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1.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is common, and suicide rates are increasing. Adolescent depression screening might miss those with unidentified suicide risk. Our primary objective in this study was to compare the magnitude of positive screen results across different approaches. METHODS: From June 2019 to October 2020, 803 mostly Medicaid-enrolled adolescents aged ≥12 years with no recent history of depression or self-harm were screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) across 12 primary care practices. Two PHQ-9A screening strategies were evaluated: screening for any type of depression or other mental illness (positive on any item) or screening for major depressive disorder (MDD) (total score ≥10). RESULTS: Overall, 56.4% of patients screened positive for any type of depression, 24.7% screened positive for MDD, and 21.1% screened positive for suicide risk. Regardless of PHQ-9A screening strategy, the ASQ identified additional subjects (eg, 2.2% additional cases compared with screening for any type of depression or other mental illness and 8.3% additional cases compared with screening positive for MDD). Of those with ≥6 month follow-up, 22.9% screened positive for any type of depression (n = 205), 35.6% screened positive for MDD (n = 90), and 42.7% with a positive ASQ result (n = 75) had a depression or self-harm diagnosis or an antidepressant prescription. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk screening identifies cases not identified by depression screening. In this study, we underscore opportunities and challenges in primary care related to the high prevalence of depression and suicide risk. Research is needed regarding optimal screening strategies and to help clinicians manage the expected number of screening-identified adolescents.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Suicide/prevention & control , Young Adult
3.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(6)2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512771

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to review major depression, including its types, epidemiology, association with different diseases status and treatments, as well as its correlation with the current COVID-19 pandemic. Mental depression is a common disorder that affects most individuals at one time or another. During depression, there are changes in mood and behavior, accompanied by feelings of defeat, hopelessness, or even suicidal thoughts. Depression has a direct or indirect relation with a number of other diseases including Alzheimer's disease, stroke, epilepsy, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. In addition, antidepressant drugs have several side effects including sedation, increased weight, indigestion, sexual dysfunction, or a decrease in blood pressure. Stopping medication may cause a relapse of the symptoms of depression and pose a risk of attempted suicide. The pandemic of COVID-19 has affected the mental health of individuals, including patients, individuals contacting patients and medical staff with a number of mental disorders that may adversely affect the immune ability of their bodies. Some of the drugs currently included in the protocols for treating COVID-19 may negatively affect the mental health of patients. Evidence accumulated over the years indicates that serotonin (5HT) deficiencies and norepinephrine (NE) in the brain can lead to mental depression. Drugs that increase levels of NE and 5HT are commonly used in the treatment of depression. The common reason for mood disorders, including mania and bipolar disease are not clearly understood. It is assumed that hyperactivity in specific parts of the brain and excessive activity of neurotransmitters may be involved. Early diagnosis and developing new treatment strategies are essential for the prevention of the severe consequences of depression. In addition, extensive research should be directed towards the investigation of the mental health disturbances occurring during and/or after COVID-19 infection. This may lead to the incorporation of a suitable antidepressant into the current treatment protocols.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Antidepressive Agents/adverse effects , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/metabolism , Glutamic Acid/metabolism , Humans , Oxidative Stress
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 144: 112291, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OXT), a neuropeptide involved in mammal reproductive and prosocial behaviors, has been reported to interact with various stressor-provoked neurobiological changes, including neuroendocrine, neurotransmitter, and inflammatory processes. In view of disturbances in psychosocial relationships due to social isolation and physical distancing measures amid the COVID-19 pandemic, being one of the triggering factors for the recent rise in depression and anxiety, OXT is a potential candidate for a new antidepressant. METHODS: In this present study, we have aimed to investigate the effects of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (RE), extracted from distillation residue of rosemary essential oil, on central OXT level in the context of other stress biomarkers and neurotransmitter levels in mice models. Tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze test (EPMT) following LPS injection were employed to assess depressive- and anxiety-like behavior in mice, respectively. FINDINGS: Pretreatment with RE for seven days significantly improved behavior in TST and EPMT. Whole-genome microarray analysis reveals that RE significantly reversed TST stress-induced alterations in gene expressions related to oxytocinergic and neurotransmitter pathways and inflammatory processes. In both models, RE significantly increased central Oxt and Oxtr expressions, as well as OXT protein levels. RE also significantly attenuated stress-induced changes in serum corticosterone, brain and serum BDNF levels, and brain neurotransmitters levels in both models. INTERPRETATION: Altogether, our study is the first to report antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activities of RE through modulating oxytocinergic system in mice brain and thus highlights the prospects of RE in the treatment of depressive disorders of psychosocial nature.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Oxytocin/metabolism , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Receptors, Oxytocin/metabolism , Rosmarinus , Animals , Anti-Anxiety Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Anxiety Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/isolation & purification , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety/metabolism , Brain/drug effects , Brain/metabolism , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/metabolism , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Inflammation Mediators/antagonists & inhibitors , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Oxytocin/agonists , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Receptors, Oxytocin/agonists
5.
J Psychiatr Res ; 143: 436-444, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458648

ABSTRACT

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with an imbalance in the functioning of the stimulating neurotransmitter systems in human's brain. We studied the safety and therapeutic efficacy of aviandr, the new noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressant, for GAD patients in the phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter, pilot trial at 17 clinical sites of the Russian Federation. 129 eligible patients were 18 years and older and met the criteria for GAD diagnosis. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive oral aviandr at daily dose of 40 mg (cohort 1, n = 41) or 60 mg (cohort 2, n = 43) or placebo (cohort 3, n = 43) for 8 weeks. The patients were assessed by the Hamilton anxiety scale (HAM-A), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D), Clinical Global Impression Scale (CGI-S), Visual Analogue Scale and vital signs. At week 8, the decreases of the HAM-A score were achieved in 53∙7%, 47∙7% and 16∙3% in cohorts 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Changes of HAM-A, HAM-D, CGI-S, and CGI-I scores in aviandr-treated patients were superior to placebo (p < 0∙001). The psychic components of anxiety decreased on the first day, throughout the 8 weeks of treatment and on a follow-up week after aviandr discontinuation. Aviandr (40 mg daily dose) reduced drowsiness compared to baseline, was safe, well-tolerated and did not cause serious or severe adverse events or signs of withdrawal syndrome within one week after treatment completion. Aviandr at both 40 and 60 mg daily doses demonstrated therapeutic efficacy in GAD patients over placebo.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents , Anxiety Disorders , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/drug therapy , Anxiety Disorders/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Pilot Projects , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Treatment Outcome
6.
Nurs Stand ; 36(9): 77-81, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1369911

ABSTRACT

Ketamine is a synthetic drug with unique properties which started to be used therapeutically in humans in the 1970s and is now widely used in all fields of nursing. Ketamine acts on the central nervous system, primarily through inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. However, the precise understanding of its mechanisms of action remains elusive in many respects. Ketamine is frequently used as an anaesthetic in medical and surgical procedures and as an analgesic in children and adults. It is increasingly used in mental health settings to treat depression. It has potential to be used more often in areas such as palliative care and mental health care. This article reviews the physiological and pharmacological properties of ketamine, explores its main therapeutic uses, and considers the associated implications for nursing practice.


Subject(s)
Analgesics , Anesthetics , Ketamine , Analgesics/pharmacology , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Anesthetics/pharmacology , Anesthetics/therapeutic use , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Ketamine/pharmacology , Ketamine/therapeutic use
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(8): e2118441, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335942

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 has had devastating effects on the health and well-being of older adult residents and health care professionals in nursing homes. Uncertainty about the associated consequences of these adverse effects on the use of medications common to this care setting remains. Objective: To examine the association between the COVID-19 pandemic and prescription medication changes among nursing home residents. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study with an interrupted time-series analysis used linked health administrative data bases for residents of all nursing homes (N = 630) in Ontario, Canada. During the observation period, residents were divided into consecutive weekly cohorts. The first observation week was March 5 to 11, 2017; the last observation week was September 20 to 26, 2020. Exposures: Onset of the COVID-19 pandemic on March 1, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Weekly proportion of residents dispensed antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, opioids, antibiotics, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Autoregressive integrated moving average models with step and ramp intervention functions tested for level and slope changes in weekly medication use after the onset of the pandemic and were fit on prepandemic data for projected trends. Results: Across study years, the annual cohort size ranged from 75 850 to 76 549 residents (mean [SD] age, 83.4 [10.8] years; mean proportion of women, 68.9%). A significant increased slope change in the weekly proportion of residents who were dispensed antipsychotics (parameter estimate [ß] = 0.051; standard error [SE] = 0.010; P < .001), benzodiazepines (ß = 0.026; SE = 0.003; P < .001), antidepressants (ß = 0.046; SE = 0.013; P < .001), trazodone hydrochloride (ß = 0.033; SE = 0.010; P < .001), anticonvulsants (ß = 0.014; SE = 0.006; P = .03), and opioids (ß = 0.038; SE = 0.007; P < .001) was observed. The absolute difference in observed vs estimated use in the last week of the pandemic period ranged from 0.48% (for anticonvulsants) to 1.52% (for antipsychotics). No significant level or slope changes were found for antibiotics, ARBs, or ACE inhibitors. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, statistically significant increases in the use of antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and opioids followed the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, although absolute differences were small. There were no significant changes for antibiotics, ARBs, or ACE inhibitors. Studies are needed to monitor whether changes in pharmacotherapy persist, regress, or accelerate during the course of the pandemic and how these changes affect resident-level outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Homes for the Aged/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Cohort Studies , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Ontario , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Psychiatr Pract ; 27(2): 137-144, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1292182

ABSTRACT

The widespread prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) means that inpatient psychiatric units will necessarily manage patients who have COVID-19 that is comorbid with acute psychiatric symptoms. We report a case of recurrence of respiratory symptoms and positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing in a patient on an inpatient psychiatric unit occurring 42 days after the initial positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test, 38 days after initial symptom resolution, and 30 days after the first of 3 negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR tests. Over the course of the admission, the patient was safely initiated on clozapine. Recent literature on COVID-19's potential recurrence and neuropsychiatric effects is reviewed and implications for the management of COVID-19 on inpatient psychiatric units are discussed. In the era of COVID-19 and our still-developing understanding of this illness, psychiatrists' role as advocates and collaborators in our patients' physical health care has become even more critical.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Psychotic Disorders/complications , Psychotic Disorders/drug therapy , Adult , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Clozapine , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Hospitals, Psychiatric , Humans , Inpatients/psychology , Male , Mirtazapine/therapeutic use , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sertraline/therapeutic use , Suicide, Attempted
11.
Daru ; 29(1): 217-221, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130965

ABSTRACT

The social restrictions amid coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have posed a serious threat to mental health and have implications in the use of medications for mental health including antidepressants (ADs). This study investigated the trends in prescriptions and costs of various ADs in England during COVID-19 pandemic. National prescribing rates and net ingredient costs (NIC) of all ADs prescriptions during 2016 to 2020 were analyed. The total number of ADs prescriptions dispensed during COVID-19 pandemic (January to December 2020) were 78 million, 4 million more than in 2019 that costed NHS England £ 139 million more than in 2019. Sertraline, an SSRI antidepressant drug, alone accounted for an extra £113 million during 2020 than in 2019. The peak dispensing for ADs was observed in March 2020 while the total costs for AD drugs peaked in April 2020. The rising prescription costs for ADs during COVID-19 pandemic is a potential cause of concern, in particular the increasing use in adolescents and younger adults needs attention, who are at a higher risk of life-threatening adverse drug reactions.


Subject(s)
Antidepressive Agents/economics , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Costs/trends , Drug Prescriptions/economics , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/economics , Depression/epidemiology , England/epidemiology , Humans
14.
J Affect Disord ; 282: 252-254, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065258

ABSTRACT

Ketamine's rapid antisuicidal action has gathered significant clinical interest in treatment of depression though concerns exist that its actions occur through the Opioid pathway. A recent study additionally reported that Naltrexone blocks antisuicidal effects of Ketamine suggesting that its antisuicidal effects are also due to opioid mechanisms. We present a case of treatment refractory depression with recent suicide attempt and active suicidal ideations who was on an Opioid partial agonist, Buprenorphine, for management of pain. Patient responded to a trial of IV ketamine treatment with rapid improvement in suicidal thoughts. Patient's suicidal ideations decreased after first Ketamine treatment and resolved after second treatment while maintained on Buprenorphine. Our finding shows that Buprenorphine does not block Ketamine's effects on suicidal ideations and therefore Ketamine treatment could be provided safely in controlled environment to those with substance use disorders or with chronic pain while being maintained on Buprenorphine. Additionally, our case suggests that non-Opioid mechanisms may be involved in Ketamine's antidepressant effects and its response to suicidal ideations in those on Opioid partial agonists.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant , Ketamine , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Depressive Disorder, Treatment-Resistant/drug therapy , Humans , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Suicidal Ideation
15.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(9): 5199-5212, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065840

ABSTRACT

A prior meta-analysis showed that antidepressant use in major depressive disorder was associated with reduced plasma levels of several pro-inflammatory mediators, which have been associated with severe COVID-19. Recent studies also suggest that several antidepressants may inhibit acid sphingomyelinase activity, which may prevent the infection of epithelial cells with SARS-CoV-2, and that the SSRI fluoxetine may exert in-vitro antiviral effects on SARS-CoV-2. We examined the potential usefulness of antidepressant use in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in an observational multicenter retrospective cohort study conducted at AP-HP Greater Paris University hospitals. Of 7230 adults hospitalized for COVID-19, 345 patients (4.8%) received an antidepressant within 48 h of hospital admission. The primary endpoint was a composite of intubation or death. We compared this endpoint between patients who received antidepressants and those who did not in time-to-event analyses adjusted for patient characteristics, clinical and biological markers of disease severity, and other psychotropic medications. The primary analysis was a multivariable Cox model with inverse probability weighting. This analysis showed a significant association between antidepressant use and reduced risk of intubation or death (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43-0.73, p < 0.001). This association remained significant in multiple sensitivity analyses. Exploratory analyses suggest that this association was also significant for SSRI and non-SSRI antidepressants, and for fluoxetine, paroxetine, escitalopram, venlafaxine, and mirtazapine (all p < 0.05). These results suggest that antidepressant use could be associated with lower risk of death or intubation in patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Double-blind controlled randomized clinical trials of antidepressant medications for COVID-19 are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Humans , Intubation, Intratracheal , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Observational Studies as Topic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108486, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 community mitigation measures (e.g., stay-at-home orders) may worsen mental health and substance use-related harms such as opioid use disorder and overdose and limit access to medications for these conditions. We used nationally-representative data to assess dispensing of select substance use and mental health medications during the pandemic in the U.S. METHODS: IQVIA Total Patient Tracker data were used to calculate U.S. monthly numbers of unique patients dispensed buprenorphine, extended-release (ER) intramuscular naltrexone, naloxone, selective serotonin or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, and for comparison, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) between January 2019-May 2020. Forecasted estimates of number of unique patients dispensed medications, generated by exponential smoothing statistical forecasting, were compared to actual numbers of patients by month to examine access during mitigation measures (March 2020-May 2020). RESULTS: Between March 2020-May 2020, numbers of unique patients dispensed buprenorphine and numbers dispensed naloxone were within forecasted estimates. Numbers dispensed ER intramuscular naltrexone were significantly below forecasted estimates in March 2020 (-1039; 95 %CI:-1528 to -550), April 2020 (-2139; 95 %CI:-2629 to -1650), and May 2020 (-2498; 95 %CI:-2987 to -2009). Numbers dispensed antidepressants and benzodiazepines were significantly above forecasted estimates in March 2020 (977,063; 95 %CI:351,384 to 1,602,743 and 450,074; 95 % CI:189,999 to 710,149 additional patients, respectively), but were within forecasted estimates in April 2020-May 2020. Dispensing patterns for statins and ARBs were similar to those for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS: Ongoing concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on substance use and mental health underscore the need for innovative strategies to facilitate continued access to treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Forecasting , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Naltrexone/therapeutic use , Opiate Overdose/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
Riv Psichiatr ; 55(6): 337-341, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992941

ABSTRACT

Insomnia symptoms might affect about 60% of the Italian population. Insomnia is a "24 hours syndrome" and a risk factor for medical and mental disorders. It should always be assessed and treated in the clinical practice. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia is the first line treatment but its availability in Italy is scarce. Pharmacological options in Italy are: melatonin 2 mg prolonged release that should be the first choice in subjects ≥55 years old and used until 13 weeks; and for a short term use (≤4 weeks) Z-drugs or short-acting benzodiazepines (in subjects <65 years old) or a sedating antidepressant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Consensus , Epidemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Aids, Pharmaceutical/therapeutic use , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Aged , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , GABA Agonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Receptors, Melatonin/agonists , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/etiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/therapy , Societies, Scientific
19.
Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen ; 35: 1533317520960875, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793091

ABSTRACT

We present a case report to showcase that behavioral, cognitive, and functional decline may be associated with COVID-19 stay-home guidance among older adults with pre-existent cognitive impairment. In a functionally independent and physically active older adult with Mild Cognitive Impairment, there was worsening in depression and anxiety symptoms associated with the restrictions of COVID-19. Functional decline was also noted as assessed by Instrumental Activities of Daily Living. We discuss solutions to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 restrictions in this vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
Activities of Daily Living , Anxiety/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Social Isolation/psychology , Aged , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Exercise , Humans , Independent Living , Jogging , Loneliness , Male , Mirtazapine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/drug therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Telemedicine , Trazodone/therapeutic use
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