Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 760
Filter
1.
Clin Lab Med ; 42(1): 111-128, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130428

ABSTRACT

As new public health challenges relating to COVID-19 emerge, such as variant strains, waning vaccine efficacy over time, and decreased vaccine efficacy for special populations (immunocompromised hosts), it is important to determine a correlate of protection (CoP) to allow accurate bridging studies for special populations and against variants of concern. Large-scale phase 3 clinical trials are inefficient to rapidly assess novel vaccine candidates for variant strains or special populations, because these trials are slow and costly. Defining a practical CoP will aid in efficiently conducting future assessments to further describe protection for individuals and on a population level for surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Clin Lab Med ; 42(1): 97-109, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130422

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) during acute infection and convalescence has been widely studied since March 2020. In this review, the authors summarize literature on humoral responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens with a focus on spike, nucleocapsid, and the receptor-binding domain as targets of antibody responses. They highlight serologic studies during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection and discuss the clinical relevance of antibody levels in COVID-19 progression. Antibody responses in pediatric COVID-19 patients are also reviewed. Finally, the authors discuss antibody responses during convalescence and their role in protection from SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Child , Humans , Immunity, Humoral
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 959697, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141992

ABSTRACT

Malaria has been hypothesized as a factor that may have reduced the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To evaluate the effect of recent malaria on COVID-19 we assessed a subgroup of individuals participating in a longitudinal cohort COVID-19 serosurvey that were also undergoing intensive malaria monitoring as part of antimalarial vaccine trials during the 2020 transmission season in Mali. These communities experienced a high incidence of primarily asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 during 2020 and 2021. In 1314 individuals, 711 were parasitemic during the 2020 malaria transmission season; 442 were symptomatic with clinical malaria and 269 had asymptomatic infection. Presence of parasitemia was not associated with new COVID-19 seroconversion (29.7% (211/711) vs. 30.0% (181/603), p=0.9038) or with rates of reported symptomatic seroconversion during the malaria transmission season. In the subsequent dry season, prior parasitemia was not associated with new COVID-19 seroconversion (30.2% (133/441) vs. 31.2% (108/346), p=0.7499), with symptomatic seroconversion, or with reversion from seropositive to seronegative (prior parasitemia: 36.2% (64/177) vs. no parasitemia: 30.1% (37/119), p=0.3842). After excluding participants with asymptomatic infection, clinical malaria was also not associated with COVID-19 serostatus or symptomatic seroconversion when compared to participants with no parasitemia during the monitoring period. In communities with intense seasonal malaria and a high incidence of asymptomatic or mild COVID-19, we did not demonstrate a relationship between recent malaria and subsequent response to COVID-19. Lifetime exposure, rather than recent infection, may be responsible for any effect of malaria on COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Malaria , Antibody Formation , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Mali/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parasitemia/epidemiology
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 934476, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141953

ABSTRACT

Background: The antibody response after vaccination is impaired in common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Objective: We aimed to study the spike receptor-binding domain IgG antibody (anti-S-RBD) levels during a four-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategy and after monoclonal antibody (mAB) treatment in CVID. Moreover, we assessed the anti-S-RBD levels in immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) products. Methods: In an observational study, we examined anti-S-RBD levels after the second, third, and fourth dose of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Moreover, we measured anti-S-RBD after treatment with mAB. Finally, anti-S-RBD was assessed in common IgRT products. Antibody non-responders (anti-S-RBD < 7.1) were compared by McNemar's test and anti-S-RBD levels were compared with paired and non-paired Wilcoxon signed rank tests as well as Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Among 33 individuals with CVID, anti-S-RBD levels increased after the third vaccine dose (165 BAU/ml [95% confidence interval: 85; 2280 BAU/ml], p = 0.006) and tended to increase after the fourth dose (193 BAU/ml, [-22; 569 BAU/ml], p = 0.080) compared to the previous dose. With increasing number of vaccinations, the proportion of patients who seroconverted (anti-S-RBD ≥ 7.1) increased non-significantly. mAB treatment resulted in a large increase in anti-S-RBD and a higher median level than gained after the fourth dose of vaccine (p = 0.009). IgRT products had varying concentrations of anti-S-RBD (p < 0.001), but none of the products seemed to affect the overall antibody levels (p = 0.460). Conclusion: Multiple SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses in CVID seem to provide additional protection, as antibody levels increased after the third and fourth vaccine dose. However, anti-S-RBD levels from mAB outperform the levels mounted after vaccination. Clinical Implications: Boosting with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines seems to improve the antibody response in CVID patients. Capsule summary: The third and possibly also the fourth dose of mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in CVID improve the antibody response as well as stimulate seroconversion in most non-responders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Common Variable Immunodeficiency , Viral Vaccines , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Common Variable Immunodeficiency/therapy , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Virol J ; 19(1): 197, 2022 11 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139346

