunization reactogenicity was also reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 33 patients with humoral defect were evaluated; 69.6% received BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) and 30.3% received mRNA-1273 (Moderna). The mRNA vaccines were generally well tolerated without severe reactions. The IFN-γ release assay result was positive in 24 (77.4%) of 31 patients. Sixteen of 33 subjects had detectable RBD-specific IgG responses, but only 2 of these 16 subjects had an ACE2 receptor blocking activity level of ≥50%. CONCLUSION: Vaccination of this cohort of patients with PID with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines was safe, and cellular immunity was stimulated in most subjects. However, antibody responses to the spike protein RBD were less consistent, and, when detected, were not effective at ACE2 blocking.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , /adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G/biosynthesis , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Young Adult
14.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 5397733, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635531

ABSTRACT

The infection of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) seriously threatens human life. It is urgent to generate effective and safe specific antibodies (Abs) against the pathogenic elements of COVID-19. Mice were immunized with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antigens: S ectodomain-1 (CoV, in short) mixed in Alum adjuvant for 2 times and boosted with CoV weekly for 6 times. A portion of mice were treated with Maotai liquor (MTL, in short) or/and heat stress (HS) together with CoV boosting. We observed that the anti-CoV Ab was successfully induced in mice that received the CoV/Alum immunization for 2 times. However, upon boosting with CoV, the CoV Ab production diminished progressively; spleen CoV Ab-producing plasma cell counts reduced, in which substantial CoV-specific Ab-producing plasma cells (sPC) were apoptotic. Apparent oxidative stress signs were observed in sPCs; the results were reproduced by exposing sPCs to CoV in the culture. The presence of MTL or/and HS prevented the CoV-induced oxidative stress in sPCs and promoted and stabilized the CoV Ab production in mice in re-exposure to CoV. In summary, CoV/Alum immunization can successfully induce CoV Ab production in mice that declines upon reexposure to CoV. Concurrent administration of MTL/HS stabilizes and promotes the CoV Ab production in mice.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Apoptosis , COVID-19/immunology , Plasma Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Superoxide Dismutase-1/physiology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Alcoholic Beverages , Alum Compounds , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/enzymology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Heat-Shock Response , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Janus Kinase 2/physiology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Oxidative Stress , Plasma Cells/drug effects , Plasma Cells/pathology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , STAT1 Transcription Factor/physiology , Signal Transduction , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
15.
JCI Insight ; 7(4)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDMost individuals with prior COVID-19 disease manifest long-term protective immune responses against reinfection. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that humoral immune and reactogenicity responses to a SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine differ in individuals with and without prior COVID-19 disease.METHODSHealth care workers (n = 61) with (n = 30) and without (n = 31) prior COVID-19 disease received two 30 µg doses of Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine 3 weeks apart. Serum IgG antibody against the spike receptor-binding domain; serum neutralizing activity; and vaccine reactogenicity were assessed longitudinally every 2 weeks for 56 days after the first injection.RESULTSThe COVID-19 group manifested more rapid increases in spike IgG antibody and serum neutralizing activity after the first vaccine dose but showed little or no increase after the second dose compared with the infection-naive group. In fact, spike IgG was at its maximum level after the first dose in 36% of the COVID-19 group versus 0% of the infection-naive group. Peak IgG antibody levels were lower but appeared to fall more slowly in the COVID-19 group versus the infection-naive group. Finally, adverse systemic reactions, e.g., fever, headache, and malaise, were more frequent and lasted longer after both the first and second injection in the COVID-19 group than in the infection-naive group.CONCLUSIONIndividuals with prior COVID-19 disease demonstrate a robust, accelerated humoral immune response to the first dose but an attenuated response to the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine compared with controls. The COVID-19 group also experienced greater reactogenicity. Humoral responses and reactogenicity to BNT162b2 differ qualitatively and quantitatively in individuals with prior COVID-19 disease compared with infection-naive individuals.FUNDINGThis work was supported by Temple University institutional funds.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged
16.
J Immunol ; 208(3): 685-696, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604665

