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1.
Elife ; 112022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742932

ABSTRACT

Preexisting antibodies to endemic coronaviruses (CoV) that cross-react with SARS-CoV-2 have the potential to influence the antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination and infection for better or worse. In this observational study of mucosal and systemic humoral immunity in acutely infected, convalescent, and vaccinated subjects, we tested for cross-reactivity against endemic CoV spike (S) protein at subdomain resolution. Elevated responses, particularly to the ß-CoV OC43, were observed in all natural infection cohorts tested and were correlated with the response to SARS-CoV-2. The kinetics of this response and isotypes involved suggest that infection boosts preexisting antibody lineages raised against prior endemic CoV exposure that cross-react. While further research is needed to discern whether this recalled response is desirable or detrimental, the boosted antibodies principally targeted the better-conserved S2 subdomain of the viral spike and were not associated with neutralization activity. In contrast, vaccination with a stabilized spike mRNA vaccine did not robustly boost cross-reactive antibodies, suggesting differing antigenicity and immunogenicity. In sum, this study provides evidence that antibodies targeting endemic CoV are robustly boosted in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection but not to vaccination with stabilized S, and that depending on conformation or other factors, the S2 subdomain of the spike protein triggers a rapidly recalled, IgG-dominated response that lacks neutralization activity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Vaccination
2.
Cell ; 185(4): 614-629.e21, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1676664

ABSTRACT

Activation of the innate immune system via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is key to generate lasting adaptive immunity. PRRs detect unique chemical patterns associated with invading microorganisms, but whether and how the physical properties of PRR ligands influence the development of the immune response remains unknown. Through the study of fungal mannans, we show that the physical form of PRR ligands dictates the immune response. Soluble mannans are immunosilent in the periphery but elicit a potent pro-inflammatory response in the draining lymph node (dLN). By modulating the physical form of mannans, we developed a formulation that targets both the periphery and the dLN. When combined with viral glycoprotein antigens, this mannan formulation broadens epitope recognition, elicits potent antigen-specific neutralizing antibodies, and confers protection against viral infections of the lung. Thus, the physical properties of microbial ligands determine the outcome of the immune response and can be harnessed for vaccine development.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Candida albicans/chemistry , Mannans/immunology , Aluminum Hydroxide/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epitopes/immunology , Immunity, Innate , Immunization , Inflammation/pathology , Interferons/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Ligands , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , Lymph Nodes/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Paranasal Sinuses/metabolism , Protein Subunits/metabolism , Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1/metabolism , Solubility , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Transcription Factor RelB/metabolism , Vero Cells , beta-Glucans/metabolism
3.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2005507, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585297

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has triggered a serious public health crisis worldwide, and considering the novelty of the disease, preventative and therapeutic measures alike are urgently needed. To accelerate such efforts, the development of JS016, a neutralizing monoclonal antibody directed against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, was expedited from a typical 12- to 18-month period to a 4-month period. During this process, transient Chinese hamster ovary cell lines are used to support preclinical, investigational new drug-enabling toxicology research, and early Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls development; mini-pool materials to supply Phase 1 clinical trials; and a single-clone working cell bank for late-stage and pivotal clinical trials were successively adopted. Moreover, key process performance and product quality investigations using a series of orthogonal and state-of-the-art techniques were conducted to demonstrate the comparability of products manufactured using these three processes, and the results indicated that, despite observed variations in process performance, the primary and high-order structures, purity and impurity profiles, biological and immunological functions, and degradation behaviors under stress conditions were largely comparable. The study suggests that, in particular situations, this strategy can be adopted to accelerate the development of therapeutic biopharmaceuticals and their access to patients.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibody Affinity/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , CHO Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid/methods , Circular Dichroism , Clone Cells , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/therapeutic use , Isoelectric Point , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(6): 811-821, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. PURPOSE: To synthesize evidence on the prevalence, levels, and durability of detectable antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection and whether antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 confer natural immunity. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization global literature database, and Covid19reviews.org from 1 January through 15 December 2020, limited to peer-reviewed publications available in English. STUDY SELECTION: Primary studies characterizing the prevalence, levels, and duration of antibodies in adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); reinfection incidence; and unintended consequences of antibody testing. DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators sequentially extracted study data and rated quality. DATA SYNTHESIS: Moderate-strength evidence suggests that most adults develop detectable levels of IgM and IgG antibodies after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and that IgG levels peak approximately 25 days after symptom onset and may remain detectable for at least 120 days. Moderate-strength evidence suggests that IgM levels peak at approximately 20 days and then decline. Low-strength evidence suggests that most adults generate neutralizing antibodies, which may persist for several months like IgG. Low-strength evidence also suggests that older age, greater disease severity, and presence of symptoms may be associated with higher antibody levels. Some adults do not develop antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection for reasons that are unclear. LIMITATIONS: Most studies were small and had methodological limitations; studies used immunoassays of variable accuracy. CONCLUSION: Most adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR develop antibodies. Levels of IgM peak early in the disease course and then decline, whereas IgG peaks later and may remain detectable for at least 120 days. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (PROSPERO: CRD42020207098).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
JCI Insight ; 6(13)2021 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301767

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe role of humoral immunity in COVID-19 is not fully understood, owing, in large part, to the complexity of antibodies produced in response to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. There is a pressing need for serology tests to assess patient-specific antibody response and predict clinical outcome.METHODSUsing SARS-CoV-2 proteome and peptide microarrays, we screened 146 COVID-19 patients' plasma samples to identify antigens and epitopes. This enabled us to develop a master epitope array and an epitope-specific agglutination assay to gauge antibody responses systematically and with high resolution.RESULTSWe identified linear epitopes from the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins and showed that the epitopes enabled higher resolution antibody profiling than the S or N protein antigen. Specifically, we found that antibody responses to the S-811-825, S-881-895, and N-156-170 epitopes negatively or positively correlated with clinical severity or patient survival. Moreover, we found that the P681H and S235F mutations associated with the coronavirus variant of concern B.1.1.7 altered the specificity of the corresponding epitopes.CONCLUSIONEpitope-resolved antibody testing not only affords a high-resolution alternative to conventional immunoassays to delineate the complex humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and differentiate between neutralizing and non-neutralizing antibodies, but it also may potentially be used to predict clinical outcome. The epitope peptides can be readily modified to detect antibodies against variants of concern in both the peptide array and latex agglutination formats.FUNDINGOntario Research Fund (ORF) COVID-19 Rapid Research Fund, Toronto COVID-19 Action Fund, Western University, Lawson Health Research Institute, London Health Sciences Foundation, and Academic Medical Organization of Southwestern Ontario (AMOSO) Innovation Fund.


Subject(s)
Agglutination Tests/methods , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Epitopes/immunology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Microarray Analysis/methods , Nucleocapsid/chemistry , Nucleocapsid/genetics , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Peptides/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2623, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225506

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 constitutes a global public health crisis with enormous economic consequences. Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 can provide an important treatment option to fight COVID-19, especially for the most vulnerable populations. In this work, potent antibodies binding to SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein were identified from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Among them, P4A1 interacts directly with and covers majority of the Receptor Binding Motif of the Spike Receptor-Binding Domain, shown by high-resolution complex structure analysis. We further demonstrate the binding and neutralizing activities of P4A1 against wild type and mutant Spike proteins or pseudoviruses. P4A1 was subsequently engineered to reduce the potential risk for Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of infection and to extend its half-life. The engineered antibody exhibits an optimized pharmacokinetic and safety profile, and it results in complete viral clearance in a rhesus monkey model of COVID-19 following a single injection. These data suggest its potential against SARS-CoV-2 related diseases.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Specificity/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mutation , Pandemics , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Vero Cells
7.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 131(6): 696-702, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141952

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies are extremely valuable functional biomaterials that are widely used not only in life science research but also in antibody drugs and test drugs. There is also a strong need to develop high-quality neutralizing antibodies as soon as possible in order to stop the rapid spread of new infectious diseases such as the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study has developed a membrane-type immunoglobulin-directed hybridoma screening (MIHS) method for obtaining high-quality monoclonal antibodies with high efficiency and high speed. In addition to these advantages, this paper demonstrates that the MIHS method can selectively obtain monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognize the functional structure of proteins. The MIHS method is a useful technology that greatly contributes to the research community because it can be easily introduced in any laboratory that uses a flow cytometer.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/analysis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Hybridomas/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Cell Line, Tumor , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Flow Cytometry/methods , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Green Fluorescent Proteins/immunology , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Hybridomas/cytology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes , Immunoprecipitation , Mice , Time Factors
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1125261