ABSTRACT

Currently, the majority of the global population has been vaccinated with the COVID-19 vaccine, and characterization studies of antibodies in vivo from Omicron breakthrough infection and naive infection populations are urgently needed to provide pivotal clues about accurate diagnosis, treatment, and next-generation vaccine design against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We showed that after infection with Omicron-BA.2, the antibody levels of specific IgM against the Wuhan strain and specific IgG against Omicron were not significantly elevated within 27 days of onset. Interestingly, in this study, the levels of humoral immunity against Omicron-specific IgM were significantly increased after breakthrough infection, suggesting that the detection of Omicron-specific IgM antibodies can be used as a test criterion of Omicron breakthrough infection. In addition, we observed that serums from unvaccinated individuals and the majority of vaccinated infections possessed only low or no neutralizing activity against Omicron at the onset of Omicron breakthrough infections, and at the later stage of Omicron-BA.2 breakthrough infection, levels of neutralization antibody against the Wuhan and Omicron strains were elevated in infected individuals. The findings of this study provide important clues for the diagnosis of Omicron breakthrough infections, antibody characterization studies and vaccine design against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulin M
6.
J Infect Dis ; 226(11): 1934-1942, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term studies of vaccine recipients are necessary to understand severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody durability and assess the impact of booster doses on antibody levels and protection from infection. The identification of vaccine breakthrough infections among fully vaccinated populations will be important in understanding vaccine efficacy and SARS-CoV-2 vaccine escape capacity. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor-binding domain and nucleocapsid (N) immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels were measured in a longitudinal study of 1000 Chicago healthcare workers who were infection naive or previously infected and then vaccinated. Changes in S and N IgG were followed up through 14 months, and vaccine breakthrough infections were identified by increasing levels of N IgG. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 S IgG antibody levels among previously infected and previously noninfected individuals decreased steadily for 11 months after vaccination. Administration of a booster 8-11 months after vaccination increased S IgG levels >2-fold beyond those observed after 2 doses, resulting in S IgG levels that were indistinguishable between previously infected and uninfected individuals. Increases in N IgG identified vaccine breakthrough infections and showed >15% breakthrough infection rates during the Omicron wave starting in December 2021. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate SARS-CoV-2 antibody changes after vaccination and breakthrough infections and identify high levels of vaccine breakthrough infections during the Omicron wave, based on N IgG increases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Longitudinal Studies , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Nucleocapsid , Antibodies, Viral , Health Personnel , Postoperative Complications
7.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7315, 2022 Nov 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133436

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 course and immunity differ in children and adults. We analyzed immune response dynamics in 28 families up to 12 months after mild or asymptomatic infection. Unlike adults, the initial response is plasmablast-driven in children. Four months after infection, children show an enhanced specific antibody response and lower but detectable spike 1 protein (S1)-specific B and T cell responses than their parents. While specific antibodies decline, neutralizing antibody activity and breadth increase in both groups. The frequencies of S1-specific B and T cell responses remain stable. However, in children, one year after infection, an increase in the S1-specific IgA class switch and the expression of CD27 on S1-specific B cells and T cell maturation are observed. These results, together with the enhanced neutralizing potential and breadth of the specific antibodies, suggest a progressive maturation of the S1-specific immune response. Hence, the immune response in children persists over 12 months but dynamically changes in quality, with progressive neutralizing, breadth, and memory maturation. This implies a benefit for booster vaccination in children to consolidate memory formation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Child , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibody Formation , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Immunization, Secondary
8.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 7185, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2133435

