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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 827306, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789384

ABSTRACT

Background: Effective vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are available worldwide; however, the longevity of vaccine effectiveness is not known. Objective: We performed a prospective observational study to assess the antibody response of healthcare workers against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination. Methods: SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (nAb) and spike (S) protein-IgG (S-IgG) antibody titers were examined in participants who received two doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a single center between March 1, 2021, and October 11, 2021. Antibody levels were analyzed at four times: before vaccination (visit 1), 4 weeks after the first vaccination (visit 2), 3 months after the second vaccination (visit 3), and 6 months after the second vaccination (visit 4). Results: A total of 249 healthcare workers at Jeju National University Hospital were enrolled in this study, and 982 blood samples were analyzed. The mean age was 38.1 ± 9.5 years, and 145 (58.2%) participants were females. Positive nAbs (inhibition rates ≥ 20%) were measured in 166/249 (66.7%) subjects at visit 2, 237/243 (97.5%) subjects at visit 3, and 150/237 (63.3%) subjects at visit 4. A S-IgG (≥50 AU/mL) positivity was detected in 246/249 (98.8%) subjects at visit 1, and all participants had positive S-IgG antibody levels at visits 3 and 4 after being fully vaccinated. Further analysis of S-IgG levels revealed a median quantitative antibody level of 1275.1 AU/mL (interquartile range [IQR] 755.5-2119.0) at visit 2, 2765.9 AU/mL (IQR 1809.8-4138.4) at visit 3, and 970.1 AU/mL (IQR 606.0-1495.9) at visit 4. Patient characteristics, such as age, body mass index, and comorbidity, had no relationship with nAb or S-IgG levels at any of the visits. Considering the change in antibody levels over time, both nAb and S-IgG levels at visit 4 decreased compared with the corresponding levels at visit 3. No evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was found among any of the participants throughout the study. Conclusions: The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine was effective in protecting healthcare personnel working in COVID-19-related departments. While the level of S-IgG antibodies was maintained for 6 months after the second vaccination, nAb levels waned over this 6-month period, indicating the need for a booster vaccination in some healthcare workers 6 months after full vaccination. Herein, we suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the need for an interval of booster vaccination after full vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunologic Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Republic of Korea , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265130, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736520

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Kidney transplant recipients are highly vulnerable to the serious complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) infections and thus stand to benefit from vaccination. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the effectiveness of available vaccines as this group of patients was not represented in the randomized trials. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: A total of 707 consecutive adult kidney transplant recipients in a single center in the United Kingdom were evaluated. 373 were confirmed to have received two doses of either the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or AZD1222 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) and subsequently had SARS-COV-2 antibody testing were included in the final analysis. Participants were excluded from the analysis if they had a previous history of SARS-COV-2 infection or were seropositive for SARS-COV-2 antibody pre-vaccination. Multivariate and propensity score analyses were performed to identify the predictors of antibody response to SARS-COV-2 vaccines. The primary outcome was seroconversion rates following two vaccine doses. RESULTS: Antibody responders were 56.8% (212/373) and non-responders 43.2% (161/373). Antibody response was associated with greater estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) rate [odds ratio (OR), for every 10 ml/min/1.73m2 = 1.40 (1.19-1.66), P<0.001] whereas, non-response was associated with mycophenolic acid immunosuppression [OR, 0.02(0.01-0.11), p<0.001] and increasing age [OR per 10year increase, 0.61(0.48-0.78), p<0.001]. In the propensity-score analysis of four treatment variables (vaccine type, mycophenolic acid, corticosteroid, and triple immunosuppression), only mycophenolic acid was significantly associated with vaccine response [adjusted OR by PSA 0.17 (0.07-0.41): p<0.001]. 22 SARS-COV-2 infections were recorded in our cohort following vaccination. 17(77%) infections, with 3 deaths, occurred in the non-responder group. No death occurred in the responder group. CONCLUSION: Vaccine response in allograft recipients after two doses of SARS-COV-2 vaccine is poor compared to the general population. Maintenance with mycophenolic acid appears to have the strongest negative impact on vaccine response.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , United Kingdom , Vaccination
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 828053, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731780