ABSTRACT

Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a replication-restricted smallpox vaccine, and numerous clinical studies of recombinant MVAs (rMVAs) as vectors for prevention of other infectious diseases, including COVID-19, are in progress. Here, we characterize rMVAs expressing the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Modifications of full-length S individually or in combination included two proline substitutions, mutations of the furin recognition site, and deletion of the endoplasmic retrieval signal. Another rMVA in which the receptor binding domain (RBD) is flanked by the signal peptide and transmembrane domains of S was also constructed. Each modified S protein was displayed on the surface of rMVA-infected cells and was recognized by anti-RBD antibody and soluble hACE2 receptor. Intramuscular injection of mice with the rMVAs induced antibodies, which neutralized a pseudovirus in vitro and, upon passive transfer, protected hACE2 transgenic mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV-2, as well as S-specific CD3+CD8+IFNγ+ T cells. Antibody boosting occurred following a second rMVA or adjuvanted purified RBD protein. Immunity conferred by a single vaccination of hACE2 mice prevented morbidity and weight loss upon intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2 3 wk or 7 wk later. One or two rMVA vaccinations also prevented detection of infectious SARS-CoV-2 and subgenomic viral mRNAs in the lungs and greatly reduced induction of cytokine and chemokine mRNAs. A low amount of virus was found in the nasal turbinates of only one of eight rMVA-vaccinated mice on day 2 and none later. Detection of low levels of subgenomic mRNAs in turbinates indicated that replication was aborted in immunized animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Vectors/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunization , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Vaccines, DNA/administration & dosage , Vaccines, DNA/genetics
9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 715-724, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067512

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is now rapidly spreading globally. Serological tests are an important method to assist in the diagnosis of COVID-19, used for epidemiological investigations. In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of different types of vacuum collection tubes on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies, using the colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay (GICA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 112 patients with COVID-19 and 200 healthy control subjects with no infection were enrolled in this study. Their serum and plasma were collected into four different types of vacuum blood collection tubes. SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG specific antibodies in the plasma and serum were then detected by GICA and chemiluminescence assay (CA), respectively. In addition, the particle sizes of different colloidal gold solutions in the presence of different anticoagulants and coagulants were evaluated by both laser diffraction (Malvern) and confocal laser microscope, respectively. RESULTS: Our results revealed that anticoagulated plasma with EDTA-K2 improved the positive detection rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgM antibodies. Furthermore, our results shown that the detection results by GICA and CA were highly consistent, especially, the results of EDTA-K2 anticoagulated plasma detected by GICA was more consistent with CA results. We confirmed that EDTA-K2 could improve the detection sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies by chelating excessive colloidal gold compared with sodium citrate or lithium heparin, these methodologies did not appear to cause false positives. Colloidal gold particles could be chelated and aggregated by EDTA-K2, but not by sodium citrate, lithium heparin and coagulants. CONCLUSION: GICA is widely used to detect antibodies for the advantages of convenient, fast, low cost, suitable for screening large sample and require minimal equipment. In this study, we found that EDTA-K2 amplified the positive antibody signal by chelating colloidal gold and improved the detection sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG antibodies when using the GICA. Therefore, we suggested that EDTA-K2 anticoagulated plasma was more suitable for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , Chelating Agents/chemistry , Edetic Acid/chemistry , Gold Colloid/chemistry , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Immunoglobulin M/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Specificity/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Weight , Particle Size , Polymers/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
Cell Rep ; 33(4): 108322, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-888426

ABSTRACT

Biotin-labeled molecular probes, comprising specific regions of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike, would be helpful in the isolation and characterization of antibodies targeting this recently emerged pathogen. Here, we design constructs incorporating an N-terminal purification tag, a site-specific protease-cleavage site, the probe region of interest, and a C-terminal sequence targeted by biotin ligase. Probe regions include full-length spike ectodomain as well as various subregions, and we also design mutants that eliminate recognition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Yields of biotin-labeled probes from transient transfection range from ∼0.5 mg/L for the complete ectodomain to >5 mg/L for several subregions. Probes are characterized for antigenicity and ACE2 recognition, and the structure of the spike ectodomain probe is determined by cryoelectron microscopy. We also characterize antibody-binding specificities and cell-sorting capabilities of the biotinylated probes. Altogether, structure-based design coupled to efficient purification and biotinylation processes can thus enable streamlined development of SARS-CoV-2 spike ectodomain probes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Molecular Probes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Binding Sites, Antibody/immunology , Biotinylation , COVID-19 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
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