ABSTRACT

There is limited understanding of antibody responses in children across different SARS-CoV-2 variants. As part of an ongoing household cohort study, we assessed the antibody response among unvaccinated children infected with Wuhan, Delta, or Omicron variants, as well as vaccinated children with breakthrough Omicron infection, using a SARS-CoV-2 S1-specific IgG assay and surrogate virus neutralization test (% inhibition). Most children infected with Delta (100%, 35/35) or Omicron (81.3%, 13/16) variants seroconverted by one month following infection. In contrast, 37.5% (21/56) children infected with Wuhan seroconverted, as previously reported. However, Omicron-infected children (geometric mean concentration 46.4 binding antibody units/ml; % inhibition = 16.3%) mounted a significantly lower antibody response than Delta (435.5 binding antibody untis/mL, % inhibition = 76.9%) or Wuhan (359.0 binding antibody units/mL, % inhibition = 74.0%). Vaccinated children with breakthrough Omicron infection mounted the highest antibody response (2856 binding antibody units/mL, % inhibition = 96.5%). Our findings suggest that despite a high seropositivity rate, Omicron infection in children results in lower antibody levels and function compared with Wuhan or Delta infection or with vaccinated children with breakthrough Omicron infection. Our data have important implications for public health measures and vaccination strategies to protect children.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Child , Humans , Antibody Formation , Cohort Studies , Australia/epidemiology , Antibodies, Viral , Immunoglobulin G
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 111: 261-266, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2113593

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibody response against the nucleocapsid protein (NP) and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 in a cohort of 86 individuals in Venezuela, before and after receiving the Sputnik V vaccine. METHODS: Antibody responses against NP and RBD were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay just before, 3 weeks after the first, and 6 weeks after the second dose of the vaccine. RESULTS: Before vaccination, 59 individuals were seronegative, and 27 seropositive for NP and/or RBD. Of the seronegative cohort, 42% did not develop an IgG immune response against RBD after the first vaccine dose, but 100% had a strong IgG response after 2 doses. All seropositive individuals developed a strong IgG antibody response against RBD after the first vaccine dose, with antibody levels ∼40% higher than seronegative individuals who had received 2 doses. Previously seropositive subjects showed no significant increase in IgG antibody response against RBD after the second vaccine dose. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that 2 doses of the Sputnik V vaccine triggered antibody response in all study individuals. The second Sputnik V dose had no impact on IgG response for those seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 antigens before vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1027924, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119762

ABSTRACT

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the duration and breadth of antibodies elicited by inactivated COVID-19 vaccinations in healthy blood donors. Methods: We performed serological tests on 1,417 samples from 658 blood donors who received two (n=357), or three (n=301) doses of COVID-19 inactivated vaccine. We also accessed the change in antibody response before and after booster vaccination in 94 participants and their neutralization breadth to the current variants after the booster. Results: Following vaccination, for either the 2- or 3-dose, the neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) peaked with about 97% seropositivity approximately within one month but subsequently decreased over time. Of plasmas collected 6-8 months after the last immunization, the nAb seropositivities were 37% and 85% in populations with 2-dose and 3-dose vaccinations, respectively. The nAbs of plasma samples (collected between 2-6 weeks after the 3rd dose) from triple-vaccinated donors (n=94) showed a geometric mean titer of 145.3 (95% CI: 117.2 to 180.1) against the ancestral B.1, slightly reduced by 1.7-fold against Delta variant, but markedly decreased by 4-6 fold in neutralizing Omicron variants, including the sub-lineages of BA.1 (5.6-fold), BA.1.1 (6.0-fold), BA.2 (4.2-fold), B.2.12.1 (6.2-fold) and BA.4/5 (6.5-fold). Conclusion: These findings suggested that the 3rd dose of inactivated COVID-19 vaccine prolongs the antibody duration in healthy populations, but the elicited-nAbs are less efficient in neutralizing circulating Omicron variants.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Blood Donors , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccination
11.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6922, 2022 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119214

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection, and resulting disease, COVID-19, has a high mortality amongst patients with haematological malignancies. Global vaccine rollouts have reduced hospitalisations and deaths, but vaccine efficacy in patients with haematological malignancies is known to be reduced. The UK-strategy offered a third, mRNA-based, vaccine as an extension to the primary course in these patients. The MARCH database is a retrospective observational study of serological responses in patients with blood disorders. Here we present data on 381 patients with haematological malignancies. By comparison with healthy controls, we report suboptimal responses following two primary vaccines, with significantly enhanced responses following the third primary dose. These responses however are heterogeneous and determined by haematological malignancy sub-type and therapy. We identify a group of patients with continued suboptimal vaccine responses who may benefit from additional doses, prophylactic extended half-life neutralising monoclonal therapies (nMAB) or prompt nMAB treatment in the event of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , Viral Vaccines , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibody Formation , Hematologic Neoplasms/therapy , Antibodies, Viral
12.
J Clin Oncol ; 40(33): 3808-3816, 2022 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117954

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To examine COVID-19 mRNA vaccine-induced binding and neutralizing antibody responses in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to SARS-CoV-2 614D (wild type [WT]) strain and variants of concern after the primary 2-dose and booster vaccination. METHODS: Eighty-two patients with NSCLC and 53 healthy volunteers who received SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were included in the study. Blood was collected longitudinally, and SARS-CoV-2-specific binding and neutralizing antibody responses were evaluated by Meso Scale Discovery assay and live virus Focus Reduction Neutralization Assay, respectively. RESULTS: A majority of patients with NSCLC generated binding and neutralizing antibody titers comparable with the healthy vaccinees after mRNA vaccination, but a subset of patients with NSCLC (25%) made poor responses, resulting in overall lower (six- to seven-fold) titers compared with the healthy cohort (P = < .0001). Although patients age > 70 years had lower immunoglobulin G titers (P = < .01), patients receiving programmed death-1 monotherapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of both did not have a significant impact on the antibody response. Neutralizing antibody titers to the B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.351 (Beta), and in particular, B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants were significantly lower (P = < .0001) compared with the 614D (WT) strain. Booster vaccination led to a significant increase (P = .0001) in the binding and neutralizing antibody titers to the WT and Omicron variant. However, 2-4 months after the booster, we observed a five- to seven-fold decrease in neutralizing titers to WT and Omicron viruses. CONCLUSION: A subset of patients with NSCLC responded poorly to the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination and had low neutralizing antibodies to the B.1.1.529 Omicron variant. Booster vaccination increased binding and neutralizing antibody titers to Omicron, but antibody titers declined after 3 months. These data highlight the concern for patients with cancer given the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibody Formation , SARS-CoV-2 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibodies, Viral , Immunization , Vaccination , Antibodies, Neutralizing , RNA, Messenger
13.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6792, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117248

ABSTRACT

Few live attenuated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are in pre-clinical or clinical development. We seek to attenuate SARS-CoV-2 (isolate WA1/2020) by removing the polybasic insert within the spike protein and the open reading frames (ORFs) 6-8, and by introducing mutations that abolish non-structural protein 1 (Nsp1)-mediated toxicity. The derived virus (WA1-ΔPRRA-ΔORF6-8-Nsp1K164A/H165A) replicates to 100- to 1000-fold-lower titers than the ancestral virus and induces little lung pathology in both K18-human ACE2 (hACE2) transgenic mice and Syrian hamsters. Immunofluorescence and transcriptomic analyses of infected hamsters confirm that three-pronged genetic modifications attenuate the proinflammatory pathways more than the removal of the polybasic cleavage site alone. Finally, intranasal administration of just 100 PFU of the WA1-ΔPRRA-ΔORF6-8-Nsp1K164A/H165A elicits robust antibody responses in Syrian hamsters and protects against SARS-CoV-2-induced weight loss and pneumonia. As a proof-of-concept study, we demonstrate that live but sufficiently attenuated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines may be attainable by rational design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cricetinae , Mice , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Mesocricetus , Antibody Formation , Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lung/pathology , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19224, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116718

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is widely considered the most effective preventative strategy to protect against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. An individual's exercise habits, and physical fitness have been shown to impact the immune response following vaccination using traditional vaccine platforms, but their effects are not well characterized following administration of newer vaccination technology (mRNA vaccines). We investigated these effects on the magnitude of antibody responses following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination while accounting for known covariates (age, sex, time since vaccination, and the type of vaccine administered). Adults of varying fitness levels (18-65 years; N = 50) who had received either the Moderna or Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine between 2 weeks and 6 months prior, completed health history and physical activity questionnaires, had their blood drawn, body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, and strength assessed. Multiple linear regressions assessed the effect of percent body fat, hand grip strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and physical activity levels on the magnitude of receptor binding domain protein (RBD) and spike protein subunit 1 (S1) and 2 (S2) while accounting for known covariates. Body fat percentage was inversely associated with the magnitude of S1 (p = 0.006, ß = - 366.56), RBD (p = 0.003, ß = - 249.30), and S2 (p = 0.106, ß = - 190.08) antibodies present in the serum following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Given the increasing number of infections, variants, and the known waning effects of vaccination, future mRNA vaccinations such as boosters are encouraged to sustain immunity; reducing excess body fat may improve the efficacy of these vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Hand Strength , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Adipose Tissue , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Antibodies, Viral
15.
Front Immunol ; 13: 954177, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109763

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has been recommended for liver transplant (LT) recipients. However, our understanding of inactivated vaccine stimulation of the immune system in regulating humoral and cellular immunity among LT recipients is inadequate. Forty-six LT recipients who received two-dose inactivated vaccines according to the national vaccination schedule were enrolled. The clinical characteristics, antibody responses, single-cell peripheral immune profiling, and plasma cytokine/chemokine/growth factor levels were recorded. Sixteen (34.78%) LT recipients with positive neutralizing antibody (nAb) were present in the Type 1 group. Fourteen and 16 LT recipients with undetected nAb were present in the Type 2 and Type 3 groups, respectively. Time from transplant and lymphocyte count were different among the three groups. The levels of anti-RBD and anti-S1S2 decreased with decreasing neutralizing inhibition rates. Compared to the Type 2 and Type 3 groups, the Type 1 group had an enhanced innate immune response. The proportions of B, DNT, and CD3+CD19+ cells were increased in the Type 1 group, whereas monocytes and CD4+ T cells were decreased. High CD19, high CD8+CD45RA+ cells, and low effector memory CD4+/naïve CD4+ cells of the T-cell populations were present in the Type 1 group. The Type 1 group had higher concentrations of plasma CXCL10, MIP-1 beta, and TNF-alpha. No severe adverse events were reported in all LT recipients. We identified the immune responses induced by inactivated vaccines among LT recipients and provided insights into the identification of immunotypes associated with the responders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vaccines, Inactivated
16.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(2): 69-78, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100259

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The longevity of vaccine effectiveness and antibody titer after the Moderna mRNA COVID-19 vaccination booster in healthcare workers in Indonesia is not known. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of healthcare workers at the Universitas Indonesia Hospital after Moderna mRNA COVID-19 booster vaccination. An Immunology Analyzer with Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) test was used to examine Anti SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD levels. Antibody levels were classified into two systems (3 categories, and 2 categories). RESULTS: There were 31 male subjects (75.6%), 33 subjects (80.5%) aged 25-39 years, 17 subjects (41.5%) with overweight BMI, 35 subjects (85.4%) without comorbidities, and 29 subjects without previous history of COVID-19 infection (70.7%) who had antibody titer >1000 AU/ml. There were 27 subjects (65.9%) who had a booster shot ≥6 months after the second vaccination with antibody titer >1000 AU/ml. In this study, there was no significant correlation between antibody titer with factors such as gender, age, BMI, comorbidities, history of COVID-19 infection and time between the 2nd vaccination and booster vaccination. CONCLUSION: There is no significant correlation between antibody titer with factors such as gender, age, BMI, comorbidities, history of COVID-19 infection and time between the 2nd vaccination and booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Male , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Indonesia , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Hospitals , RNA, Messenger
17.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099850

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Investigating antibody titers in individuals who have been both naturally infected with SARS-CoV-2 and vaccinated can provide insight into antibody dynamics and correlates of protection over time. METHODS: Human coronavirus (HCoV) IgG antibodies were measured longitudinally in a prospective cohort of qPCR-confirmed, COVID-19 recovered individuals (k = 57) in British Columbia pre- and post-vaccination. SARS-CoV-2 and endemic HCoV antibodies were measured in serum collected between Nov. 2020 and Sept. 2021 (n = 341). Primary analysis used a linear mixed-effects model to understand the effect of single dose vaccination on antibody concentrations adjusting for biological sex, age, time from infection and vaccination. Secondary analysis investigated the cumulative incidence of high SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG seroreactivity equal to or greater than 5.5 log10 AU/mL up to 105 days post-vaccination. No re-infections were detected in vaccinated participants, post-vaccination by qPCR performed on self-collected nasopharyngeal specimens. RESULTS: Bivariate analysis (complete data for 42 participants, 270 samples over 472 days) found SARS-CoV-2 spike and RBD antibodies increased 14-56 days post-vaccination (p < 0.001) and vaccination prevented waning (regression coefficient, B = 1.66 [95%CI: 1.45-3.46]); while decline of nucleocapsid antibodies over time was observed (regression coefficient, B = -0.24 [95%CI: -1.2-(-0.12)]). A positive association was found between COVID-19 vaccination and endemic human ß-coronavirus IgG titer 14-56 days post vaccination (OC43, p = 0.02 & HKU1, p = 0.02). On average, SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike IgG concentration increased in participants who received one vaccine dose by 2.06 log10 AU/mL (95%CI: 1.45-3.46) adjusting for age, biological sex, and time since infection. Cumulative incidence of high SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies (>5.5 log10 AU/mL) was 83% greater in vaccinated compared to unvaccinated individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that vaccination post-SARS-CoV-2 infection provides multiple benefits, such as increasing anti-spike IgG titers and preventing decay up to 85 days post-vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibody Formation , SARS-CoV-2 , Prospective Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin G
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090212

ABSTRACT

Mutations in surface proteins enable emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to escape a substantial fraction of neutralizing antibodies and may thus weaken vaccine-driven immunity. To compare available vaccines and justify revaccination, rapid evaluation of antibody (Ab) responses to currently circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants of interest (VOI) and concern (VOC) is needed. Here, we developed a multiplex protein microarray-based system for rapid profiling of anti-SARS-CoV-2 Ab levels in human sera. The microarray system was validated using sera samples from SARS-CoV-2-free donors and those diagnosed with COVID-19 based on PCR and enzyme immunoassays. Microarray-based profiling of vaccinated donors revealed a substantial difference in anti-VOC Ab levels elicited by the replication-deficient adenovirus vector-base (Sputnik V) and whole-virion (CoviVac Russia COVID-19) vaccines. Whole-virion vaccine-induced Abs showed minor but statistically significant cross-reactivity with the human blood coagulation factor 1 (fibrinogen) and thrombin. However, their effects on blood clotting were negligible, according to thrombin time tests, providing evidence against the concept of pronounced cross-reactivity-related side effects of the vaccine. Importantly, all samples were collected in the pre-Omicron period but showed noticeable responses to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the Omicron spike protein. Thus, using the new express Ab-profiling system, we confirmed the inter-variant cross-reactivity of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs and demonstrated the relative potency of the vaccines against new VOCs.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccination , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , Microarray Analysis
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(10): e2237908, 2022 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084940

ABSTRACT

This cohort study examines the association of self-reported postvaccination symptoms with anti­SARS-CoV-2 antibody response among Framingham Heart Study participants contributing to the Collaborative Cohort of Cohorts for COVID-19 Research study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Antibody Formation , Antibodies, Viral , Vaccination
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL