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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 833715, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731782

ABSTRACT

2020 will be marked in history for the dreadful implications of the COVID-19 pandemic that shook the world globally. The pandemic has reshaped the normality of life and affected mankind in the aspects of mental and physical health, financial, economy, growth, and development. The focus shift to COVID-19 has indirectly impacted an existing air-borne disease, Tuberculosis. In addition to the decrease in TB diagnosis, the emergence of the TB/COVID-19 syndemic and its serious implications (possible reactivation of latent TB post-COVID-19, aggravation of an existing active TB condition, or escalation of the severity of a COVID-19 during TB-COVID-19 coinfection), serve as primary reasons to equally prioritize TB. On a different note, the valuable lessons learnt for the COVID-19 pandemic provide useful knowledge for enhancing TB diagnostics and therapeutics. In this review, the crucial need to focus on TB amid the COVID-19 pandemic has been discussed. Besides, a general comparison between COVID-19 and TB in the aspects of pathogenesis, diagnostics, symptoms, and treatment options with importance given to antibody therapy were presented. Lastly, the lessons learnt from the COVID-19 pandemic and how it is applicable to enhance the antibody-based immunotherapy for TB have been presented.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Coinfection/therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/therapy , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/immunology
2.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 91, 2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) was described in kidney transplant patients after viral infections, such as the cytomegalovirus. Very few cases were recently reported after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, probably in the context of lowering of immunosuppressive therapy. To date, no direct immunological link was proved to explain a connection between the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infection and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) if it exists. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we try to find this association by presenting the case of a low immunological risk patient who presented, six years post-transplant, with c4d negative antibody mediated rejection due to an anti-HLA-C17 de novo donor specific antibody (DSA) after contracting the coronavirus disease 19. The HLA-Cw17 activated the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity via the KIR2DS1 positive NK cells. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This case report may prove a direct role for COVID-19 infection in AMRs in the kidney transplant recipients, leading us to closely monitor kidney transplant recipients, especially if they have "at-risk" donor antigens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686811

ABSTRACT

Antibody-enzyme complexes (AECs) are ideal molecular recognition elements for immunosensing applications. One molecule possesses both a binding ability to specific targets and catalytic activity to gain signals, particularly oxidoreductases, which can be integrated into rapid and sensitive electrochemical measurements. The development of AECs using fragment antibodies rather than intact antibodies, such as immunoglobulin G (IgG), has attracted attention for overcoming the ethical and cost issues associated with the production of intact antibodies. Conventionally, chemical conjugation has been used to fabricate AECs; however, controlling stoichiometric conjugation using this method is difficult. To prepare homogeneous AECs, methods based on direct fusion and enzymatic conjugation have been developed, and more convenient methods using Catcher/Tag systems as coupling modules have been reported. In this review, we summarize the methods for fabricating AECs using fragment antibodies developed for sensing applications and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Multienzyme Complexes/immunology , Animals , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology
4.
Cell Rep ; 37(13): 110169, 2021 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616407

ABSTRACT

The importance of pre-existing immune responses to seasonal endemic coronaviruses (HCoVs) for the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 is the subject of an ongoing scientific debate. Recent studies postulate that immune responses to previous HCoV infections can either have a slightly protective or no effect on SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis and, consequently, be neglected for COVID-19 risk stratification. Challenging this notion, we provide evidence that pre-existing, anti-nucleocapsid antibodies against endemic α-coronaviruses and S2 domain-specific anti-spike antibodies against ß-coronavirus HCoV-OC43 are elevated in patients with COVID-19 compared to pre-pandemic donors. This finding is particularly pronounced in males and in critically ill patients. Longitudinal evaluation reveals that antibody cross-reactivity or polyclonal stimulation by SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to be confounders. Thus, specific pre-existing immunity to seasonal coronaviruses may increase susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and predispose individuals to an adverse COVID-19 outcome, guiding risk management and supporting the development of universal coronavirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/pathogenicity , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , Germany , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Seasons , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 791348, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1608514

ABSTRACT

Background: Striking similarities have been found between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody (Ab)-related dermatomyositis, implying a shared autoinflammatory aberrance. Herein, we aim to investigate whether the anti-MDA5 Ab is present in COVID-19 and correlates with the severity and adverse outcome of COVID-19 patients. Methods and Findings: We retrospectively recruited 274 adult inpatients with COVID-19 in this study, including 48, 164, and 62 cases of deaths, severe, and non-severe patients respectively. The anti-MDA5 Ab was determined by ELISA and verified by Western Blotting, which indicated that the positive rate of anti-MDA5 Ab in COVID-19 patients was 48.2% (132/274). The clinical and laboratory features, as well as outcomes between patients with positive and negative anti-MDA5 Ab were compared and we found that the anti-MDA5 Ab positive patients tended to represent severe disease (88.6% vs 66.9%, P<0.0001). We also demonstrated that the titer of anti-MDA5 Ab was significantly elevated in the non-survivals (5.95 ± 5.16 vs 8.22 ± 6.64, P=0.030) and the positive rate was also higher than that in the survivals (23.5% vs 12.0%, P=0.012). Regarding severe COVID-19 patients, we found that high titer of anti-MDA5 Ab (≥10.0 U/mL) was more prevalent in the non-survivals (31.2% vs 14.0%, P=0.006). Moreover, a dynamic analysis of anti-MDA5 Ab was conducted at different time-points of COVID-19, which revealed that early profiling of anti-MDA5 Ab could distinguish severe patients from those with non-severe ones. Conclusions: Anti-MDA5 Ab was prevalent in the COVID-19 patients and high titer of this antibody is correlated with severe disease and unfavorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Antibodies/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Progression , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
6.
Protein Sci ; 31(1): 141-146, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520274

ABSTRACT

The antibody repertoires of individuals and groups have been used to explore disease states, understand vaccine responses, and drive therapeutic development. The arrival of B-cell receptor repertoire sequencing has enabled researchers to get a snapshot of these antibody repertoires, and as more data are generated, increasingly in-depth studies are possible. However, most publicly available data only exist as raw FASTQ files, making the data hard to access, process, and compare. The Observed Antibody Space (OAS) database was created in 2018 to offer clean, annotated, and translated repertoire data. In this paper, we describe an update to OAS that has been driven by the increasing volume of data and the appearance of paired (VH/VL) sequence data. OAS is now accessible via a new web server, with standardized search parameters and a new sequence-based search option. The new database provides both nucleotides and amino acids for every sequence, with additional sequence annotations to make the data Minimal Information about Adaptive Immune Receptor Repertoire compliant, and comments on potential problems with the sequence. OAS now contains 25 new studies, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 data and paired sequencing data. The new database is accessible at http://opig.stats.ox.ac.uk/webapps/oas/, and all data are freely available for download.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/chemistry , Databases, Protein , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
7.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(47): 19794-19801, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521695

ABSTRACT

Effective screening of infectious diseases requires a fast, cheap, and population-scale testing. Antigen pool testing can increase the test rate and shorten the screening time, thus being a valuable approach for epidemic prevention and control. However, the overall percent agreement (OPA) with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one-half to three-quarters, hampering it from being a comprehensive method, especially pool testing, beyond the gold-standard PCR. Here, a multiantibodies transistor assay is developed for sensitive and highly precise antigen pool testing. The multiantibodies capture SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 proteins with different configurations, resulting in an antigen-binding affinity down to 0.34 fM. The limit of detection reaches 3.5 × 10-17 g mL-1SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein in artificial saliva, 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than existing transistor sensors. The testing of 60 nasopharyngeal swabs exhibits ∼100% OPA with PCR within an average diagnoses time of 38.9 s. Owing to its highly precise feature, a portable integrated platform is fabricated, which achieves 10-in-1 pooled screening for high testing throughput. This work solves the long-standing problem of antigen pool testing, enabling it to be a valuable tool in precise diagnoses and population-wide screening of COVID-19 or other epidemics in the future.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transistors, Electronic , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Limit of Detection , Nasopharynx/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Protein Subunits/genetics , Protein Subunits/immunology , Protein Subunits/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Saliva/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(23): e2103266, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479368

ABSTRACT

Activation of endothelial cells following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is thought to be the primary driver for the increasingly recognized thrombotic complications in coronavirus disease 2019 patients, potentially due to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein binding to the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2). Vaccination therapies use the same Spike sequence or protein to boost host immune response as a protective mechanism against SARS-CoV-2 infection. As a result, cases of thrombotic events are reported following vaccination. Although vaccines are generally considered safe, due to genetic heterogeneity, age, or the presence of comorbidities in the population worldwide, the prediction of severe adverse outcome in patients remains a challenge. To elucidate Spike proteins underlying patient-specific-vascular thrombosis, the human microcirculation environment is recapitulated using a novel microfluidic platform coated with human endothelial cells and exposed to patient specific whole blood. Here, the blood coagulation effect is tested after exposure to Spike protein in nanoparticles and Spike variant D614G in viral vectors and the results are corroborated using live SARS-CoV-2. Of note, two potential strategies are also examined to reduce blood clot formation, by using nanoliposome-hACE2 and anti-Interleukin (IL) 6 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies/chemistry , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/chemistry , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Fibrin/chemistry , Fibrin/metabolism , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Genetic Vectors/metabolism , Humans , Interleukin-6/immunology , Liposomes/chemistry , Microfluidics/methods , Mutation , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Platelet Aggregation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
10.
Cell Chem Biol ; 29(1): 5-18.e6, 2022 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471910

ABSTRACT

The global epidemic caused by the coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in the infection of over 200 million people. To extend the knowledge of interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and humans, we systematically investigate the interactome of 29 viral proteins in human cells by using an antibody-based TurboID assay. In total, 1,388 high-confidence human proximal proteins with biotinylated sites are identified. Notably, we find that SARS-CoV-2 manipulates the antiviral and immune responses. We validate that the membrane protein ITGB1 associates angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to mediate SARS-CoV-2 entry. Moreover, we reveal that SARS-CoV-2 proteins inhibit activation of the interferon pathway through the mitochondrial protein mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) and the methyltransferase SET domain containing 2, histone lysine methyltransferase (SETD2). We propose 111 potential drugs for the clinical treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and identify three compounds that significantly inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2. The proximity labeling map of SARS-CoV-2 and humans provides a resource for elucidating the mechanisms of viral infection and developing drugs for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Integrin beta1/immunology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
11.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444329

ABSTRACT

Since SARS-CoV-2 appeared in late 2019, many studies on the immune response to COVID-19 have been conducted, but the asymptomatic or light symptom cases were somewhat understudied as respective individuals often did not seek medical help. Here, we analyze the production of the IgG antibodies to viral nucleocapsid (N) protein and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein and assess the serum neutralization capabilities in a cohort of patients with different levels of disease severity. In half of light or asymptomatic cases the antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein, which serve as the main target in many modern test systems, were not detected. They were detected in all cases of moderate or severe symptoms, and severe lung lesions correlated with respective higher signals. Antibodies to RBD were present in the absolute majority of samples, with levels being sometimes higher in light symptom cases. We thus suggest that the anti-RBD/anti-N antibody ratio may serve as an indicator of the disease severity. Anti-RBD IgG remained detectable after a year or more since the infection, even with a slight tendency to raise over time, and the respective signal correlated with the serum capacity to inhibit the RBD interaction with the ACE-2 receptor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nucleocapsid , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Russia , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0249254, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440984

ABSTRACT

Due to the widespread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the SARS-CoV-2 genome is evolving in diverse human populations. Several studies already reported different strains and an increase in the mutation rate. Particularly, mutations in SARS-CoV-2 spike-glycoprotein are of great interest as it mediates infection in human and recently approved mRNA vaccines are designed to induce immune responses against it. We analyzed 1,036,030 SARS-CoV-2 genome assemblies and 30,806 NGS datasets from GISAID and European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) focusing on non-synonymous mutations in the spike protein. Only around 2.5% of the samples contained the wild-type spike protein with no variation from the reference. Among the spike protein mutants, we confirmed a low mutation rate exhibiting less than 10 non-synonymous mutations in 99.6% of the analyzed sequences, but the mean and median number of spike protein mutations per sample increased over time. 5,472 distinct variants were found in total. The majority of the observed variants were recurrent, but only 21 and 14 recurrent variants were found in at least 1% of the mutant genome assemblies and NGS samples, respectively. Further, we found high-confidence subclonal variants in about 2.6% of the NGS data sets with mutant spike protein, which might indicate co-infection with various SARS-CoV-2 strains and/or intra-host evolution. Lastly, some variants might have an effect on antibody binding or T-cell recognition. These findings demonstrate the continuous importance of monitoring SARS-CoV-2 sequences for an early detection of variants that require adaptations in preventive and therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Mutation Rate , Pandemics , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
15.
Nature ; 596(7873): 565-569, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356565

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopaenia (VITT) is a rare adverse effect of COVID-19 adenoviral vector vaccines1-3. VITT resembles heparin-induced thrombocytopaenia (HIT) in that it is associated with platelet-activating antibodies against platelet factor 4 (PF4)4; however, patients with VITT develop thrombocytopaenia and thrombosis without exposure to heparin. Here we sought to determine the binding site on PF4 of antibodies from patients with VITT. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis5, we found that the binding of anti-PF4 antibodies from patients with VITT (n = 5) was restricted to eight surface amino acids on PF4, all of which were located within the heparin-binding site, and that the binding was inhibited by heparin. By contrast, antibodies from patients with HIT (n = 10) bound to amino acids that corresponded to two different sites on PF4. Biolayer interferometry experiments also revealed that VITT anti-PF4 antibodies had a stronger binding response to PF4 and PF4-heparin complexes than did HIT anti-PF4 antibodies, albeit with similar dissociation rates. Our data indicate that VITT antibodies can mimic the effect of heparin by binding to a similar site on PF4; this allows PF4 tetramers to cluster and form immune complexes, which in turn causes Fcγ receptor IIa (FcγRIIa; also known as CD32a)-dependent platelet activation. These results provide an explanation for VITT-antibody-induced platelet activation that could contribute to thrombosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/immunology , Thrombosis/chemically induced , Thrombosis/immunology , Adult , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies/immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody , Female , Heparin/chemistry , Heparin/immunology , Heparin/metabolism , Humans , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Platelet Activation , Platelet Factor 4/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology
16.
J Immunol Methods ; 497: 113108, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330965

ABSTRACT

Cardiovascular disease has remained the world's biggest killer for 30 years. To aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients suffering cardiovascular-related disease accurate detection methods are essential. For over 20 years, the cardiac-specific troponins, I (cTnI) and T (cTnT), have acted as sensitive and specific biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis of various types of heart diseases. Various cardiovascular complications were commonly detected in patients with COVID-19, where cTn elevation is detectable, which suggested potential prognostic value of cTn in COVID-19-infected patients. Detection of these biomarkers circulating in the bloodstream is generally facilitated by immunoassays employing cTnI- and/or cTnT-specific antibodies. While several anti-troponin assays are commercially available, there are still obstacles to overcome to achieve optimal troponin detection. Such obstacles include the proteolytic degradation of N and C terminals on cTnI, epitope occlusion of troponin binding-sites by the cTnI/cTnT complex, cross reactivity of antibodies with skeletal troponins or assay interference caused by human anti-species antibodies. Therefore, further research into multi-antibody based platforms, multi-epitope targeting and rigorous validation of immunoassays is required to ensure accurate measurements. Moreover, in combination with various technical advances (e.g. microfluidics), antibody-based troponin detection systems can be more sensitive and rapid for incorporation into portable biosensor systems to be used at point-of care.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/blood , Biomarkers/blood , Cardiovascular Diseases/blood , Immunoassay/methods , Troponin I/blood , Troponin T/blood , Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Troponin I/immunology , Troponin T/immunology
17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109497, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1312959

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CPExo) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CPExo instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CPExo has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens/immunology , DNA/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Chem Biol Interact ; 344: 109497, 2021 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309180

ABSTRACT

Extracellular vesicles like exosomes are important therapeutic tactics for treating COVID -19. By utilizing convalescent plasma derived exosomes (CPExo) from COVID-19 recovered persistence could accelerate the treatment strategies in the current state of affairs. Adequate literature has shown that administering the exosome to the in vivo system could be beneficial and could target the pathogens in an effective and precise manner. In this hypothesis we highlight the CPExo instead of convalescent plasma (CP), perhaps to dispense of exosomes are gratified and it's more effectively acquired immune response conferral through antibodies. COVID-19 convalescent plasma has billions of exosomes and it has aptitudes to carry molecular constituents like proteins, lipids, RNA and DNA, etc. Moreover, exosomes are capable of recognizing antigens with adequate sensitivity and specificity. Many of these derivatives could trigger an immune modulation into the cells and act as an epigenetic inheritor response to target pathogens through RNAs. COIVID-19 resistance activated plasma-derived exosomes are either responsible for the effects of plasma beyond the contained immune antibodies or could be inhibitory. The proposed hypothesis suggests that preselecting the plasma-derived antibodies and RNAs merged exosomes would be an optimized therapeutic tactic for COVID-19 patients. We suggest that, the CPExo has a multi-potential effect for treatment efficacy by acting as immunotherapeutic, drug carrier, and diagnostic target with noncoding genetic materials as a biomarker.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/immunology , Plasma/immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies/immunology , Antigens/immunology , DNA/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , RNA/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107797, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300822

ABSTRACT

Specific antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 structural protein have a wide range of effects in the diagnose, prevention and treatment of the COVID-19 epidemic. Among them, egg yolk immunoglobulin Y (IgY), which has high safety, high yield, and without inducing antibody-dependent enhancement, is an important biological candidate. In this study, specific IgY against the conservative nucleocapsid protein (NP) of SARS-CoV-2 was obtained by immunizing hens. Through a series of optimized precipitation and ultrafiltration extraction schemes, its purity was increased to 98%. The hyperimmune IgY against NP (N-IgY) at a titer of 1:50,000 showed strong NP binding ability, which laid the foundation of N-IgY's application targeting NP. In an in vitro immunoregulatory study, N-IgY (1 mg/mL) modulated NP-induced immune response by alleviating type II interferon secretion stimulated by NP (20 µg/mL). In summary, N-IgY can be mass produced by achievable method, which endows it with potential value against the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulins/immunology , Immunologic Factors/immunology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/therapy , Chickens , Drug Development , Egg Yolk/chemistry , Egg Yolk/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Immunoglobulins/pharmacology , Immunologic Factors/pharmacology , Immunomodulation , In Vitro Techniques , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
20.
Carbohydr Polym ; 269: 118345, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271581

ABSTRACT

This work reports novel chitosan functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites combined fluorescence imaging and therapeutic functions in one agent, which can serve as a promising alternative to alleviate related diseases caused hyperinflammation. Briefly, GO was designed to be conjugated with chitosan, fluorescein-labeled peptide, toll-like receptor 4 antibody and hydroxycamptothecin/aloe emodin. We have demonstrated that such nanocomposites could effectively achieve active targeted delivery of pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory drugs into inflammatory cells and cause cells apoptosis by acid-responsive drug release. Moreover, confocal fluorescence imaging confirms that the drug-induced inflammatory cells apoptosis could be visualized the light-up fluorescence of fluorescein activated by caspase-3. Meanwhile, inflammatory-related biomarkers have down-regulated after the nanocomposites' treatment in both vitro and vivo experiments consistent with the results in histological sections. In summary, the bifunctional nanocomposites that possess anti-inflammation and fluorescence imaging could serve as a promising therapeutic agent for reducing hyperinflammation caused by numerous diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/physiology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antibodies/immunology , Camptothecin/analogs & derivatives , Camptothecin/chemistry , Camptothecin/therapeutic use , Cattle , Cell Line , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Emodin/chemistry , Emodin/therapeutic use , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Mammary Glands, Human/drug effects , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Mastitis/chemically induced , Mastitis/drug therapy , Mastitis/pathology , Mice , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
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