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1.
Genet Med ; 24(7): 1449-1458, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991046

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Host genetic variants in activating natural killer (NK) cell receptors may contribute to differences in severity of COVID-19. NK cell-mediated antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses play, however, a controversial role in SARS-CoV-2 infections. It is unclear whether proinflammatory and cytotoxic SARS-CoV-2-specific ADCC responses limit disease severity or rather contribute to the immunopathogenesis of severe COVID-19. METHODS: Using a genetic association approach and subsequent in vitro antibody-dependent NK cell activation experiments, we investigated whether genetic variants in the FcγRIIIa-encoding FCGR3A gene, resulting in expression of either a low-affinity or high-affinity variant, and individual SARS-CoV-2-specific ADCC response contribute to COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: In our study, we showed that the high-affinity variant of the FcγRIIIa receptor, 158-V/V, is significantly over-represented in hospitalized and deceased patients with COVID-19, whereas the low-affinity FcγRIIIa-158-F/F variant occurs more frequently in patients with mild COVID-19 (P < .0001). Furthermore, functional SARS-CoV-2 antibody-specific NK cell-mediated ADCC assays revealed that significantly higher proinflammatory ADCC responses occur in hospitalized patients with COVID-19, and are especially observed in NK cells expressing the FcγRIIIa-158-V/V variant (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that pronounced SARS-CoV-2-specific NK cell-mediated ADCC responses are influenced by NK cell FcγRIIIa genetic variants and are a hallmark of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
2.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884387

ABSTRACT

Viruses use many different strategies to evade host immune responses. In the case of SARS-CoV-2, its Spike mutates rapidly to escape from neutralizing antibodies. In addition to this strategy, ORF8, a small accessory protein encoded by SARS-CoV-2, helps immune evasion by reducing the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells to the cytotoxic CD8+ T cell response. Interestingly, among all accessory proteins, ORF8 is rapidly evolving and a deletion in this protein has been linked to milder disease. Here, we studied the effect of ORF8 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Specifically, we found that ORF8 can bind monocytes as well as NK cells. Strikingly, ORF8 binds CD16a (FcγRIIIA) with nanomolar affinity and decreases the overall level of CD16 at the surface of monocytes and, to a lesser extent, NK cells. This decrease significantly reduces the capacity of PBMCs and particularly monocytes to mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Overall, our data identifies a new immune-evasion activity used by SARS-CoV-2 to escape humoral responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear
3.
J Virol Methods ; 307: 114564, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1878302

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 infections has led to excess deaths worldwide. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against viral spike protein acquired from natural infections or vaccinations contribute to protection against new- and re-infections. Besides neutralization, antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and phagocytosis (ADCP) are also important for viral clearance. However, due to the lack of convenient methods, the ADCC and ADCP responses elicited by viral infections or vaccinations remain to be explored. Here, we developed cell-based assays using target cells stably expressing SARS-CoV-2 spikes and Jurkat-NFAT-CD16a/CD32a effector cells for ADCC/ADCP measurements of monoclonal antibodies and human convalescent COVID-19 plasmas (HCPs). In control samples (n = 190), the specificity was 99.5% (95%CI: 98.4-100%) and 97.4% (95%CI: 95.1-99.6%) for the ADCC and ADCP assays, respectively. Among 87 COVID-19 HCPs, 83 (sensitivity: 95.4%, 95%CI: 91.0-99.8%) and 81 (sensitivity: 93.1%, 95%CI: 87.8-98.4%) showed detectable ADCC (titer range: 7.4-1721.6) and ADCP activities (titer range: 4-523.2). Notably, both ADCC and ADCP antibody titers positively correlated with the nAb titers in HCPs. In summary, we developed new tools for quantitative ADCC and ADCP analysis against SARS-CoV-2, which may facilitate further evaluations of Fc-mediated effector functions in preventing and treating against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Pandemics , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
4.
Small ; 18(25): e2200836, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858926

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the global pandemic. The virus is rapidly evolving, characterized by the emergence of several major variants. Stable prefusion spike protein (Pre) is the immunogen in current vaccines but is limited in protecting against different variants. Here, the immune responses induced by the relatively conserved stem subunit (S2) of spike protein versus Pre are investigated. Pre generates the most robust neutralization responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants in vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirus-based assessment but elicits less antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity than S2. By contrast, S2 induces the most balanced immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with potent and broad ADCC activity although produces weaker neutralization. The immunogenicity of S2 and Pre improves by incorporating the two proteins into double-layered protein nanoparticles. The resulting protein nanoparticles Pre/S2 elicit higher neutralizing antibodies than Pre alone, and stronger ADCC than S2 alone. Moreover, nanoparticles produce more potent and balanced serum IgG antibodies than the corresponding soluble protein mixture, and the immune responses are sustained for at least four months after the immunization. Thus, the double-layered protein nanoparticles have the potential to be developed into broader SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with excellent safety profiles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
5.
J Infect Dis ; 225(10): 1688-1693, 2022 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1853095

ABSTRACT

We compared the ability of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike-specific antibodies to induce natural killer cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in patients with natural infection and vaccinated persons. Analyzing plasma samples from 39 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and 11 vaccinated individuals, significant induction of ADCC could be observed over a period of more than 3 months in both vaccinated and recovered individuals. Although plasma antibody concentrations were lower in recovered patients, we found antibodies elicited by natural infection induced a significantly stronger ADCC response compared to those induced by vaccination, which may affect protection conferred by vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
6.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(8): 1297-1307, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782587

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, has emerged as a global pandemic. While immune responses of the adaptive immune system have been in the focus of research, the role of NK cells in COVID-19 remains less well understood. Here, we characterized NK cell-mediated SARS-CoV-2 antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against SARS-CoV-2 spike-1 (S1) and nucleocapsid (NC) protein. Serum samples from SARS-CoV-2 resolvers induced significant CD107a-expression by NK cells in response to S1 and NC, while serum samples from SARS-CoV-2-negative individuals did not. Furthermore, serum samples from individuals that received the BNT162b2 vaccine induced strong CD107a expression by NK cells that increased with the second vaccination and was significantly higher than observed in infected individuals. As expected, vaccine-induced responses were only directed against S1 and not against NC protein. S1-specific CD107a responses by NK cells were significantly correlated to NK cell-mediated killing of S1-expressing cells. Interestingly, screening of serum samples collected prior to the COVID-19 pandemic identified two individuals with cross-reactive antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 S1, which also induced degranulation of NK cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that antibodies induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection and anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines can trigger significant NK cell-mediated ADCC activity, and identify some cross-reactive ADCC-activity against SARS-CoV-2 by endemic coronavirus-specific antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , BNT162 Vaccine , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural , Pandemics
7.
J Infect Dis ; 225(6): 938-946, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740891

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations have provided a significant reduction in infections, effective COVID-19 treatments remain an urgent need. METHODS: Functional characterization of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (hIG) from human convalescent plasma was performed by different virus neutralization methodologies (plaque reduction, virus-induced cytotoxicity, median tissue culture infectious dose [TCID50] reduction, and immunofluorimetry) at different laboratories using geographically different SARS-CoV-2 isolates (USA [1], Italy [1], and Spain [2]; 2 containing the D614G mutation). Neutralization capacity against the original Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 strain and variants (D614G mutant, B.1.1.7, P.1, and B.1.351) was evaluated using a pseudovirus expressing the corresponding spike (S) protein. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) was also evaluated. RESULTS: All SARS-CoV-2 isolates were potently neutralized by hIG as shown by all 4 methodologies. Wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and variants were effectively neutralized using the pseudovirus. The hIG (IgG type) induced ADCC and ADCP against SARS-CoV-2 N and S proteins but not E protein. Very low concentrations (25-100 µg IgG/mL) were required. A potent effect was triggered by antibodies in hIG solutions against the SARS-CoV-2 S and N proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Beyond neutralization, IgG Fc-dependent pathways may play a role in combatting SARS-CoV-2 infections using COVID-19 hIG. This could be especially relevant for the treatment of more neutralization-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Phagocytosis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
8.
Cell Rep ; 38(7): 110368, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649284

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence indicates that both neutralizing and Fc-mediated effector functions of antibodies contribute to protection against SARS-CoV-2. It is unclear whether Fc-effector functions alone can protect against SARS-CoV-2. Here, we isolated CV3-13, a non-neutralizing antibody, from a convalescent individual with potent Fc-mediated effector functions. The cryoelectron microscopy structure of CV3-13 in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 spike reveals that the antibody binds from a distinct angle of approach to an N-terminal domain (NTD) epitope that only partially overlaps with the NTD supersite recognized by neutralizing antibodies. CV3-13 does not alter the replication dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice, but its Fc-enhanced version significantly delays virus spread, neuroinvasion, and death in prophylactic settings. Interestingly, the combination of Fc-enhanced non-neutralizing CV3-13 with Fc-compromised neutralizing CV3-25 completely protects mice from lethal SARS-CoV-2 infection. Altogether, our data demonstrate that efficient Fc-mediated effector functions can potently contribute to the in vivo efficacy of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/genetics , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Mice , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
9.
Viruses ; 14(1)2021 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580417

ABSTRACT

Different serological assays were rapidly generated to study humoral responses against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein. Due to the intrinsic difficulty of working with SARS-CoV-2 authentic virus, most serological assays use recombinant forms of the Spike glycoprotein or its receptor binding domain (RBD). Cell-based assays expressing different forms of the Spike, as well as pseudoviral assays, are also widely used. To evaluate whether these assays recapitulate findings generated when the Spike is expressed in its physiological context (at the surface of the infected primary cells), we developed an intracellular staining against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) to distinguish infected from uninfected cells. Human airway epithelial cells (pAECs) were infected with authentic SARS-CoV-2 D614G or Alpha variants. We observed robust cell-surface expression of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike at the surface of the infected pAECs using the conformational-independent anti-S2 CV3-25 antibody. The infected cells were also readily recognized by plasma from convalescent and vaccinated individuals and correlated with several serological assays. This suggests that the antigenicity of the Spike present at the surface of the infected primary cells is maintained in serological assays involving expression of the native full-length Spike.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Bronchioles/cytology , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/virology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(12): 5532-5545, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541481

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic highlights the urgent clinical need for efficient virus therapies and vaccines. Although the functional importance of antibodies is indisputable in viral infections, there are still significant unmet needs that require vast improvements in antibody-based therapeutics. The IgG Fc domain can be engineered to produce antibodies with tailored and potent responses that will meet these clinical demands. Engaging Fc receptors (FcRs) to perform effector functions as cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, complement activation, intracellular neutralization and controlling antibody persistence. Furthermore, it produces vaccine-like effects by activating signals to stimulate T-cell responses, have proven to be required for protection, as neutralization alone does not off the full protection capacity of antibodies. This review highlights antiviral Fc functions and FcRs' contributions in linking innate and adaptive immunity against viral threats. Moreover, it provides the latest Fc engineering strategies to improve the safety and efficacy of human antiviral antibodies and vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibody Formation , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Infect Dis ; 225(6): 938-946, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccinations have provided a significant reduction in infections, effective COVID-19 treatments remain an urgent need. METHODS: Functional characterization of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) hyperimmune immunoglobulin (hIG) from human convalescent plasma was performed by different virus neutralization methodologies (plaque reduction, virus-induced cytotoxicity, median tissue culture infectious dose [TCID50] reduction, and immunofluorimetry) at different laboratories using geographically different SARS-CoV-2 isolates (USA [1], Italy [1], and Spain [2]; 2 containing the D614G mutation). Neutralization capacity against the original Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 strain and variants (D614G mutant, B.1.1.7, P.1, and B.1.351) was evaluated using a pseudovirus expressing the corresponding spike (S) protein. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) was also evaluated. RESULTS: All SARS-CoV-2 isolates were potently neutralized by hIG as shown by all 4 methodologies. Wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and variants were effectively neutralized using the pseudovirus. The hIG (IgG type) induced ADCC and ADCP against SARS-CoV-2 N and S proteins but not E protein. Very low concentrations (25-100 µg IgG/mL) were required. A potent effect was triggered by antibodies in hIG solutions against the SARS-CoV-2 S and N proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Beyond neutralization, IgG Fc-dependent pathways may play a role in combatting SARS-CoV-2 infections using COVID-19 hIG. This could be especially relevant for the treatment of more neutralization-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Phagocytosis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748566, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463474

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a major health challenge globally. Previous studies have suggested that changes in the glycosylation of IgG are closely associated with the severity of COVID-19. This study aimed to compare the profiles of IgG N-glycome between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls. A case-control study was conducted, in which 104 COVID-19 patients and 104 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were recruited. Serum IgG N-glycome composition was analyzed by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) approach. COVID-19 patients have a decreased level of IgG fucosylation, which upregulates antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) in acute immune responses. In severe cases, a low level of IgG sialylation contributes to the ADCC-regulated enhancement of inflammatory cytokines. The decreases in sialylation and galactosylation play a role in COVID-19 pathogenesis via the activation of the lectin-initiated alternative complement pathway. IgG N-glycosylation underlines the complex clinical phenotypes of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Adult , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Case-Control Studies , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Complement Pathway, Mannose-Binding Lectin , Female , Glycosylation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 742631, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456292

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causes COVID-19, ranging from mild to critical disease in symptomatic subjects. It is essential to better understand the immunologic responses occurring in patients with the most severe outcomes. In this study, parameters related to the humoral immune response elicited against SARS-CoV-2 were analysed in 61 patients with different presentations of COVID-19 who were recruited in Hospitals and Primary Healthcare Centres in Madrid, Spain, during the first pandemic peak between April and June 2020. Subjects were allocated as mild patients without hospitalization, severe patients hospitalized or critical patients requiring ICU assistance. Critical patients showed significantly enhanced levels of B cells with memory and plasmablast phenotypes, as well as higher levels of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 with neutralization ability, which were particularly increased in male gender. Despite all this, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity was defective in these individuals. Besides, patients with critical COVID-19 also showed increased IgG levels against herpesvirus such as CMV, EBV, HSV-1 and VZV, as well as detectable CMV and EBV viremia in plasma. Altogether, these results suggest an enhanced but ineffectual immune response in patients with critical COVID-19 that allowed latent herpesvirus reactivation. These findings should be considered during the clinical management of these patients due to the potential contribution to the most severe disease during SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spain
14.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 6(1): 346, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437668

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses to viral infection are a form of antibody regulated immune responses mediated through the Fc fragment. Whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) triggered ADCC responses contributes to COVID-19 disease development is currently not well understood. To understand the potential correlation between ADCC responses and COVID-19 disease development, we analyzed the ADCC activity and neutralizing antibody response in 255 individuals ranging from asymptomatic to fatal infections over 1 year post disease. ADCC was elicited by 10 days post-infection, peaked by 11-20 days, and remained detectable until 400 days post-infection. In general, patients with severe disease had higher ADCC activities. Notably, patients who had severe disease and recovered had higher ADCC activities than patients who had severe disease and deceased. Importantly, ADCC activities were mediated by a diversity of epitopes in SARS-COV-2-infected mice and induced to comparable levels against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) (B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1) as that against the D614G mutant in human patients and vaccinated mice. Our study indicates anti-SARS-CoV-2 ADCC as a major trait of COVID-19 patients with various conditions, which can be applied to estimate the extra-neutralization level against COVID-19, especially lethal COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Animals , Cell Line, Tumor , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Middle Aged
15.
STAR Protoc ; 2(4): 100851, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401935

ABSTRACT

Antibodies can engage specific receptors at the surface of effector cells and mediate several functions beyond viral neutralization. Increasing evidence suggests that Fc-mediated effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), have an important role in protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. We engineered a cell line stably expressing a GFP-tagged SARS-CoV-2 spike to measure ADCC. This protocol provides an optimized way of measuring ADCC activity mediated by anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike monoclonal antibodies or plasma from previously infected or vaccinated individuals. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Anand et al. (2021b).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Flow Cytometry/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans
16.
Front Immunol ; 11: 618685, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389172

ABSTRACT

Understanding humoral immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection will play a critical role in the development of vaccines and antibody-based interventions. We report systemic and mucosal antibody responses in convalescent individuals who experienced varying severity of disease. Whereas assessment of neutralization and antibody-mediated effector functions revealed polyfunctional antibody responses in serum, only robust neutralization and phagocytosis were apparent in nasal wash samples. Serum neutralization and effector functions correlated with systemic SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG response magnitude, while mucosal neutralization was associated with nasal SARS-CoV-2-specific IgA. Antibody depletion experiments support the mechanistic relevance of these correlations. Associations between nasal IgA responses, virus neutralization at the mucosa, and less severe disease suggest the importance of assessing mucosal immunity in larger natural infection cohorts. Further characterization of antibody responses at the portal of entry may define their ability to contribute to protection from infection or reduced risk of hospitalization, informing public health assessment strategies and vaccine development efforts.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/immunology , Convalescence , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
17.
Mol Immunol ; 137: 221-227, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313337

ABSTRACT

Natural Killer (NK) cells are considered the first line of defense against viral infections and tumors. Several factors affect NK cytotoxic activity rendering it dysfunctional and thereby impeding the ability to scavenge abnormal cells as a part of immune escaping mechanisms induced by different types of cancers. NK cells play a crucial role augmenting the activity of various types of anticancer mAb since dysfunctional NK cells are the main reason for the low response to these therapies. To this light, we examined the phenotypic characters of the circulating NK cells isolated from HCC patients compared to healthy controls. Then, dysfunctional NK cells, from HCC patients, were reactivated with cytokines cocktail and their cytotoxic activity with the anti-EGFR mAb "cetuximab" was investigated. This showed a downregulation of patients NK cells activating receptors (NKP30, NKP46, NKG2D and CD16) as well as CD56 and up-regulation of NKG2A inhibitory receptor. We also reported an increase in aberrant CD56- NK cells subset in peripheral blood of HCC patients compared to healthy controls. Thus, confirming the dysfunctionality of peripheral NK cells isolated from HCC patients. Cytokines re-activation of those NK cells lead to upregulation of NK activating receptors and downregulation of inhibitory receptor. Moreover, the percentage of aberrant CD56- NK cells subset was reduced. Here, we proved that advanced HCC patients have an increased percentage of more immature and noncytotoxic NK cell subsets in their peripheral blood, which might account for the low cytotoxicity noticed in those patients. A significant improvement in the cytotoxicity against HCC was noticed upon using reactivated NK cells combined with cetuximab. Therefore, this study highlights the potential recruitment of NK immune cells along with cetuximab to enhance cytotoxicity against HCC.


Subject(s)
Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Cetuximab/therapeutic use , Cytokines/pharmacology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , CD56 Antigen/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/metabolism
18.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 05 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256669

ABSTRACT

Identification of therapeutics against emerging and re-emerging viruses remains a continued priority that is only reinforced by the recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Advances in monoclonal antibody (mAb) isolation, characterization, and production make it a viable option for rapid treatment development. While mAbs are traditionally screened and selected based on potency of neutralization in vitro, it is clear that additional factors contribute to the in vivo efficacy of a mAb beyond viral neutralization. These factors include interactions with Fc receptors (FcRs) and complement that can enhance neutralization, clearance of infected cells, opsonization of virions, and modulation of the innate and adaptive immune response. In this review, we discuss recent studies, primarily using mouse models, that identified a role for Fc-FcγR interactions for optimal antibody-based protection against emerging and re-emerging virus infections.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Viruses/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/therapy , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Phagocytosis , Virus Diseases/therapy , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/classification
19.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100296, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225428

ABSTRACT

The capacity of antibodies to engage with immune cells via the Fc region is important in preventing and controlling many infectious diseases. The evolution of such antibodies during convalescence from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is largely unknown. We develop assays to measure Fc-dependent antibody functions against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S)-expressing cells in serial samples from subjects primarily with mild-moderate COVID-19 up to 149 days post-infection. We find that S-specific antibodies capable of engaging Fcγ receptors decay over time, with S-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent phagocytosis (ADP) activity within plasma declining accordingly. Although there is significant decay in ADCC and ADP activity, they remain readily detectable in almost all subjects at the last time point studied (94%) in contrast with neutralization activity (70%). Although it remains unclear the degree to which Fc effector functions contribute to protection against SARS-CoV-2 re-infection, our results indicate that antibodies with Fc effector functions persist longer than neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Dimerization , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/genetics , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Kinetics , Neutralization Tests , Phagocytosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
20.
mBio ; 12(2)2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195825

ABSTRACT

Beyond neutralization, antibodies binding to their Fc receptors elicit several innate immune functions including antibody-dependent complement deposition (ADCD), antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP), and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). These functions are beneficial, as they contribute to pathogen clearance; however, they also can induce inflammation. We tested the possibility that qualitative differences in SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody-mediated innate immune functions contribute to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. We found that anti-S1 and anti-RBD antibodies from hospitalized COVID-19 patients elicited higher ADCD but lower ADCP compared to antibodies from nonhospitalized COVID-19 patients. Consistently, higher ADCD was associated with higher systemic inflammation, whereas higher ADCP was associated with lower systemic inflammation during COVID-19. Our study points to qualitative, differential features of anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies as potential contributors to COVID-19 severity. Understanding these qualitative features of natural and vaccine-induced antibodies will be important in achieving optimal efficacy and safety of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and/or COVID-19 therapeutics.IMPORTANCE A state of hyperinflammation and increased complement activation has been associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms that contribute to this phenomenon remain mostly unknown. Our data point to a qualitative, rather than quantitative, difference in SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies' ability to elicit Fc-mediated innate immune functions as a potential contributor to COVID-19 severity and associated inflammation. These data highlight the need for further studies to understand these qualitative features and their potential contribution to COVID-19 severity. This understanding could be essential to develop antibody-based COVID-19 therapeutics and SARS-CoV-2 vaccines with an optimal balance between efficacy and safety.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Complement Activation , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Phagocytosis , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
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