ABSTRACT

Immune response dysregulation plays a key role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis. In this study, we evaluated immune and endothelial blood cell profiles of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to determine critical differences between those with mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 using spectral flow cytometry. We examined a suite of immune phenotypes, including monocytes, T cells, NK cells, B cells, endothelial cells, and neutrophils, alongside surface and intracellular markers of activation. Our results showed progressive lymphopenia and depletion of T cell subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) in patients with severe disease and a significant increase in the CD56+CD14+Ki67+IFN-γ+ monocyte population in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 that has not been previously described. Enhanced circulating endothelial cells (CD45-CD31+CD34+CD146+), circulating endothelial progenitors (CD45-CD31+CD34+/-CD146-), and neutrophils (CD11b+CD66b+) were coevaluated for COVID-19 severity. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated the synergism among age, obesity, and hypertension with upregulated CD56+ monocytes, endothelial cells, and decreased T cells that lead to severe outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Circulating monocytes and endothelial cells may represent important cellular markers for monitoring postacute sequelae and impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection during convalescence and for their role in immune host defense in high-risk adults after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , CD56 Antigen/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Endothelial Cells/chemistry , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/chemistry , Neutrophils/immunology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/immunology , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
17.
Cancer Cell ; 40(1): 103-108.e2, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596342

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer are more likely to have impaired immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. We study the breadth of responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants after primary vaccination in 178 patients with a variety of tumor types and after booster doses in a subset. Neutralization of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta SARS-CoV-2 variants is impaired relative to wildtype, regardless of vaccine type. Regardless of viral variant, mRNA1273 is the most immunogenic, followed by BNT162b2, and then Ad26.COV2.S. Neutralization of more variants (breadth) is associated with a greater magnitude of wildtype neutralization, and increases with time since vaccination; advancing age associates with a lower breadth. The concentrations of anti-spike protein antibody are a good surrogate for breadth (positive predictive value of =90% at >1,000 U/mL). Booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccines confer enhanced breadth. These data suggest that achieving a high antibody titer is desirable to achieve broad neutralization; a single booster dose with the current vaccines increases the breadth of responses against variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Neoplasms/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aging/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunocompromised Host , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load
18.
J Autoimmun ; 127: 102792, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587359

ABSTRACT

The emergence and rapid global spread of the new Delta and, more recently, Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 pose a daunting public health emergency. Being an RNA virus, the Covid-19 virus is continuing to mutate, resulting in the emergence of new variants with high transmissibility, such as the recently discovered Omicron variant. In this paper, we consider the conditions that may facilitate viral mutations and the emergence of variants with the ability to evade immunity. Here, we have discussed the importance of vaccination with the currently available vaccines. These vaccines are highly effective at preventing serious disease, hospitalization, and death from Covid-19. However, the antibody response induced by these vaccines is short-lasting and there are reports of breakthrough infections. A stable and persistent interaction between T follicular helper cells and germinal center B cells is needed for robust B cell memory response. We discussed the potential reasons behind the breakthrough infections and underscored the importance of developing better second-generation vaccines that may not necessitate frequent booster immunizations and are preventive in nature. This may involve the development of multivalent vaccines and creating vaccines against other viral proteins including conserved proteins. Vaccine hesitancy remains a notable hurdle for implementing vaccination. Furthermore, we recommend different approaches to increase vaccine acceptance, which is a critical translational component of a successful vaccine strategy. These perspectives on overcoming the pandemic's current challenges provide strategies to contain SARS-CoV-2 globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination
19.
Cancer Cell ; 40(2): 114-116, 2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588171
20.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(12): 1738-1743.e4, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574127

ABSTRACT

Different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are approved in various countries, but few direct comparisons of the antibody responses they stimulate have been reported. We collected plasma specimens in July 2021 from 196 Mongolian participants fully vaccinated with one of four COVID-19 vaccines: Pfizer/BioNTech, AstraZeneca, Sputnik V, and Sinopharm. Functional antibody testing with a panel of nine SARS-CoV-2 viral variant receptor binding domain (RBD) proteins revealed marked differences in vaccine responses, with low antibody levels and RBD-ACE2 blocking activity stimulated by the Sinopharm and Sputnik V vaccines in comparison to the AstraZeneca or Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines. The Alpha variant caused 97% of infections in Mongolia in June and early July 2021. Individuals who recover from SARS-CoV-2 infection after vaccination achieve high antibody titers in most cases. These data suggest that public health interventions such as vaccine boosting, potentially with more potent vaccine types, may be needed to control COVID-19 in Mongolia and worldwide.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adult , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gene Expression , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Mongolia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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