Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 60
Filter
2.
Biochem J ; 479(6): 731-750, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764226

ABSTRACT

The interplay between innate immunity and coagulation after infection or injury, termed immunothrombosis, is the primary cause of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), a condition that occurs in sepsis. Thrombosis associated with DIC is the leading cause of death worldwide. Interest in immunothrombosis has grown because of COVID-19, the respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, which has been termed a syndrome of dysregulated immunothrombosis. As the relatively new field of immunothrombosis expands at a rapid pace, the focus of academic and pharmacological research has shifted from generating treatments targeted at the traditional 'waterfall' model of coagulation to therapies better directed towards immune components that drive coagulopathies. Immunothrombosis can be initiated in macrophages by cleavage of the non-canonical inflammasome which contains caspase-11. This leads to release of tissue factor (TF), a membrane glycoprotein receptor that forms a high-affinity complex with coagulation factor VII/VIIa to proteolytically activate factors IX to IXa and X to Xa, generating thrombin and leading to fibrin formation and platelet activation. The mechanism involves the post-translational activation of TF, termed decryption, and release of decrypted TF via caspase-11-mediated pyroptosis. During aberrant immunothrombosis, decryption of TF leads to thromboinflammation, sepsis, and DIC. Therefore, developing therapies to target pyroptosis have emerged as an attractive concept to counteract dysregulated immunothrombosis. In this review, we detail the three mechanisms of TF control: concurrent induction of TF, caspase-11, and NLRP3 (signal 1); TF decryption, which increases its procoagulant activity (signal 2); and accelerated release of TF into the intravascular space via pyroptosis (signal 3). In this way, decryption of TF is analogous to the two signals of NLRP3 inflammasome activation, whereby induction of pro-IL-1ß and NLRP3 (signal 1) is followed by activation of NLRP3 (signal 2). We describe in detail TF decryption, which involves pathogen-induced alterations in the composition of the plasma membrane and modification of key cysteines on TF, particularly at the location of the critical, allosterically regulated disulfide bond of TF in its 219-residue extracellular domain. In addition, we speculate towards the importance of identifying new therapeutics to block immunothrombotic triggering of TF, which can involve inhibition of pyroptosis to limit TF release, or the direct targeting of TF decryption using cysteine-modifying therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Pyroptosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Thromboplastin/metabolism
3.
Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem ; 20(2): 114-124, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760080

ABSTRACT

Direct (New-generation) Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as effective agents which are used in place of vitamin-K antagonists in treatment and prophylaxis of Venous Thromboembolism (VTE), atrial fibrillation and other thrombotic diseases. Among them, the FIIa- direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and FXa inhibitors (rivaroxaban, apixaban, edoxaban) are the most broadly used. Anticoagulant dosing may differ under special considerations. The patients' physiological reserves, organ functional status and failures should be taken into account in clinical decision-making processes. The advantages and drawbacks of each specific agent should be weighed with special regard to metabolism, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, along with the efficiency of the agents in different indications. This article aims to review the most recent literature to highlight the usage and efficacy of the agents in different clinical conditions.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Venous Thromboembolism , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Dabigatran , Humans , Venous Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control
4.
Rev Invest Clin ; 74(1): 31-39, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), triggers a pathophysiological process linked not only to viral mechanisms of infectivity, but also to the pattern of host response. Drug repurposing is a promising strategy for rapid identification of treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and several attractive molecular viral targets can be exploited. Among those, 3CL protease is a potential target of great interest. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to screen potential 3CLpro inhibitors compounds based on chemical fingerprints among anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and respiratory system agents. METHODS: The screening was developed based on a drug property prediction framework, in which the evaluated property was the ability to inhibit the activity of the 3CLpro protein, and the predictions were performed using a dense neural network trained and validated on bioassay data. RESULTS: On the validation and test set, the model obtained area under the curve values of 98.2 and 76.3, respectively, demonstrating high specificity for both sets (98.5% and 94.7%). Regarding the 1278 compounds screened, the model indicated four anti-inflammatory agents, two anticoagulants, and one respiratory agent as potential 3CLpro inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Those findings point to a possible desirable synergistic effect in the management of patients with COVID-19 and provide potential directions for in vitro and in vivo research, which are indispensable for the validation of their results.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Respiratory System Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Respiratory System Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
Rev Invest Clin ; 74(1): 31-39, 2022 01 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), triggers a pathophysiological process linked not only to viral mechanisms of infectivity, but also to the pattern of host response. Drug repurposing is a promising strategy for rapid identification of treatments for SARS-CoV-2 infection, and several attractive molecular viral targets can be exploited. Among those, 3CL protease is a potential target of great interest. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to screen potential 3CLpro inhibitors compounds based on chemical fingerprints among anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and respiratory system agents. METHODS: The screening was developed based on a drug property prediction framework, in which the evaluated property was the ability to inhibit the activity of the 3CLpro protein, and the predictions were performed using a dense neural network trained and validated on bioassay data. RESULTS: On the validation and test set, the model obtained area under the curve values of 98.2 and 76.3, respectively, demonstrating high specificity for both sets (98.5% and 94.7%). Regarding the 1278 compounds screened, the model indicated four anti-inflammatory agents, two anticoagulants, and one respiratory agent as potential 3CLpro inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: Those findings point to a possible desirable synergistic effect in the management of patients with COVID-19 and provide potential directions for in vitro and in vivo research, which are indispensable for the validation of their results.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Anticoagulants , COVID-19 , Deep Learning , Respiratory System Agents , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Respiratory System Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
Molecules ; 27(1)2022 Jan 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686893

ABSTRACT

Hypercytokinemia, or cytokine storm, is one of the severe complications of viral and bacterial infections, involving the release of abnormal amounts of cytokines, resulting in a massive inflammatory response. Cytokine storm is associated with COVID-19 and sepsis high mortality rate by developing epithelial dysfunction and coagulopathy, leading to thromboembolism and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Anticoagulant therapy is an important tactic to prevent thrombosis in sepsis and COVID-19, but recent data show the incompatibility of modern direct oral anticoagulants and antiviral agents. It seems relevant to develop dual-action drugs with antiviral and anticoagulant properties. At the same time, it was shown that azolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines are heterocycles with a broad spectrum of antiviral activity. We have synthesized a new family of azolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines and their condensed polycyclic analogs by cyclocondensation reactions and direct CH-functionalization and studied their anticoagulant properties. Five compounds among 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7-ones and 5-alkyl-1,3,4-thiadiazolo[3,2-a]purin-8-ones demonstrated higher anticoagulant activity than the reference drug, dabigatran etexilate. Antithrombin activity of most active compounds was confirmed using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated blood to mimic the conditions of cytokine release syndrome. The studied compounds affected only the thrombin time value, reliably increasing it 6.5-15.2 times as compared to LPS-treated blood.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Azo Compounds/chemistry , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Animals , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Lipopolysaccharides/toxicity , Male , Rabbits , Rats
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686810

ABSTRACT

Aortic aneurysms are sometimes associated with enhanced-fibrinolytic-type disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). In enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC, both coagulation and fibrinolysis are markedly activated. Typical cases show decreased platelet counts and fibrinogen levels, increased concentrations of fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer, and increased FDP/D-dimer ratios. Thrombin-antithrombin complex or prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, as markers of coagulation activation, and plasmin-α2 plasmin inhibitor complex, a marker of fibrinolytic activation, are all markedly increased. Prolongation of prothrombin time (PT) is not so obvious, and the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) is rather shortened in some cases. As a result, DIC can be neither diagnosed nor excluded based on PT and APTT alone. Many of the factors involved in coagulation and fibrinolysis activation are serine proteases. Treatment of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC requires consideration of how to control the function of these serine proteases. The cornerstone of DIC treatment is treatment of the underlying pathology. However, in some cases surgery is either not possible or exacerbates the DIC associated with aortic aneurysm. In such cases, pharmacotherapy becomes even more important. Unfractionated heparin, other heparins, synthetic protease inhibitors, recombinant thrombomodulin, and direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are agents that inhibit serine proteases, and all are effective against DIC. Inhibition of activated coagulation factors by anticoagulants is key to the treatment of DIC. Among them, DOACs can be taken orally and is useful for outpatient treatment. Combination therapy of heparin and nafamostat allows fine-adjustment of anticoagulant and antifibrinolytic effects. While warfarin is an anticoagulant, this agent is ineffective in the treatment of DIC because it inhibits the production of coagulation factors as substrates without inhibiting activated coagulation factors. In addition, monotherapy using tranexamic acid in cases of enhanced-fibrinolytic-type DIC may induce fatal thrombosis. If tranexamic acid is needed for DIC, combination with anticoagulant therapy is of critical importance.


Subject(s)
Aortic Aneurysm/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/therapy , Fibrinolysis/drug effects , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Antifibrinolytic Agents/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Fibrinolysin , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Heparin/pharmacology , Humans , Partial Thromboplastin Time , Prothrombin Time , alpha-2-Antiplasmin
8.
Cell Chem Biol ; 29(2): 215-225.e5, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664751

ABSTRACT

Coagulation cofactors profoundly regulate hemostasis and are appealing targets for anticoagulants. However, targeting such proteins has been challenging because they lack an active site. To address this, we isolate an RNA aptamer termed T18.3 that binds to both factor V (FV) and FVa with nanomolar affinity and demonstrates clinically relevant anticoagulant activity in both plasma and whole blood. The aptamer also shows synergy with low molecular weight heparin and delivers potent anticoagulation in plasma collected from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Moreover, the aptamer's anticoagulant activity can be rapidly and efficiently reversed using protamine sulfate, which potentially allows fine-tuning of aptamer's activity post-administration. We further show that the aptamer achieves its anticoagulant activity by abrogating FV/FVa interactions with phospholipid membranes. Our success in generating an anticoagulant aptamer targeting FV/Va demonstrates the feasibility of using cofactor-binding aptamers as therapeutic protein inhibitors and reveals an unconventional working mechanism of an aptamer by interrupting protein-membrane interactions.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Aptamers, Nucleotide/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Factor V/antagonists & inhibitors , Factor Va/antagonists & inhibitors , Amino Acid Sequence , Anticoagulants/chemistry , Anticoagulants/metabolism , Aptamers, Nucleotide/chemistry , Aptamers, Nucleotide/metabolism , Base Pairing , Binding Sites , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Membrane/chemistry , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Factor V/chemistry , Factor V/genetics , Factor V/metabolism , Factor Va/chemistry , Factor Va/genetics , Factor Va/metabolism , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/chemistry , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/metabolism , Humans , Immune Sera/chemistry , Immune Sera/metabolism , Models, Molecular , Nucleic Acid Conformation , Protamines , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SELEX Aptamer Technique , Substrate Specificity
9.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 6, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality in severe COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with thrombo-inflammation. Corticosteroids are given to attenuate the inflammation, but they are associated with thrombosis. The aims of this study were to determine the risk of venous thromboembolism between no methylprednisolone and methylprednisolone (dose versus duration) and to evaluate any synergistic dose-dependent association of heparin and methylprednisolone to 30 days in hospital survival. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort. Patients included in this study were ≥ 18 years of age and admitted for severe COVID-19 pneumonia between March and June 2020 in 13 hospitals in New Jersey, United States. A propensity score analysis between administration of methylprednisolone and no methylprednisolone was fitted for 11 variables and Youden Index Method was used to determine cut-off between low dose and high dose methylprednisolone. Multivariate cox regression was to assess risk. RESULTS: In 759 patients, the incidence of venous thromboembolism was 9% of patients who received methylprednisolone and 3% of patients who did not receive methylprednisolone with a [RR 2.92 (95% CI 1.54, 5.55 P < 0.0001)]. There was a higher incidence of mechanical ventilation in the methylprednisolone group. The median d-dimer between patients with venous thromboembolism was higher compared to those without (P < 0.0003). However, the d-dimer was not statistically significant between those who had venous thromboembolism between methylprednisolone and no methylprednisolone groups (P = 0.40). There was no higher risk in high dose versus low dose [RR = 0.524 (95% CI 0.26, 1.06 P 0.4)]; however, the risk for venous thromboembolism between methylprednisolone for > 7 days and ≤ 7 days was statistically significant (RR 5.46 95% CI 2.87, 10.34 P < 0.0001). Patients who received low dose methylprednisolone and therapeutic heparin had a trend towards higher risk of mortality compared to prophylactic heparin (HR 1.81 95% CI 0.994 to 3.294) (P = 0.0522). There was no difference in 30 days in hospital survival between high dose methylprednisolone with prophylactic or therapeutic heparin (HR 0.827 95% CI 0.514 to 1.33) (P = 0.4335). CONCLUSION: Methylprednisolone for > 7 days had a higher association of venous thromboembolism. There was no added benefit of therapeutic heparin to methylprednisolone on mechanically ventilated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Heparin/pharmacology , Methylprednisolone/pharmacology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
10.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(14): 2807-2820, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596913

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Anticoagulation was associated with improved survival of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in large-scale studies. Yet, the development of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) and the mechanism responsible for improved survival of anticoagulated patients with COVID-19 remain largely elusive. This investigation aimed to explore the effects of anticoagulation and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in particular on patient outcome, CAC development, thromboinflammation, cell death, and viral persistence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data of 586 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from three different regions of Austria were evaluated retrospectively. Of these, 419 (71.5%) patients received LMWH and 62 (10.5%) received non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) during hospitalization. Plasma was collected at different time points in a subset of 106 patients in order to evaluate markers of thromboinflammation (H3Cit-DNA) and the cell death marker cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Use of LMWH was associated with improved survival upon multivariable Cox regression (hazard ratio = 0.561, 95% confidence interval: 0.348-0.906). Interestingly, neither LMWH nor NOAC was associated with attenuation of D-dimer increase over time, or thromboinflammation. In contrast, anticoagulation was associated with a decrease in cfDNA during hospitalization, and curtailed viral persistence was observed in patients using LMWH leading to a 4-day reduction of virus positivity upon quantitative polymerase chain reaction [13 (interquartile range: 6-24) vs. 9 (interquartile range: 5-16) days, P = 0.009]. CONCLUSION: Time courses of haemostatic and thromboinflammatory biomarkers were similar in patients with and without LMWH, indicating either no effects of LMWH on haemostasis or that LMWH reduced hypercoagulability to levels of patients without LMWH. Nonetheless, anticoagulation with LMWH was associated with reduced mortality, improved markers of cell death, and curtailed viral persistence, indicating potential beneficial effects of LMWH beyond haemostasis, which encourages use of LMWH in COVID-19 patients without contraindications.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , /virology , Aged , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Austria/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hemostasis , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , /prevention & control
12.
Pharmacol Ther ; 233: 108027, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487919

ABSTRACT

Responding quickly to emerging respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2 the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, is essential to stop uncontrolled spread of these pathogens and mitigate their socio-economic impact globally. This can be achieved through drug repurposing, which tackles inherent time- and resource-consuming processes associated with conventional drug discovery and development. In this review, we examine key preclinical and clinical therapeutic and prophylactic approaches that have been applied for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We break these strategies down into virus- versus host-targeting and discuss their reported efficacy, advantages, and disadvantages. Importantly, we highlight emerging evidence on application of host serine protease-inhibiting anticoagulants, such as nafamostat mesylate, as a potentially powerful therapy to inhibit virus activation and offer cross-protection against multiple strains of coronavirus, lower inflammatory response independent of its antiviral effect, and modulate clotting problems seen in COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics
13.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 172, 2021 10 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thromboembolism has been reported as a consequence of severe COVID-19. Although warfarin is a commonly used anticoagulant, it acts by antagonising vitamin K, which is low in patients with severe COVID-19. To date, the clinical evidence on the impact of regular use of warfarin on COVID-19-related thromboembolism is lacking. METHODS: On behalf of NHS England, we conducted a population-based cohort study investigating the association between warfarin and COVID-19 outcomes compared with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). We used the OpenSAFELY platform to analyse primary care data and pseudonymously linked SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing data, hospital admissions and death records from England. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for COVID-19-related outcomes comparing warfarin with DOACs in people with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. We also conducted negative control outcome analyses (being tested for SARS-CoV-2 and non-COVID-19 death) to assess the potential impact of confounding. RESULTS: A total of 92,339 warfarin users and 280,407 DOAC users were included. We observed a lower risk of all outcomes associated with warfarin versus DOACs [testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.68-0.79); COVID-19-related hospital admission, HR 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.83); COVID-19-related deaths, HR 0.74 (95% CI 0.66-0.83)]. A lower risk of negative control outcomes associated with warfarin versus DOACs was also observed [being tested for SARS-CoV-2, HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.79-0.81); non-COVID-19 deaths, HR 0.79 (95% CI 0.76-0.83)]. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study shows no evidence of harmful effects of warfarin on severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/virology , Warfarin/therapeutic use , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , England/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thromboembolism/blood , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
15.
Cardiovasc Res ; 117(14): 2807-2820, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450385

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Anticoagulation was associated with improved survival of hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in large-scale studies. Yet, the development of COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC) and the mechanism responsible for improved survival of anticoagulated patients with COVID-19 remain largely elusive. This investigation aimed to explore the effects of anticoagulation and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) in particular on patient outcome, CAC development, thromboinflammation, cell death, and viral persistence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data of 586 hospitalized COVID-19 patients from three different regions of Austria were evaluated retrospectively. Of these, 419 (71.5%) patients received LMWH and 62 (10.5%) received non-vitamin-K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) during hospitalization. Plasma was collected at different time points in a subset of 106 patients in order to evaluate markers of thromboinflammation (H3Cit-DNA) and the cell death marker cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Use of LMWH was associated with improved survival upon multivariable Cox regression (hazard ratio = 0.561, 95% confidence interval: 0.348-0.906). Interestingly, neither LMWH nor NOAC was associated with attenuation of D-dimer increase over time, or thromboinflammation. In contrast, anticoagulation was associated with a decrease in cfDNA during hospitalization, and curtailed viral persistence was observed in patients using LMWH leading to a 4-day reduction of virus positivity upon quantitative polymerase chain reaction [13 (interquartile range: 6-24) vs. 9 (interquartile range: 5-16) days, P = 0.009]. CONCLUSION: Time courses of haemostatic and thromboinflammatory biomarkers were similar in patients with and without LMWH, indicating either no effects of LMWH on haemostasis or that LMWH reduced hypercoagulability to levels of patients without LMWH. Nonetheless, anticoagulation with LMWH was associated with reduced mortality, improved markers of cell death, and curtailed viral persistence, indicating potential beneficial effects of LMWH beyond haemostasis, which encourages use of LMWH in COVID-19 patients without contraindications.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , /virology , Aged , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Austria/epidemiology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hemostasis , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , /prevention & control
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444234

ABSTRACT

Our objective is to reveal the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) based on its influence on the activity of two key cytokines, IFNγ and IL-6. The mechanism of heparin binding to IFNγ and IL-6 and the resulting inhibition of their activity were studied by means of extensive molecular-dynamics simulations. The effect of LMWH on IFNγ signalling inside stimulated WISH cells was investigated by measuring its antiproliferative activity and the translocation of phosphorylated STAT1 in the nucleus. We found that LMWH binds with high affinity to IFNγ and is able to fully inhibit the interaction with its cellular receptor. It also influences the biological activity of IL-6 by binding to either IL-6 or IL-6/IL-6Rα, thus preventing the formation of the IL-6/IL-6Rα/gp130 signalling complex. These findings shed light on the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of LMWH and underpin its ability to influence favourably conditions characterised by overexpression of these two cytokines. Such conditions are not only associated with autoimmune diseases, but also with inflammatory processes, in particular with COVID-19. Our results put forward heparin as a promising means for the prevention and suppression of severe CRS and encourage further investigations on its applicability as an anti-inflammatory agent.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/pharmacology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Humans , Models, Molecular , Receptors, Interleukin-6/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
17.
Clin Immunol ; 232: 108852, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The majority of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) non-survivors meet the criteria for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Although timely monitoring of clotting hemorrhagic development during the natural course of COVID-19 is critical for understanding pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease, however, limited data are available on the dynamic processes of inflammation/coagulopathy/fibrinolysis (ICF). METHODS: We monitored the dynamic progression of ICF in patients with moderate COVID-19. Out of 694 COVID-19 inpatients from 10 hospitals in Wenzhou, China, we selected 293 adult patients without comorbidities. These patients were divided into different daily cohorts according to the COVID-19 onset-time. Furthermore, data of 223 COVID-19 patients with comorbidities and 22 critical cases were analyzed. Retrospective data were extracted from electronic medical records. RESULTS: The virus-induced damages to pre-hospitalization patients triggered two ICF fluctuations during the 14-day course of the disease. C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels increased and peaked at day 5 (D) 5 and D9 during the 1st and 2nd fluctuations, respectively. The ICF activities were higher during the 2nd fluctuation. Although 12-day medication returned high CRP concentrations to normal and blocked fibrinogen increase, the D-dimer levels remained high on days 17 ±â€¯2 and 23 ±â€¯2 days of the COVID-19 course. Notably, although the oxygenation index, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were within the normal range in critical COVID-19 patients at administration, 86% of these patients had a D-dimer level > 500 µg/L. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is linked with chronic DIC, which could be responsible for the progression of the disease. Understanding and monitoring ICF progression during COVID-19 can help clinicians in identifying the stage of the disease quickly and accurately and administering suitable treatment.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/physiology , COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/virology , Adult , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/metabolism , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , China , Disease Progression , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/etiology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/metabolism , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/pathology , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Fibrinogen/metabolism , Hemorrhage/etiology , Hemorrhage/pathology , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prothrombin Time , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
18.
Drug Dev Res ; 82(8): 1075-1078, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380379

ABSTRACT

One of the most remarkable results in 2019 is the reduced prevalence and death of children from coronavirus infection (COVID-19). In 2019, a worldwide pandemic impacted around 0.1 billion individuals, with over 3.5 million mortality reported in the literature. There is minimal knowledge on SARS-CoV-2 infection immunological responses in kids. Studies have been focused mostly on adults and children since the course of pediatric sickness is often short. In adults, severe COVID-19 is related to an excessive inflammatory reaction. Macrophages and monocytes are well known to contribute to this systemic response, although numerous lines are indicative of the importance of neutrophils. An increased number of neutrophils and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios are early signs of SARS-CoV-2 and a worse prognosis. In this study that it is crucial to monitor PAR2 and PAR4 expression and function (since nursing children have elevated levels) and the inhibiting the normal physiology through the use of anticoagulants may exacerbate the problem in adults. Thus, in COVID-19 infection, we propose the use of antiplatelet (thromboxane A2 inhibitors), if required rather than anticoagulants (FXa and thrombin Inhibitors).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Receptor, PAR-2/metabolism , Receptors, Thrombin/metabolism , Adult , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Neutrophils/immunology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use
20.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211021495, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277870

ABSTRACT

The treatment process of patients using warfarin is expected to be hindered during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore we investigated whether the time in therapeutic range (TTR) and bleeding complications were affected during the COVID-19 pandemic. 355 patients using warfarin were included between March 2019 to March 2021. Demographic parameters, INR (international normalized ratio), and bleeding rates were recorded retrospectively. The TTR value was calculated using Rosendaal's method. The mean age of the patients was 61 ± 12 years and 55% of them were female. The mean TTR value during the COVID-19 pandemic was lower than the pre-COVID-19 period (56 ± 21 vs 68 ± 21, P < 0.001). Among the patients, 41% had a lack of outpatient INR control. During the COVID-19 pandemic, 71 (20%) patients using VKA suffered bleeding. Among patients with bleeding, approximately 60% did not seek medical help and 6% of patients performed self-reduction of the VKA dose. During the COVID-19 pandemic, TTR values have decreased with the lack of monitoring. Furthermore, the majority of patients did not seek medical help even in case of bleeding.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/pharmacology , Bleeding Time , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , International Normalized Ratio , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombophilia/blood , Warfarin/pharmacology , Aged , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Heart Valve Prosthesis/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/psychology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Medication Adherence , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Self Medication , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Warfarin/adverse effects , Warfarin/therapeutic use
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL