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2.
Science ; 380(6647): 784, 2023 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234431

ABSTRACT

Consensus grows for abandoning the ancestral strain to improve immune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Vaccination , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
3.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 3274, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240984

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in high levels of morbidity and mortality world-wide, and severe complications can occur in older populations. Humoral immunity induced by authorized vaccines wanes within 6 months, and frequent boosts may only offer transient protection. GRT-R910 is an investigational self-amplifying mRNA (samRNA)-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine delivering full-length Spike and selected conserved non-Spike T cell epitopes. This study reports interim analyses for a phase I open-label dose-escalation trial evaluating GRT-R910 in previously vaccinated healthy older adults (NCT05148962). Primary endpoints of safety and tolerability were assessed. Most solicited local and systemic adverse events (AEs) following GRT-R910 dosing were mild to moderate and transient, and no treatment-related serious AEs were observed. The secondary endpoint of immunogenicity was assessed via IgG binding assays, neutralization assays, interferon-gamma ELISpot, and intracellular cytokine staining. Neutralizing antibody titers against ancestral Spike and variants of concern were boosted or induced by GRT-R910 and, contrasting to authorized vaccines, persisted through at least 6 months after the booster dose. GRT-R910 increased and/or broadened functional Spike-specific T cell responses and primed functional T cell responses to conserved non-Spike epitopes. This study is limited due to small sample size, and additional data from ongoing studies will be required to corroborate these interim findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , RNA, Messenger/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Aged , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Clinical Trials as Topic , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
4.
Immunol Lett ; 259: 21-23, 2023 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323977

ABSTRACT

Inactivated vaccine is one of the platforms employed in COVID-19 vaccines. Inactivated vaccines have been associated with concerns of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and original antigenic sin (OAS), which are related to non-neutralising or poorly neutralising antibodies against the pathogen. Since inactivated COVID-19 vaccines use whole-SARS-CoV-2 virus as the immunogen, they are expected to generate antibodies against non-spike structural proteins, which are highly conservative across variants of SARS-CoV-2. These antibodies against non-spike structural proteins have found to be largely non-neutralising or poorly neutralising in nature. Hence, inactivated COVID-19 vaccines could possibly be associated with ADE and OAS, especially as novel variants emerge. This article explores the potential concern of ADE and OAS in the context of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine, and outlines the future research directions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
5.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2308229

ABSTRACT

Different serological assays were rapidly generated to study humoral responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein. Due to the intrinsic difficulty of working with SARS-CoV-2 authentic virus, most serological assays use recombinant forms of the Spike glycoprotein or its receptor binding domain (RBD). Cell-based assays expressing different forms of the Spike, as well as pseudoviral assays, are also widely used. To evaluate whether these assays recapitulate findings generated when the Spike is expressed in its physiological context (at the surface of the infected primary cells), we developed an intracellular staining against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) to distinguish infected from uninfected cells. Human airway epithelial cells (pAECs) were infected with authentic SARS-CoV-2 D614G or Alpha variants. We observed robust cell-surface expression of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike at the surface of the infected pAECs using the conformational-independent anti-S2 CV3-25 antibody. The infected cells were also readily recognized by plasma from convalescent and vaccinated individuals and correlated with several serological assays. This suggests that the antigenicity of the Spike present at the surface of the infected primary cells is maintained in serological assays involving expression of the native full-length Spike.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Bronchioles/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
7.
J Immunol ; 208(3): 685-696, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2257803

ABSTRACT

Immune response dysregulation plays a key role in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pathogenesis. In this study, we evaluated immune and endothelial blood cell profiles of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to determine critical differences between those with mild, moderate, or severe COVID-19 using spectral flow cytometry. We examined a suite of immune phenotypes, including monocytes, T cells, NK cells, B cells, endothelial cells, and neutrophils, alongside surface and intracellular markers of activation. Our results showed progressive lymphopenia and depletion of T cell subsets (CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+) in patients with severe disease and a significant increase in the CD56+CD14+Ki67+IFN-γ+ monocyte population in patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 that has not been previously described. Enhanced circulating endothelial cells (CD45-CD31+CD34+CD146+), circulating endothelial progenitors (CD45-CD31+CD34+/-CD146-), and neutrophils (CD11b+CD66b+) were coevaluated for COVID-19 severity. Spearman correlation analysis demonstrated the synergism among age, obesity, and hypertension with upregulated CD56+ monocytes, endothelial cells, and decreased T cells that lead to severe outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Circulating monocytes and endothelial cells may represent important cellular markers for monitoring postacute sequelae and impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection during convalescence and for their role in immune host defense in high-risk adults after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers , CD56 Antigen/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Comorbidity , Endothelial Cells/chemistry , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Lymphocyte Activation , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Lymphopenia/etiology , Lymphopenia/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/chemistry , Neutrophils/immunology , Obesity/epidemiology , Obesity/immunology , Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
9.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1255: 341102, 2023 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288795

ABSTRACT

Although many approaches have been developed for the quick assessment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, few of them are devoted to the detection of the neutralizing antibody, which is essential for assessing the effectiveness of vaccines. Herein, we developed a tri-mode lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) platform based on gold-silver alloy hollow nanoshells (Au-Ag HNSs) for the sensitive and accurate quantification of neutralizing antibodies. By tuning the shell-to-core ratio, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption band of the Au-Ag HNSs is located within the near infrared (NIR) region, endowing them with an excellent photothermal effect under the irradiation of optical maser at 808 nm. Further, the Raman reporter molecule 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) was immobilized on the gold-silver alloy nanoshell to obtain an enhanced SERS signal. Thus, these Au-Ag HNSs could provide colorimetric, photothermal and SERS signals, with which, tri-mode strips for SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody detection were constructed by competitive immunoassay. Since these three kinds of signals could complement one another, a more accurate detection was achieved. The tri-mode LFIA achieved a quantitative detection with detection limit of 20 ng/mL. Moreover, it also successfully detected the serum samples from 98 vaccinated volunteers with 79 positive results, exhibiting great application value in neutralizing antibody detection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Immunoassay , Nanoshells , SARS-CoV-2 , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Humans , Alloys , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Colorimetry/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Gold , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoassay/methods , Metal Nanoparticles , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Silver , Spectrum Analysis, Raman/methods
10.
Vaccine ; 41(17): 2793-2803, 2023 04 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287284

ABSTRACT

Protein subunit vaccines have been widely used to combat infectious diseases, including the current COVID-19 pandemic. Adjuvants play the key role in shaping the quality and magnitude of the immune response to protein and inactivated vaccines. We previously developed a protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine, termed ZF2001, based on an aluminium hydroxide-adjuvanted tandem-repeat dimeric receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike (S) protein. Here, we described the use of a squalene-based oil-in-water adjuvant, Sepivac SWE™ (abbreviated to SWE), to further improve the immunogenicity of this RBD-dimer-based subunit vaccines. Compared with ZF2001, SWE adjuvant enhanced the antibody and CD4+ T-cell responses in mice with at least 10 fold of dose sparing compared with ZF2001 adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide. SWE-adjuvanted vaccine protected mice against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. To ensure adequate protection against the currently circulating Omicron variant, we evaluated this adjuvant in combination with Delta-Omicron chimeric RBD-dimer. SWE significantly increased antibody responses compared with aluminium hydroxide adjuvant and afforded greater neutralization breadth. These data highlight the advantage of emulsion-based adjuvants to elevate the protective immune response of protein subunit COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Adjuvants, Vaccine , Protein Multimerization , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Mutation , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Humans , Animals , Mice , Binding Sites , Cell Line
12.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1299, 2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264553

ABSTRACT

mRNA-based vaccines dramatically reduce the occurrence and severity of COVID-19, but are associated with rare vaccine-related adverse effects. These toxicities, coupled with observations that SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with autoantibody development, raise questions whether COVID-19 vaccines may also promote the development of autoantibodies, particularly in autoimmune patients. Here we used Rapid Extracellular Antigen Profiling to characterize self- and viral-directed humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in 145 healthy individuals, 38 patients with autoimmune diseases, and 8 patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis. We confirm that most individuals generated robust virus-specific antibody responses post vaccination, but that the quality of this response is impaired in autoimmune patients on certain modes of immunosuppression. Autoantibody dynamics are remarkably stable in all vaccinated patients compared to COVID-19 patients that exhibit an increased prevalence of new autoantibody reactivities. Patients with vaccine-associated myocarditis do not have increased autoantibody reactivities relative to controls. In summary, our findings indicate that mRNA vaccines decouple SARS-CoV-2 immunity from autoantibody responses observed during acute COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Myocarditis/immunology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
13.
N Engl J Med ; 388(7): 609-620, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2258655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can cause serious lower respiratory tract disease in older adults, but no licensed RSV vaccine currently exists. An adenovirus serotype 26 RSV vector encoding a prefusion F (preF) protein (Ad26.RSV.preF) in combination with RSV preF protein was previously shown to elicit humoral and cellular immunogenicity. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b, proof-of-concept trial to evaluate the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of an Ad26.RSV.preF-RSV preF protein vaccine. Adults who were 65 years of age or older were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive vaccine or placebo. The primary end point was the first occurrence of RSV-mediated lower respiratory tract disease that met one of three case definitions: three or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection (definition 1), two or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection (definition 2), and either two or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection or one or more symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection plus at least one systemic symptom (definition 3). RESULTS: Overall, 5782 participants were enrolled and received an injection. RSV-mediated lower respiratory tract disease meeting case definitions 1, 2, and 3 occurred in 6, 10, and 13 vaccine recipients and in 30, 40, and 43 placebo recipients, respectively. Vaccine efficacy was 80.0% (94.2% confidence interval [CI], 52.2 to 92.9), 75.0% (94.2% CI, 50.1 to 88.5), and 69.8% (94.2% CI, 43.7 to 84.7) for case definitions 1, 2, and 3, respectively. After vaccination, RSV A2 neutralizing antibody titers increased by a factor of 12.1 from baseline to day 15, a finding consistent with other immunogenicity measures. Percentages of participants with solicited local and systemic adverse events were higher in the vaccine group than in the placebo group (local, 37.9% vs. 8.4%; systemic, 41.4% vs. 16.4%); most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity. The frequency of serious adverse events was similar in the vaccine group and the placebo group (4.6% and 4.7%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In adults 65 years of age or older, Ad26.RSV.preF-RSV preF protein vaccine was immunogenic and prevented RSV-mediated lower respiratory tract disease. (Funded by Janssen Vaccines and Prevention; CYPRESS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03982199.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/blood , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/adverse effects , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/blood , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Vaccine Efficacy , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Treatment Outcome
14.
Nature ; 617(7961): 592-598, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249288

ABSTRACT

The primary two-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine series are strongly immunogenic in humans, but the emergence of highly infectious variants necessitated additional doses and the development of vaccines aimed at the new variants1-4. SARS-CoV-2 booster immunizations in humans primarily recruit pre-existing memory B cells5-9. However, it remains unclear whether the additional doses induce germinal centre reactions whereby re-engaged B cells can further mature, and whether variant-derived vaccines can elicit responses to variant-specific epitopes. Here we show that boosting with an mRNA vaccine against the original monovalent SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine or the bivalent B.1.351 and B.1.617.2 (Beta/Delta) mRNA vaccine induced robust spike-specific germinal centre B cell responses in humans. The germinal centre response persisted for at least eight weeks, leading to significantly more mutated antigen-specific bone marrow plasma cell and memory B cell compartments. Spike-binding monoclonal antibodies derived from memory B cells isolated from individuals boosted with either the original SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, bivalent Beta/Delta vaccine or a monovalent Omicron BA.1-based vaccine predominantly recognized the original SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Nonetheless, using a more targeted sorting approach, we isolated monoclonal antibodies that recognized the BA.1 spike protein but not the original SARS-CoV-2 spike protein from individuals who received the mRNA-1273.529 booster; these antibodies were less mutated and recognized novel epitopes within the spike protein, suggesting that they originated from naive B cells. Thus, SARS-CoV-2 booster immunizations in humans induce robust germinal centre B cell responses and can generate de novo B cell responses targeting variant-specific epitopes.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Germinal Center , Immunization, Secondary , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Germinal Center/cytology , Germinal Center/immunology , Plasma Cells/cytology , Plasma Cells/immunology , Memory B Cells/cytology , Memory B Cells/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology
15.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285589

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of the study was to estimate the SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among HCWs in Cochabamba, Bolivia and to determine the potential risk factors. In January 2021, a cross-sectional SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study was conducted in 783 volunteer clinical and non-clinical HCWs in tertiary care facilities. It was based on IgG detection using ELISA, chemiluminiscence, and seroneutralisation tests from dried blood spots. Analysis revealed a high seroprevalence (43.4%) of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies. The combination of anosmia and ageusia (OR: 68.11; 95%-CI 24.83-186.80) was predictive of seropositivity. Belonging to the cleaning staff (OR: 1.94; 95%-CI 1.09-3.45), having more than two children in the same house (OR: 1.74; 95%-CI 1.12-2.71), and having been in contact with a close relative with COVID-19 (OR: 3.53; 95%-CI 2.24-5.58) were identified as risk factors for seropositivity in a multivariate analysis. A total of 47.5% of participants had received medication for COVID-19 treatment or prevention, and only ~50% of symptomatic subjects accessed PCR or antigenic testing. This study confirms a massive SARS-CoV-2 attack rate among HCWs in Cochabamba by the end of January 2021. The main risk factors identified are having a low-skilled job, living with children, and having been in contact with an infected relative in the household.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bolivia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Tertiary Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
16.
Science ; 370(6521): 1227-1230, 2020 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243268

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic with millions infected and more than 1 million fatalities. Questions regarding the robustness, functionality, and longevity of the antibody response to the virus remain unanswered. Here, on the basis of a dataset of 30,082 individuals screened at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City, we report that the vast majority of infected individuals with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 experience robust immunoglobulin G antibody responses against the viral spike protein. We also show that titers are relatively stable for at least a period of about 5 months and that anti-spike binding titers significantly correlate with neutralization of authentic SARS-CoV-2. Our data suggest that more than 90% of seroconverters make detectable neutralizing antibody responses. These titers remain relatively stable for several months after infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Neutralization Tests
17.
Nature ; 614(7948): 521-529, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239514

ABSTRACT

Continuous evolution of Omicron has led to a rapid and simultaneous emergence of numerous variants that display growth advantages over BA.5 (ref. 1). Despite their divergent evolutionary courses, mutations on their receptor-binding domain (RBD) converge on several hotspots. The driving force and destination of such sudden convergent evolution and its effect on humoral immunity remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that these convergent mutations can cause evasion of neutralizing antibody drugs and convalescent plasma, including those from BA.5 breakthrough infection, while maintaining sufficient ACE2-binding capability. BQ.1.1.10 (BQ.1.1 + Y144del), BA.4.6.3, XBB and CH.1.1 are the most antibody-evasive strains tested. To delineate the origin of the convergent evolution, we determined the escape mutation profiles and neutralization activity of monoclonal antibodies isolated from individuals who had BA.2 and BA.5 breakthrough infections2,3. Owing to humoral immune imprinting, BA.2 and especially BA.5 breakthrough infection reduced the diversity of the neutralizing antibody binding sites and increased proportions of non-neutralizing antibody clones, which, in turn, focused humoral immune pressure and promoted convergent evolution in the RBD. Moreover, we show that the convergent RBD mutations could be accurately inferred by deep mutational scanning profiles4,5, and the evolution trends of BA.2.75 and BA.5 subvariants could be well foreseen through constructed convergent pseudovirus mutants. These results suggest that current herd immunity and BA.5 vaccine boosters may not efficiently prevent the infection of Omicron convergent variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , Antigenic Drift and Shift , COVID-19 , Evolution, Molecular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Breakthrough Infections/immunology , Breakthrough Infections/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serotherapy , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Protein Domains/genetics , Protein Domains/immunology , Antigenic Drift and Shift/immunology , Mutation
18.
N Engl J Med ; 388(7): 621-634, 2023 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are urgently needed in young children. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 dose-finding study and are conducting an ongoing phase 2-3 safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy trial of the BNT162b2 vaccine in healthy children 6 months to 11 years of age. We present results for children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and those 2 to 4 years of age through the data-cutoff dates (April 29, 2022, for safety and immunogenicity and June 17, 2022, for efficacy). In the phase 2-3 trial, participants were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) to receive two 3-µg doses of BNT162b2 or placebo. On the basis of preliminary immunogenicity results, a third 3-µg dose (≥8 weeks after dose 2) was administered starting in January 2022, which coincided with the emergence of the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant. Immune responses at 1 month after doses 2 and 3 in children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and those 2 to 4 years of age were immunologically bridged to responses after dose 2 in persons 16 to 25 years of age who received 30 µg of BNT162b2 in the pivotal trial. RESULTS: During the phase 1 dose-finding study, two doses of BNT162b2 were administered 21 days apart to 16 children 6 months to less than 2 years of age (3-µg dose) and 48 children 2 to 4 years of age (3-µg or 10-µg dose). The 3-µg dose level was selected for the phase 2-3 trial; 1178 children 6 months to less than 2 years of age and 1835 children 2 to 4 years of age received BNT162b2, and 598 and 915, respectively, received placebo. Immunobridging success criteria for the geometric mean ratio and seroresponse at 1 month after dose 3 were met in both age groups. BNT162b2 reactogenicity events were mostly mild to moderate, with no grade 4 events. Low, similar incidences of fever were reported after receipt of BNT162b2 (7% among children 6 months to <2 years of age and 5% among those 2 to 4 years of age) and placebo (6 to 7% among children 6 months to <2 years of age and 4 to 5% among those 2 to 4 years of age). The observed overall vaccine efficacy against symptomatic Covid-19 in children 6 months to 4 years of age was 73.2% (95% confidence interval, 43.8 to 87.6) from 7 days after dose 3 (on the basis of 34 cases). CONCLUSIONS: A three-dose primary series of 3-µg BNT162b2 was safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in children 6 months to 4 years of age. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04816643.).


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Young Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/administration & dosage , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Vaccines/adverse effects , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Treatment Outcome , Vaccine Efficacy
19.
Rev Med Virol ; 30(4): e2116, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231826

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, a group of patients was observed with pneumonia-like symptoms that were linked with a wet market in Wuhan, China. The patients were found to have a novel coronavirus genetically related to a bat coronavirus that was termed SARS-CoV-2. The virus gradually spread worldwide and was declared a pandemic by WHO. Scientists have started trials on potential preventive and treatment options. Currently, there is no specific approved treatment for SARS-CoV-2, and various clinical trials are underway to explore better treatments. Some previously approved antiviral and other drugs have shown some in vitro activity. Here we summarize the fight against this novel coronavirus with particular focus on the different treatment options and clinical trials exploring treatment as well as work done toward development of vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Clinical Trials as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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