ABSTRACT

Recent increases in SARS-CoV-2 infections have led to questions about duration and quality of vaccine-induced immune protection. While numerous studies have been published on immune responses triggered by vaccination, these often focus on studying the impact of one or two immunisation schemes within subpopulations such as immunocompromised individuals or healthcare workers. To provide information on the duration and quality of vaccine-induced immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, we analyzed antibody titres against various SARS-CoV-2 antigens and ACE2 binding inhibition against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants of concern in samples from a large German population-based seroprevalence study (MuSPAD) who had received all currently available immunisation schemes. We found that homologous mRNA-based or heterologous prime-boost vaccination produced significantly higher antibody responses than vector-based homologous vaccination. Ad26.CoV2S.2 performance was particularly concerning with reduced titres and 91.7% of samples classified as non-responsive for ACE2 binding inhibition, suggesting that recipients require a booster mRNA vaccination. While mRNA vaccination induced a higher ratio of RBD- and S1-targeting antibodies, vector-based vaccines resulted in an increased proportion of S2-targeting antibodies. Given the role of RBD- and S1-specific antibodies in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2, their relative over-representation after mRNA vaccination may explain why these vaccines have increased efficacy compared to vector-based formulations. Previously infected individuals had a robust immune response once vaccinated, regardless of which vaccine they received, which could aid future dose allocation should shortages arise for certain manufacturers. Overall, both titres and ACE2 binding inhibition peaked approximately 28 days post-second vaccination and then decreased.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination/methods
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 827889, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731779

ABSTRACT

It is well established that pregnancy induces deep changes in the immune system. This is part of the physiological adaptation of the female organism to the pregnancy and the immunological tolerance toward the fetus. Indeed, over the three trimesters, the suppressive T regulatory lymphocytes are progressively more represented, while the expression of co-stimulatory molecules decreases overtime. Such adaptations relate to an increased risk of infections and progression to severe disease in pregnant women, potentially resulting in an altered generation of long-lived specific immunological memory of infection contracted during pregnancy. How potent is the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 in infected pregnant women and how long the specific SARS-CoV-2 immunity might last need to be urgently addressed, especially considering the current vaccinal campaign. To address these questions, we analyzed the long-term immunological response upon SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women from delivery to a six-months follow-up. In particular, we investigated the specific antibody production, T cell memory subsets, and inflammation profile. Results show that 80% developed an anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response, comparable with the general population. While IgG were present only in 50% of the asymptomatic subjects, the antibody production was elicited by infection in all the mild-to-critical patients. The specific T-cell memory subsets rebalanced over-time, and the pro-inflammatory profile triggered by specific SARS-CoV-2 stimulation faded away. These results shed light on SARS-CoV-2-specific immunity in pregnant women; understanding the immunological dynamics of the immune system in response to SARS-CoV-2 is essential for defining proper obstetric management of pregnant women and fine tune gender-specific vaccinal plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Young Adult
5.
J Infect Dis ; 225(5): 777-784, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data directly comparing immune responses to vaccines and to natural infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study assessed the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines over a 3-month period and compared the immune responses with those to natural infections. METHOD: We enrolled healthcare workers who received BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines and patients with confirmed COVID-19 and then measured S1 immunoglobulin (Ig) G and neutralizing antibodies and T-cell responses. RESULTS: A total of 121 vaccinees and 26 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were analyzed. After the second dose, the BNT162b2 vaccine yielded S1 IgG antibody responses similar to those achieved with natural infections (mean IgG titer [standard deviation], 2241 [899] vs 2601 [5039]; P = .68) but significantly stronger than responses to the ChAdOx1 vaccine (174 [96]; P < .001). The neutralizing antibody titer generated by BNT162b2 was 6-fold higher than that generated by ChAdOx1 but lower than that by natural infection. T-cell responses persisted for 3 months with BNT162b2 and natural infection but decreased with ChAdOx1. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody responses after the second dose of BNT162b2 are higher than after the second dose of ChAdOx1 and like those occurring after natural infection. T-cell responses are maintained longer in BNT162b2 vaccinees than in ChAdOx1 vaccinees.


Subject(s)
/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , /adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , /adverse effects , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 907, 2022 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692613

ABSTRACT

Population antibody surveillance helps track immune responses to COVID-19 vaccinations at scale, and identify host factors that may affect antibody production. We analyse data from 212,102 vaccinated individuals within the REACT-2 programme in England, which uses self-administered lateral flow antibody tests in sequential cross-sectional community samples; 71,923 (33.9%) received at least one dose of BNT162b2 vaccine and 139,067 (65.6%) received ChAdOx1. For both vaccines, antibody positivity peaks 4-5 weeks after first dose and then declines. At least 21 days after second dose of BNT162b2, close to 100% of respondents test positive, while for ChAdOx1, this is significantly reduced, particularly in the oldest age groups (72.7% [70.9-74.4] at ages 75 years and above). For both vaccines, antibody positivity decreases with age, and is higher in females and those with previous infection. Antibody positivity is lower in transplant recipients, obese individuals, smokers and those with specific comorbidities. These groups will benefit from additional vaccine doses.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , /immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Age Factors , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Sex Factors , Vaccination
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 811952, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674342

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have suggested that the titers of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are associated with the COVID-19 severity, however, the types of antibodies associated with the disease maximum severity and the timing at which the associations are best observed, especially within one week after symptom onset, remain controversial. We attempted to elucidate the antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 that are associated with the maximum severity of COVID-19 in the early phase of the disease, and to investigate whether antibody testing might contribute to prediction of the disease maximum severity in COVID-19 patients. We classified the patients into four groups according to the disease maximum severity (severity group 1 (did not require oxygen supplementation), severity group 2a (required oxygen supplementation at low flow rates), severity group 2b (required oxygen supplementation at relatively high flow rates), and severity group 3 (required mechanical ventilatory support)), and serially measured the titers of IgM, IgG, and IgA against the nucleocapsid protein, spike protein, and receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 until day 12 after symptom onset. The titers of all the measured antibody responses were higher in severity group 2b and 3, especially severity group 2b, as early as at one week after symptom onset. Addition of data obtained from antibody testing improved the ability of analysis models constructed using a machine learning technique to distinguish severity group 2b and 3 from severity group 1 and 2a. These models constructed with non-vaccinated COVID-19 patients could not be applied to the cases of breakthrough infections. These results suggest that antibody testing might help physicians identify non-vaccinated COVID-19 patients who are likely to require admission to an intensive care unit.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Vaccines/blood , COVID-19/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Machine Learning , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Time Factors , Vaccination
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 811020, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674341

ABSTRACT

Background: Heterologous vaccinations against SARS-CoV-2 with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and a second dose of an mRNA-based vaccine have been shown to be more immunogenic than homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. In the current study, we examined the kinetics of the antibody response to the second dose of three different vaccination regimens (homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vs. ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 + BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273) against SARS-CoV-2 in a longitudinal manner; whether there are differences in latency or amplitude of the early response and which markers are most suitable to detect these responses. Methods: We performed assays for anti-S1 IgG and IgA, anti-NCP IgG and a surrogate neutralization assay on serum samples collected from 57 participants on the day of the second vaccination as well as the following seven days. Results: All examined vaccination regimens induced detectable antibody responses within the examined time frame. Both heterologous regimens induced responses earlier and with a higher amplitude than homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Between the heterologous regimens, amplitudes were somewhat higher for ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 + mRNA-1273. There was no difference in latency between the IgG and IgA responses. Increases in the surrogate neutralization assay were the first changes to be detectable for all regimens and the only significant change seen for homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. Discussion: Both examined heterologous vaccination regimens are superior in immunogenicity, including the latency of the response, to homologous ChAdOx1 nCoV-19. While the IgA response has a shorter latency than the IgG response after the first dose, no such difference was found after the second dose, implying that both responses are driven by separate plasma cell populations. Early and steep increases in surrogate neutralization levels suggest that this might be a more sensitive marker for antibody responses after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 than absolute levels of anti-S1 IgG.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , /immunology , Immunization, Secondary/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(2): e1010248, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674026

ABSTRACT

Many SARS-CoV-2 variants have mutations at key sites targeted by antibodies. However, it is unknown if antibodies elicited by infection with these variants target the same or different regions of the viral spike as antibodies elicited by earlier viral isolates. Here we compare the specificities of polyclonal antibodies produced by humans infected with early 2020 isolates versus the B.1.351 variant of concern (also known as Beta or 20H/501Y.V2), which contains mutations in multiple key spike epitopes. The serum neutralizing activity of antibodies elicited by infection with both early 2020 viruses and B.1.351 is heavily focused on the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD). However, within the RBD, B.1.351-elicited antibodies are more focused on the "class 3" epitope spanning sites 443 to 452, and neutralization by these antibodies is notably less affected by mutations at residue 484. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 variants can elicit polyclonal antibodies with different immunodominance hierarchies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
10.
Sci Immunol ; 7(68): eabl5652, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673340

ABSTRACT

T follicular helper (TFH) cells are the conventional drivers of protective, germinal center (GC)­based antiviral antibody responses. However, loss of TFH cells and GCs has been observed in patients with severe COVID-19. As T cell­B cell interactions and immunoglobulin class switching still occur in these patients, noncanonical pathways of antibody production may be operative during SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found that both TFH-dependent and -independent antibodies were induced against SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, and influenza A virus infection. Although TFH-independent antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 had evidence of reduced somatic hypermutation, they were still high affinity, durable, and reactive against diverse spike-derived epitopes and were capable of neutralizing both homologous SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.351 (beta) variant of concern. We found by epitope mapping and B cell receptor sequencing that TFH cells focused the B cell response, and therefore, in the absence of TFH cells, a more diverse clonal repertoire was maintained. These data support an alternative pathway for the induction of B cell responses during viral infection that enables effective, neutralizing antibody production to complement traditional GC-derived antibodies that might compensate for GCs damaged by viral inflammation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T Follicular Helper Cells/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibody Formation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Mice , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer
11.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 16(2): 102406, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: DM patients' antibody response after the COVID-19 vaccine is still unknown amid the COVID-19 vaccination rollout. This study aimed to explore the SARS-CoV-2 antibody response or seropositivity among DM patients following the COVID-19 vaccine administration. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature consisting of observational or cross-sectional studies, which reported the antibody serology or seropositivity among DM patients by following the PRISMA 2020 guidelines. RESULTS: Eight studies with a total of 64468 patients were identified, and 5156 (7.9%) of them had diabetes. Most studies showed that antibody response and seropositivity in DM patients were lower than healthy population after one until four weeks following full COVID-19 vaccination dose. CONCLUSION: The antibody response and seropositivity after the COVID-19 vaccine in DM patients were lower than in healthy subjects. Therefore, DM patients are expected to receive vaccines according to the dose and schedule appropriately and might be prioritized to receive vaccine boosters.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Vaccination
12.
Nat Med ; 26(6): 845-848, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641979

ABSTRACT

We report acute antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 285 patients with COVID-19. Within 19 days after symptom onset, 100% of patients tested positive for antiviral immunoglobulin-G (IgG). Seroconversion for IgG and IgM occurred simultaneously or sequentially. Both IgG and IgM titers plateaued within 6 days after seroconversion. Serological testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of suspected patients with negative RT-PCR results and for the identification of asymptomatic infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Cell Host Microbe ; 30(1): 83-96.e4, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634725

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes diverse outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to respiratory distress and death. A major unresolved question is whether prior immunity to endemic, human common cold coronaviruses (hCCCoVs) impacts susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or immunity following infection and vaccination. Therefore, we analyzed samples from the same individuals before and after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination. We found hCCCoV antibody levels increase after SARS-CoV-2 exposure, demonstrating cross-reactivity. However, a case-control study indicates that baseline hCCCoV antibody levels are not associated with protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Rather, higher magnitudes of pre-existing betacoronavirus antibodies correlate with more SARS-CoV-2 antibodies following infection, an indicator of greater disease severity. Additionally, immunization with hCCCoV spike proteins before SARS-CoV-2 immunization impedes the generation of SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in mice. Together, these data suggest that pre-existing hCCCoV antibodies hinder SARS-CoV-2 antibody-based immunity following infection and provide insight on how pre-existing coronavirus immunity impacts SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is critical considering emerging variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cell Line , Common Cold/virology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(4)2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637974

ABSTRACT

Advanced age is a key predictor of severe COVID-19. To gain insight into this relationship, we used the rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Eight older and eight younger macaques were inoculated with SARS-CoV-2. Animals were evaluated using viral RNA quantification, clinical observations, thoracic radiographs, single-cell transcriptomics, multiparameter flow cytometry, multiplex immunohistochemistry, cytokine detection, and lipidomics analysis at predefined time points in various tissues. Differences in clinical signs, pulmonary infiltrates, and virus replication were limited. Transcriptional signatures of inflammation-associated genes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid at 3 dpi revealed efficient mounting of innate immune defenses in both cohorts. However, age-specific divergence of immune responses emerged during the post-acute phase. Older animals exhibited sustained local inflammatory innate responses, whereas local effector T-cell responses were induced earlier in the younger animals. Circulating lipid mediator and cytokine levels highlighted increased repair-associated signals in the younger animals, and persistent pro-inflammatory responses in the older animals. In summary, despite similar disease outcomes, multi-omics profiling suggests that age may delay or impair antiviral cellular immune responses and delay efficient return to immune homeostasis.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Acute Disease , Animals , Antibody Formation/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/blood , Gene Expression Regulation , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genomics , Immunity, Cellular/genetics , Immunomodulation , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/pathology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Models, Biological , Single-Cell Analysis , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription, Genetic
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 692, 2022 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621265

ABSTRACT

The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike protein from SARS-CoV-2 is a promising candidate to develop effective COVID-19 vaccines since it can induce potent neutralizing antibodies. We have previously reported the highly efficient production of RBD in Pichia pastoris, which is structurally similar to the same protein produced in mammalian HEK-293T cells. In this work we designed an RBD multimer with the purpose of increasing its immunogenicity. We produced multimeric particles by a transpeptidation reaction between RBD expressed in P. pastoris and Lumazine Synthase from Brucella abortus (BLS), which is a highly immunogenic and very stable decameric 170 kDa protein. Such particles were used to vaccinate mice with two doses 30 days apart. When the particles ratio of RBD to BLS units was high (6-7 RBD molecules per BLS decamer in average), the humoral immune response was significantly higher than that elicited by RBD alone or by RBD-BLS particles with a lower RBD to BLS ratio (1-2 RBD molecules per BLS decamer). Remarkably, multimeric particles with a high number of RBD copies elicited a high titer of neutralizing IgGs. These results indicate that multimeric particles composed of RBD covalent coupled to BLS possess an advantageous architecture for antigen presentation to the immune system, and therefore enhancing RBD immunogenicity. Thus, multimeric RBD-BLS particles are promising candidates for a protein-based vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Protein Binding/immunology , Protein Domains/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 759688, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605844

ABSTRACT

Antibodies (Abs) are essential for the host immune response against SARS-CoV-2, and all the vaccines developed so far have been designed to induce Abs targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike. Many studies have examined Ab responses in the blood from vaccinated and infected individuals. However, since SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory virus, it is also critical to understand the mucosal Ab responses at the sites of initial virus exposure. Here, we examined plasma versus saliva Ab responses in vaccinated and convalescent patients. Although saliva levels were significantly lower, a strong correlation was observed between plasma and saliva total Ig levels against all SARS-CoV-2 antigens tested. Virus-specific IgG1 responses predominated in both saliva and plasma, while a lower prevalence of IgM and IgA1 Abs was observed in saliva. Antiviral activities of plasma Abs were also studied. Neutralization titers against the initial WA1 (D614G), B.1.1.7 (alpha) and B.1.617.2 (delta) strains were similar but lower against the B.1.351 (beta) strain. Spike-specific antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) activities were also detected and the levels correlated with spike-binding Ig titers. Interestingly, while neutralization and ADCP potencies of vaccinated and convalescent groups were comparable, enhanced complement deposition to spike-specific Abs was noted in vaccinated versus convalescent groups and corresponded with higher levels of IgG1 plus IgG3 among the vaccinated individuals. Altogether, this study demonstrates the detection of Ab responses after vaccination or infection in plasma and saliva that correlate significantly, although Ig isotypic differences were noted. The induced plasma Abs displayed Fab-mediated and Fc-dependent functions with comparable neutralization and ADCP potencies, but a greater capacity to activate complement was elicited upon vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saliva/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Saliva/virology , Vaccination
17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 760249, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581341

ABSTRACT

Background: The humoral and cellular immune responses to SARS-COV-2 vaccination remain to be elucidated in hemodialysis (HD) patients and kidney transplant recipients (KTRs), considering their baseline immunosuppressed status. The aim of our study was to assess the associations of vaccine-induced antibody responses with circulating lymphocytes sub-populations and their respective patterns of alterations in maintenance HD patients and KTRs. Materials and Methods: We included 34 HD patients and 54 KTRs who received two doses of the mRNA-vaccine BNT162b2. Lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry before vaccination (T0), before the second vaccine dose (T1) and 2 weeks after the second dose (T2). The anti-SARS-CoV2 antibody response was assessed at T1 and at T2. Results: 31 HD patients (91.8%) and 16 KTRs (29.6%) became seropositive at T2. HD patients who became seropositive following the first dose displayed higher CD19+ B lymphocytes compared to their seronegative HD counterparts. A positive correlation was established between CD19+ B cells counts and antibody titers at all time-points in both groups (p < 0.001). KTRs showed higher naïve CD4+CD45RA+ T helper cells compared to HD patients at baseline and T2 whereas HD patients displayed higher memory CD45RO+ T cells compared to KTRs at T2. The naïve CD4+CD45RA to memory CD4+CD45RO+ T helper cells fraction was negatively associated with antibody production in both groups. Conclusions: Our study provides a potential conceptual framework for monitoring vaccination efficacy in HD patients and KTRs considering the correlation established between CD19+ B cells, generation of memory CD4+ T helper cells and anti SARS-CoV2 antibody response to vaccination.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Immunity, Humoral , Immunocompromised Host , Immunologic Memory , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Biomarkers , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Kidney Transplantation , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 780594, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581329

ABSTRACT

Background: Dialysis patients are at high risk for a severe clinical course after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Safety and early immune responses after mRNA-based vaccination have been reported mostly in patients on hemodialysis (HD), whereas reports of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients remain rare. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, 39 PD patients had received two doses of the mRNA-1273 Moderna® vaccine. We analyzed SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) antibody titers 4 weeks after each dose of mRNA-1273 and report local and systemic side effects in PD patients that occurred within one week after each mRNA-1273 dose. Using a quantile regression model we examined factors that might influence SARS-CoV-2 S antibody levels in PD patients. Results: Four weeks after the first dose of mRNA-1273 vaccine 33 of 39 (84.6%) PD patients seroconverted and presented with 6.62 U/mL (median; IQR 1.57-22.5) anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody titers. After the second dose, 38 of 39 (97.4%) PD patients developed anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibodies and titers increased significantly (median 968 U/mL; IQR 422.5-2500). Pain at the injection site was the most common local adverse event (AE) (71%). Systemic AEs occurring after the first dose were mostly fatigue (33%) and headache (20%). No severe systemic AEs were reported after the first injection. After the second dose the incidence and the severity of the systemic AEs increased. The most common systemic AEs were: fatigue (40.5%), headache (22.5%), joint pain (20%), myalgia (17.5%) and fever (13%). Lower Davies Comorbidity Score (p=0.04) and shorter dialysis vintage (p=0.017) were associated with higher antibody titers after the first dose. Patients with higher antibody titers after the first dose tended to have higher antibody titers after the second dose (p=1.53x10-05). Conclusions: Peritoneal dialysis patients in this cohort had a high seroconversion rate of 97.4%, showed high antibody titers after full vaccination and tolerated the anti-SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 vaccine well without serious adverse events.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Peritoneal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination
19.
Front Immunol ; 12: 794642, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581317

ABSTRACT

Background: The relationships of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination with reactogenicity and the humoral immune response are important to study. The current study aimed to assess the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the Pfizer and AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines among adults in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study, including 365 randomly selected adult Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccine recipients who received a homologous prime-boost vaccination between February 1st and June 30th, 2021. Data of height and weight were collected to assess the weight status of percipients. An evaluation of seropositivity for anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Among the participants, 69% (n = 250) reported at least one vaccine-related symptom. Pain at the injection site was the most frequently reported vaccine-related symptom. The mean total score for vaccine-related symptoms was significantly higher among participants who received the AstraZeneca vaccine, women, and participants with no previous COVID-19 infection (p < 0.05). Spike-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 98.9% of participants after the receipt of two vaccine doses, including 99.5% of Pfizer vaccine recipients and 98.3% of AstraZeneca vaccine recipients. Significantly, higher proportions of participants in the <35-year age group developed a humoral immune response after the first vaccine dose compared with the participants in other age groups. Conclusion: Participants who received the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine reported fewer vaccine-related complications compared with those who received the AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, but no serious side effects were reported in response to either vaccine. Health status and age were factors that may influence COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness for the generation of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Middle Aged , Online Systems , Public Health Surveillance , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 795741, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581316

ABSTRACT

Glycan-masking the vaccine antigen by mutating the undesired antigenic sites with an additional N-linked glycosylation motif can refocus B-cell responses to desired epitopes, without affecting the antigen's overall-folded structure. This study examined the impact of glycan-masking mutants of the N-terminal domain (NTD) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, and found that the antigenic design of the S protein increases the neutralizing antibody titers against the Wuhan-Hu-1 ancestral strain and the recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta (B.1.617.2). Our results demonstrated that the use of glycan-masking Ad-S-R158N/Y160T in the NTD elicited a 2.8-fold, 6.5-fold, and 4.6-fold increase in the IC-50 NT titer against the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351) and Delta (B.1.617.2) variants, respectively. Glycan-masking of Ad-S-D428N in the RBD resulted in a 3.0-fold and 2.0-fold increase in the IC-50 neutralization titer against the Alpha (B.1.1.7) and Beta (B.1.351) variants, respectively. The use of glycan-masking in Ad-S-R158N/Y160T and Ad-S-D428N antigen design may help develop universal COVID-19 vaccines against current and future emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Genetic Engineering , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Humans , Immunization , Mice , Neutralization Tests , Polysaccharides , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Structure-Activity Relationship
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