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2.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247797, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605332

ABSTRACT

Since the initial identification of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in December of 2019, researchers have raced to understand its pathogenesis and begun devising vaccine and treatment strategies. An accurate understanding of the body's temporal immune response against SARS-CoV-2 is paramount to successful vaccine development and disease progression monitoring. To provide insight into the antibody response against SARS-CoV-2, plasma samples from 181 PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients collected at various timepoints post-symptom onset (PSO) were tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies via lateral flow. Additionally, 21 donors were tracked over time to elucidate patient-specific immune responses. We found sustained levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies past 130 days PSO, with 99% positivity observed at 31-60 days PSO. By 61-90 days PSO, the percentage of IgM-/IgG+ results were nearly equal to that of IgM+/IgG+ results, demonstrating a shift in the immune response with a decrease in IgM antibody levels. Results from this study not only provide evidence that the antibody response to COVID-19 can persist for over 4 months, but also demonstrates the ability of Easy Check™ to monitor seroconversion and antibody response of patients. Easy Check was sufficiently sensitive to detect antibodies in patient samples as early as 1-4 days PSO with 86% positivity observed at 5-7 days PSO. Further studies are required to determine the longevity and efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and whether they are protective against re-infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
3.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262162, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605852

ABSTRACT

Analysis of convalescent plasma derived from individuals has shown that IgG3 has the most important role in binding to SARS-CoV-2 antigens; however, this has not yet been confirmed in large studies, and the link between binding and neutralization has not been confirmed. By analyzing plasma pools consisting of 247-567 individual convalescent donors, we demonstrated the binding of IgG3 and IgM to Spike-1 protein and the receptor-binding domain correlates strongly with viral neutralization in vitro. Furthermore, despite accounting for only approximately 12% of total immunoglobulin mass, collectively IgG3 and IgM account for approximately 80% of the total neutralization. This may have important implications for the development of potent therapies for COVID-19, as it indicates that hyperimmune globulins or convalescent plasma donations with high IgG3 concentrations may be a highly efficacious therapy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vero Cells
4.
Lancet ; 398(10296): 213-222, 2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: CoronaVac, an inactivated whole-virion SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, has been shown to be well tolerated with a good safety profile in individuals aged 18 years and older in phase 1/2 trials, and provided a good humoral response against SARS-CoV-2. We present the interim efficacy and safety results of a phase 3 clinical trial of CoronaVac in Turkey. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Volunteers aged 18-59 years with no history of COVID-19 and with negative PCR and antibody test results for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled at 24 centres in Turkey. Exclusion criteria included (but were not limited to) immunosuppressive therapy (including steroids) within the past 6 months, bleeding disorders, asplenia, and receipt of any blood products or immunoglobulins within the past 3 months. The K1 cohort consisted of health-care workers (randomised in a 1:1 ratio), and individuals other than health-care workers were also recruited into the K2 cohort (randomised in a 2:1 ratio) using an interactive web response system. The study vaccine was 3 µg inactivated SARS-CoV-2 virion adsorbed to aluminium hydroxide in a 0·5 mL aqueous suspension. Participants received either vaccine or placebo (consisting of all vaccine components except inactivated virus) intramuscularly on days 0 and 14. The primary efficacy outcome was the prevention of PCR-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 at least 14 days after the second dose in the per protocol population. Safety analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04582344) and is active but no longer recruiting. FINDINGS: Among 11 303 volunteers screened between Sept 14, 2020, and Jan 5, 2021, 10 218 were randomly allocated. After exclusion of four participants from the vaccine group because of protocol deviations, the intention-to-treat group consisted of 10 214 participants (6646 [65·1%] in the vaccine group and 3568 [34·9%] in the placebo group) and the per protocol group consisted of 10 029 participants (6559 [65·4%] and 3470 [34·6%]) who received two doses of vaccine or placebo. During a median follow-up period of 43 days (IQR 36-48), nine cases of PCR-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 were reported in the vaccine group (31·7 cases [14·6-59·3] per 1000 person-years) and 32 cases were reported in the placebo group (192·3 cases [135·7-261·1] per 1000 person-years) 14 days or more after the second dose, yielding a vaccine efficacy of 83·5% (95% CI 65·4-92·1; p<0·0001). The frequencies of any adverse events were 1259 (18·9%) in the vaccine group and 603 (16·9%) in the placebo group (p=0·0108) with no fatalities or grade 4 adverse events. The most common systemic adverse event was fatigue (546 [8·2%] participants in the vaccine group and 248 [7·0%] the placebo group, p=0·0228). Injection-site pain was the most frequent local adverse event (157 [2·4%] in the vaccine group and 40 [1·1%] in the placebo group, p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: CoronaVac has high efficacy against PCR-confirmed symptomatic COVID-19 with a good safety and tolerability profile. FUNDING: Turkish Health Institutes Association.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Double-Blind Method , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Turkey , Vaccination , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Virion/immunology
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0137621, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592250

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 and caused a dramatic pandemic. Serological assays are used to check for immunization and assess herd immunity. We evaluated commercially available assays designed to quantify antibodies directed to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) antigen, either total (Wantaï SARS-CoV-2 Ab ELISA) or IgG (SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant on Alinity, Abbott, and Liaison SARS-CoV-2 TrimericS IgG, Diasorin). The specificities of the Wantaï, Alinity, and Liaison assays were evaluated using 100 prepandemic sera and were 98, 99, and 97%, respectively. The sensitivities of all three were around 100% when tested on 35 samples taken 15 to 35 days postinfection. They were less sensitive for 150 sera from late infections (>180 days). Using the first WHO international standard (NIBSC), we showed that the Wantai results were concordant with the NIBSC values, while Liaison and Alinity showed a proportional bias of 1.3 and 7, respectively. The results of the 3 immunoassays were significantly globally pairwise correlated and for late infection sera (P < 0.001). They were correlated for recent infection sera measured with Alinity and Liaison (P < 0.001). However, the Wantai results of recent infections were not correlated with those from Alinity or Liaison. All the immunoassay results were significantly correlated with the neutralizing antibody titers obtained using a live virus neutralization assay with the B1.160 SARS-CoV-2 strain. These assays will be useful once the protective anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody titer has been determined. IMPORTANCE Standardization and correlation with virus neutralization assays are critical points to compare the performance of serological assays designed to quantify anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in order to identify their optimal use. We have evaluated three serological immunoassays based on the virus spike antigen that detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies: a microplate assay and two chemiluminescent assays performed with Alinity (Abbott) and Liaison (Diasorin) analysers. We used an in-house live virus neutralization assay and the first WHO international standard to assess the comparison. This study could be useful to determine guidelines on the use of serological results to manage vaccination and treatment with convalescent plasma or monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination
6.
Am J Public Health ; 112(1): 38-42, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594448

ABSTRACT

We conducted a community seroprevalence survey in Arizona, from September 12 to October 1, 2020, to determine the presence of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We used the seroprevalence estimate to predict SARS-CoV-2 infections in the jurisdiction by applying the adjusted seroprevalence to the county's population. The estimated community seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections was 4.3 times greater (95% confidence interval = 2.2, 7.5) than the number of reported cases. Field surveys with representative sampling provide data that may help fill in gaps in traditional public health reporting. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(1):38-42. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2021.306568).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Arizona/epidemiology , Child , Family Characteristics , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Public Health Practice , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
7.
AIDS Rev ; 23(3): 153-163, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579385

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious RNA coronavirus responsible for the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Recent advances in virology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of COVID-19 have contributed to the control and prevention of this disease, but re-positivity of SARS-CoV-2 in recovered COVID-19 patients has brought a new challenge for this worldwide anti-viral battle. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests of the SARS-CoV-2 pathogen is widely used in clinical diagnosis, but a positive RT-PCR result may be multifactorial, including false positive, SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragment shedding, reinfection of SARS-CoV-2, or re-activation of COVID-19. Re-infection of SARS-CoV-2 or re-activation of COVID-19 is an indicator of live viral carriers and isolation/treatment is needed, but SARS-CoV-2 RNA fragment shedding is not. SARS-CoV-2 RNA is recently reported to integrate into the host genome, but the far-reaching outcome is currently unclear. Therefore, it is critical for appropriate manipulation and prevention of COVID-19 to distinguish these causal factors of SARS-CoV-2 re-positivity. In this review article, we updated the current knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 re-positivity in discharged COVID-19 patients with a focus on re-infection and re-activation. We proposed a hypothetical flowchart for handling of the SARS-CoV-2 re-positive cases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reinfection/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Activation/genetics , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Young Adult
8.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(6): 1052-1064, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588743

ABSTRACT

The ongoing Coronavirus disease 19 pandemic has likely changed the world in ways not seen in the past. Neutralizing antibody (NAb) assays play an important role in the management of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) outbreak. Using these tools, we can assess the presence and duration of antibody-mediated protection in naturally infected individuals, screen convalescent plasma preparations for donation, test the efficacy of immunotherapy, and analyze NAb titers and persistence after vaccination to predict vaccine-induced protective effects. This review briefly summarizes the various methods used for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 NAbs and compares their advantages and disadvantages to facilitate their development and clinical application.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Serological Testing/trends , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Neutralization Tests/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control
9.
J Neuroimmunol ; 362: 577788, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587199

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To report clinical outcome, development of humoral and T-cell mediated immunity in convalescent COVID-19 people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with ofatumumab in the ALITHIOS study from a single center. METHODS: Testing for SARS-Cov2 IgG antibodies was performed on two occasions with at least three months apart between the two testing. During the second antibody testing, interferon-γ ELISpot was used to assess cellular immunity. RESULTS: All four subjects had mild COVID-19 infection without any sequelae. In all subjects except subject 2, COVID-19 was confirmed with PCR. Subjects 1, 2 and 4 had normal levels of IgM and IgG without measurable counts of CD19 cells prior to COVID-19. Subject 3 administered the last dose of ofatumumab 24 days prior to COVID-19 symptoms, but had a gap of 28 weeks of ofatumumab application beforehand due to low IgM levels. Subject 4 received COVID-19 vaccinations before second testing, so second testing and T-cell immunity testing were not performed. Subjects who were CD19 depleted did not had measurable levels of SARS-Cov2 IgG antibodies. Subject 3 had first and second SARS-COV2 titer of 118 U/ml and > 250 U/ml, respectively. All three pwMS showed T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Quotient of basal spots divided by interferon-γ secreting spot forming units were 4, 8 and 14.7 SI in subjects 1, 2 and 3, respectively (>3 considered reactive). CONCLUSION: While no antibody response was observed in pwMS who were CD19+ lymphocyte depleted, T cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 was observed in all three pwMS treated with ofatumumab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Male
11.
Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 23-32, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585822

ABSTRACT

Systemic immune cell dynamics during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are extensively documented, but these are less well studied in the (upper) respiratory tract, where severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replicates1-6. Here, we characterized nasal and systemic immune cells in individuals with COVID-19 who were hospitalized or convalescent and compared the immune cells to those seen in healthy donors. We observed increased nasal granulocytes, monocytes, CD11c+ natural killer (NK) cells and CD4+ T effector cells during acute COVID-19. The mucosal proinflammatory populations positively associated with peripheral blood human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRlow monocytes, CD38+PD1+CD4+ T effector (Teff) cells and plasmablasts. However, there was no general lymphopenia in nasal mucosa, unlike in peripheral blood. Moreover, nasal neutrophils negatively associated with oxygen saturation levels in blood. Following convalescence, nasal immune cells mostly normalized, except for CD127+ granulocytes and CD38+CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells persisted at least 2 months after viral clearance in the nasal mucosa, indicating that COVID-19 has both transient and long-term effects on upper respiratory tract immune responses.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nose/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Granulocytes/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Nasopharynx/cytology , Nasopharynx/virology , Neutrophils/immunology , Nose/immunology , Nose/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 23921, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585804

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) are key biomarkers considered to be associated with vaccine efficacy. In United States government-sponsored phase 3 efficacy trials of COVID-19 vaccines, nAbs are measured by two different validated pseudovirus-based SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assays, with each trial using one of the two assays. Here we describe and compare the nAb titers obtained in the two assays. We observe that one assay consistently yielded higher nAb titers than the other when both assays were performed on the World Health Organization's anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin International Standard, COVID-19 convalescent sera, and mRNA-1273 vaccinee sera. To overcome the challenge this difference in readout poses in comparing/combining data from the two assays, we evaluate three calibration approaches and show that readouts from the two assays can be calibrated to a common scale. These results may aid decision-making based on data from these assays for the evaluation and licensure of new or adapted COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests/standards , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Clinical Decision-Making , Clinical Trials as Topic , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , World Health Organization
14.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 351, 2021 12 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 virus (SARS-CoV-2) is a current worldwide threat for which the immunological features after infection need to be investigated. The aim of this study was to establish a highly sensitive and quantitative detection method for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody and to compare the antibody reaction difference in patients with different disease severity. RESULTS: Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to establish an indirect IgG ELISA detection system. The sensitivity of the ELISA was 100% with a specificity of 96.8% and a 98.3% concordance when compared to a colloidal gold kit, in addition, the sensitivity of the ELISA was 100% with a specificity of 98.9% and a 99.4% concordance when compared to a SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein IgG antibody ELISA kit. The increased sensitivity resulted in a higher rate of IgG antibody detection for COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the quantitative detection can be conducted with a much higher serum dilution (1:400 vs 1:10, 1:400 vs 1:100). The antibody titers of 88 patients with differing COVID-19 severity at their early convalescence ranged from 800 to 102,400, and the geometric mean titer for severe and critical cases, moderate cases, asymptomatic and mild cases was 51,203, 20,912, and 9590 respectively. CONCLUSION: The development of a highly sensitive ELISA system for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies is described herein. This system enabled a quantitative study of rSARS-CoV-2-N IgG antibody titers in COVID-19 patients, the occurrence of higher IgG antibody titers were found to be correlated with more severe cases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , China , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
15.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1354, 2021 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582093

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) were excluded from the original SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine trials, which may influence vaccine hesitancy in this population. We prospectively characterized the safety and immunogenicity of two-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in 44 patients with MM, who underwent vaccination from 12/17/2020 to 3/18/2021. RESULTS: Rates adverse reactions were low and consistent with those documented in vaccine trials. Among those on MM therapy, 93% developed detectable anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibodies after dose 2, while 94% of patients not on MM therapy seroconverted. CONCLUSIONS: Two-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination is mildly reactogenic and leads to high rates of seroconversion in patients with MM. These findings can provide reassurance to MM patients who are hesitant to receive SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines.


Subject(s)
/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunization Schedule , Multiple Myeloma/blood , /adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , /adverse effects
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 758294, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581342

ABSTRACT

Objective: This meta-analysis compared the efficacy and safety of five kinds of COVID-19 vaccines in different age groups (young adults and older adults), aiming to analyze the difference of adverse events (AEs) rate and virus geometric mean titer (GMT) values between young and older people, in order to find a specific trend, and explore the causes of this trend through meta-analysis. Method: Meta-analysis was used to analyze the five eligible articles. The modified Jadad scoring scale was used to evaluate the quality of eligible literature with a scoring system of 1 to 7. The primary endpoint of the effectiveness index was GMT. The primary endpoints of the safety index were the incidence of local AEs and systemic AEs. Stata 12.0 software was used for meta-analysis. Revman 5.0 software was used to map the risk of publication bias, and Egger's test was used to analyze publication bias. Results: The GMT values of young adults were higher than older adults (SMD = 1.40, 95% CI (0.79, 2.02), P<0.01). There was a higher incidence of local and systemic AEs in young people than in the elderly (OR = 1.10, 95% CI (1.08, 1.12), P<0.01; OR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.14, 1.22), P<0.01). Conclusion: The immune effect of young people after being vaccinated with COVID-19 vaccines was better than that of the elderly, but the safety was worse than that of old people, the most common AEs were fever, rash, and local muscle pain, which were tolerable for young people. As the AEs of the elderly were lower, they can also be vaccinated safely; the reason for the low level of GMT in the elderly was related to Immunosenescence. The vaccine tolerance of people of different ages needs to be studied continuously.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580429

ABSTRACT

Several cases of naturally infected dogs with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported despite the apparently low susceptibility of this species. Here, we document the first reported case of infection caused by the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of concern (VOC) in a dog in Spain that lived with several household members suffering from Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The animal displayed mild digestive and respiratory clinical signs and had a low viral load in the oropharyngeal swab collected at the first sampling. Whole-genome sequencing indicated infection with the Delta variant, coinciding with the predominant variant during the fifth pandemic wave in Spain. The dog seroconverted, as detected 21 days after the first sampling, and developed neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized different SARS-CoV-2 variants. This study further emphasizes the importance of studying the susceptibility of animal species to different VOCs and their potential role as reservoirs in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/transmission , Dogs , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology
18.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580419

ABSTRACT

A microarray-based assay to detect IgG and IgM antibodies against betacoronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS, MERS, OC43, and HKU1), other respiratory viruses and type I interferons (IFN-Is) was developed. This multiplex assay was applied to track antibody cross-reactivity due to previous contact with similar viruses and to identify antibodies against IFN-Is as the markers for severe COVID-19. In total, 278 serum samples from convalescent plasma donors, COVID-19 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and patients who recovered from mild/moderate COVID-19, vaccine recipients, prepandemic and pandemic patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders, and a heterogeneous prepandemic cohort including healthy individuals and chronically ill patients were analyzed. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 microarray results agreed well with the ELISA results. Regarding ICU patients, autoantibodies against IFN-Is were detected in 10.5% of samples, and 10.5% of samples were found to simultaneously contain IgM antibodies against more than two different viruses. Cross-reactivity between IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid and IgG against the OC43 and HKU1 spike proteins was observed, resulting in positive signals for the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in prepandemic samples from patients with autoimmune endocrine disorders. The presence of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid in the absence of IgG against the SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Interferon Type I/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross Reactions , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Protein Array Analysis , Respiratory Tract Diseases/immunology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification
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