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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19336, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2118705

ABSTRACT

Recent literature on the mental health consequences of social distancing measures has found a substantial increase in self-reported sleep disorders, anxiety and depressive symptoms during lockdown periods. We investigate this issue with data on monthly purchases of psychotropic drugs from the universe of Italian pharmacies during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and find that purchases of mental health-related drugs have increased with respect to 2019. However, the excess volumes do not match the massive increase in anxiety and depressive disorders found in survey-based studies. We also study the interplay between mobility, measured with anonymized mobile phone data, and mental health and report no significant effect of mobility restrictions on antidepressants and anxiolytics purchases during 2020. We provide three potential mechanisms that could drive the discrepancy between self-reported mental health surveys and psychotropic drugs prescription registries: (1) stockpiling practices in the early phases of the pandemic; (2) the adoption of compensatory behavior and (3) unexpressed and unmet needs due to both demand- and supply-side shortages in healthcare services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Italy/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of knowledge regarding the actionable key predictive factors of homelessness in psychiatric populations. Therefore, we used a machine learning model to explore the REHABase database (for rehabilitation database-n = 3416), which is a cohort of users referred to French psychosocial rehabilitation centers in France. METHODS: First, we analyzed whether the different risk factors previously associated with homelessness in mental health were also significant risk factors in the REHABase. In the second step, we used unbiased classification and regression trees to determine the key predictors of homelessness. Post hoc analyses were performed to examine the importance of the predictors and to explore the impact of cognitive factors among the participants. RESULTS: &nbsp;First, risk factors that were previously found to be associated with homelessness were also significant risk factors in the REHABase. Among all the variables studied with a machine learning approach, the most robust variable in terms of predictive value was the nature of the psychotropic medication (sex/sex relative mean predictor importance: 22.8, σ = 3.4). Post hoc analyses revealed that first-generation antipsychotics (15.61%; p < 0.05 FDR corrected), loxapine (16.57%; p < 0.05 FWER corrected) and hypnotics (17.56%; p < 0.05 FWER corrected) were significantly associated with homelessness. Antidepressant medication was associated with a protective effect against housing deprivation (9.21%; p < 0.05 FWER corrected). CONCLUSIONS: Psychotropic medication was found to be an important predictor of homelessness in our REHABase cohort, particularly loxapine and hypnotics. On the other hand, the putative protective effect of antidepressants confirms the need for systematic screening of depression and anxiety in the homeless population.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , Homeless Persons , Loxapine , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Homeless Persons/psychology , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Machine Learning , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
3.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e062683, 2022 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064158

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Depression is a common mental disorder and the (global) leading cause of all non-fatal burden of disease worldwide. Currently, supported treatment for depression is antidepressant medication and different psychotherapeutic interventions. Many patients experience, however, adverse effects of antidepressant medication, while at the same time the access to psychotherapeutic interventions are limited. Many patients who suffer from depression turn to complementary medicine and among those modalities often spiritual healing. There is some evidence that consulting a spiritual healer can be beneficial for patients who suffer from depression, and that spiritual healing is associated with low risk. The aim of this protocol is to conduct a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) (spiritual healing as addition to usual care vs usual care alone) in preparation of a larger trial in adults with moderate depression, to examine feasibility and individuals' experience of spiritual healing. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study is a pilot RCT with two parallel groups. A total of 28 adult patients with moderate depression, diagnosed by the physician and according to the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale criteria will be randomised to spiritual healing in addition to usual care (n=14) or usual care alone (n=14). To determine if there is a statistical indication of an effect of healing warranting a full-scale study; the separation test will be used. To investigate participants' experience with spiritual healing, a qualitative study will be included using semistructured interviews. The data will be analysed based on a direct content analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol was approved by regional committees for medical and health research ethics by the identifier (63692). The results will be disseminated through open-access, peer-reviewed publications, in addition to stakeholders' reporting and presenting at conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Norwegian Centre for Research Data (845302) and clinicaltrials.gov (ID: NCT04766242).


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder , Spiritual Therapies , Adult , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Depression/complications , Depression/therapy , Depressive Disorder/drug therapy , Humans , Pilot Projects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
4.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0267423, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054304

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Clinical Depression and the subsequent low immunity is a comorbidity that can act as a risk factor for the severity of COVID-19 cases. Antidepressants such as Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are associated with immune-modulatory effects, which dismiss inflammatory responses and reduce lung tissue damage. The current systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the effect of antidepressant drugs on the prognosis and severity of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. METHODS: A systematic search was carried out in PubMed/Medline, EMBASE, and Scopus up to June 14, 2022. The following keywords were used: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "2019-nCoV", "SSRI", "SNRI", "TCA", "MAOI", and "Antidepressant". A fixed or random-effect model assessed the pooled risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. We considered P < 0.05 as statistically significant for publication bias. Data were analyzed by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, Version 2.0 (Biostat, Englewood, NJ). RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included in our systematic review. Five of them were experimental with 2350, and nine of them were observational with 290,950 participants. Eight out of fourteen articles revealed the effect of antidepressants on reducing the severity of COVID-19. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors drugs, including Fluvoxamine, Escitalopram, Fluoxetine, and Paroxetine, and among the Serotonin-norepinephrine inhibitors medications Venlafaxine, are reasonably associated with reduced risk of intubation or death. Five studies showed no significant effect, and only one high risk of bias article showed the negative effect of antidepressants on the prognosis of Covid-19. The meta-analysis of clinical trials showed that fluvoxamine could significantly decrease the severity outcomes of COVID-19 (RR: 0.763; 95% CI: 0.602-0.966, I2: 0.0). FINDINGS: Most evidence supports that the use of antidepressant medications, mainly Fluvoxamine, may decrease the severity and improve the outcome in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2. Some studies showed contradictory findings regarding the effects of antidepressants on the severity of COVID-19. Further clinical trials should be conducted to clarify the effects of antidepressants on the severity of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fluoxetine/therapeutic use , Fluvoxamine/therapeutic use , Humans , Norepinephrine , Paroxetine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Serotonin , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 1061274, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053393

ABSTRACT

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and treatment-resistant depression (TRD) represent a global source of societal and health burden. To advise proper management of inflammation-related depression among TRD patients, it is important to identify therapeutic clinical treatments. A key factor is related to proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin- (IL-) 1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms in MDD patients. Ketamine may provide an anti-inflammatory therapeutic strategy by targeting proinflammatory pathways associated with depressive disorders, which may be exacerbated in the ageing population with TRD. Objective: Despite a burgeoning body of literature demonstrating that inflammation is linked to TRD, there is still a lack of comprehensive research on the relationship between proinflammatory biomarkers and ketamine's antidepressant effect on TRD patients. Method: The Cochrane Library and PubMed/MEDLINE databases were systematically searched from inception up to February 1, 2022, adopting broad inclusion criteria to assess clinical topics related to the impact of ketamine on inflammatory cytokines in TRD patients. The present work is in compliance with the World Health Organization Rapid Review Guide. Results: Five out of the seven studies examined in this review show that ketamine infusion may reduce depressive symptoms with a quick start of effect on TRD patients. Based on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) scores, the overall response rate for ketamine was 56%; that is, 56% of those treated with ketamine had MADRS/HAM-D scores decreased by at least 50%. Conclusions: While the anti-inflammatory effects of ketamine modulate specific proinflammatory cytokines, its rapid antidepressant effect on TRD patients remains inconsistent. However, our study findings can provide a reliable basis for future research on how to improve systemic inflammatory immune disorders and mental health. We suggest that ketamine infusion may be part of a comprehensive treatment approach in TRD patients with elevated levels of depression-specific inflammatory biomarkers.


Subject(s)
Depressive Disorder, Major , Ketamine , Adult , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers , Cytokines , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-6 , Ketamine/pharmacology , Ketamine/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
6.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 78(10): 1601-1611, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035031

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The absence of specific treatments for COVID-19 leads to an intense global effort in the search for new therapeutic interventions and better clinical outcomes for patients. This review aimed to present a selection of accepted studies that reported the activity of antidepressant drugs belonging to the selective serotonin receptor inhibitor (SSRI) class for treating the novel coronavirus. METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed and SciELO databases using the following search strategies: [(coronavirus) OR (COVID) OR (SARS-CoV-2) AND (antidepressant) OR (serotonin) OR (selective serotonin receptor inhibitors)]. In the end, eleven articles were included. We also covered information obtained from ClinicalTrials.gov in our research. RESULTS: Although several clinical trials are ongoing, only a few drugs have been officially approved to treat the infection. Remdesivir, an antiviral drug, despite favorable preliminary results, has restricted the use due to the risk of toxicity and methodological flaws. Antidepressant drugs were able to reduce the risk of intubation or death related to COVID-19, decrease the need for intensive medical care, and severely inhibit viral titers by up to 99%. Among the SSRIs studied so far, fluoxetine and fluvoxamine have shown to be the most promising against SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: If successful, these drugs can substantially reduce hospitalization and mortality rates, as well as allow for fully outpatient treatment for mild-to-moderate infections. Thus, repositioning SSRIs can provide benefits when faced with a rapidly evolving pandemic such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fluoxetine , Fluvoxamine , Humans , Receptors, Serotonin , SARS-CoV-2 , Serotonin , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use
7.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 306, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029710

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic may have had significant mental health consequences for military personnel, which is a population already exposed to psychological stress. To assess the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed the dispensing of three classes of psychotropic drugs (anxiolytics, hypnotics, and antidepressants) among French military personnel. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted using the individualized medico-administrative data of persons insured by the National Military Social Security Fund from the National Health Data System. All active French military personnel aged 18-64 who received outpatient care and to whom drugs were dispensed between January 1, 2019, and April 30, 2021, were included from the French national health database. Rate ratios of dispensed anxiolytics, hypnotics and antidepressants (based on drug reimbursement) were estimated from negative binomial regressions before and after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-one thousand seven hundred eleven individuals were included. Overall, 45,148 military personnel were reimbursed for anxiolytics, 10,637 for hypnotics, and 4328 for antidepressants. Drugs were dispensed at a higher rate in 2020 and 2021 than in 2019. There was a notable peak at the beginning of the first lockdown followed by a decrease limited to the duration of the first lockdown. During the first lockdown only, there were temporary phenomena including a brief increase in drug dispensing during the first week followed by a decrease during the rest of lockdown, possibly corresponding to a stocking-up effect. For the study period overall, while there was a significant downward trend in psychotropic drug dispensing before the occurrence of COVID-19 (p < 0.001), the pandemic period was associated with an increase in dispensed anxiolytics (rate ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04, p < 0.05), hypnotics (rate ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.11-1.16, p < 0.001) and antidepressants (rate ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.10-1.13, p < 0.001) in the military population. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has probably had a significant impact on the mental health of French military personnel, as suggested by the trends in dispensed psychotropic drugs. The implementation of mental health prevention measures should be investigated for this population.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , COVID-19 , Military Personnel , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Military Personnel/psychology , Pandemics , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies
8.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 32(7): 408-414, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017634

ABSTRACT

Objective: Increased mental health problems among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted psychotropic medication use. This study describes trends in monthly psychotropic medications before and early in the COVID-19 pandemic among 2- to 17-year-old children and adolescents with mental health disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using the 2019-2020 IQVIA™ prescription and medical commercial claims data to estimate the proportion of children and adolescents with any psychotropic prescription in the month out of all with any mental health-related medical or prescription services in the month and the year-over-year percent change. We assessed monthly proportions of youth who filled a psychotropic prescription overall and by psychotropic class, stratified by age and gender. Results: Of the 8,896,713 children and adolescents in the sample, 24.7% received psychotropic medication during the study period. The proportion of the cohort prescribed a psychotropic medication in a given month averaged 27%-28% from January 2019 to February 2020, peaked at 36.9% in April 2020, and gradually declined to 28.7% in September 2020. The largest year-over-year percent change was in April for antipsychotic (41.9%) and antidepressant (37.9%) medication, which remained higher in September 2020 compared to September 2019, particularly among ages 6 years or older and females. Conclusion: The proportion of youth with a psychotropic prescription increased at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, later returning to prepandemic levels. However, antipsychotics and antidepressants remained higher than prepandemic, highlighting the need to further understand the long-lasting effects of the pandemic on children and adolescents.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Mental Health Services , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prescriptions , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 12920, 2022 07 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960505

ABSTRACT

During the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, symptoms of depression are commonly documented among both symptomatic and asymptomatic quarantined COVID-19 patients. Despite that many of the FDA-approved drugs have been showed anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity in vitro and remarkable efficacy against COVID-19 in clinical trials, no pharmaceutical products have yet been declared to be fully effective for treating COVID-19. Antidepressants comprise five major drug classes for the treatment of depression, neuralgia, migraine prophylaxis, and eating disorders which are frequently reported symptoms in COVID-19 patients. Herein, the efficacy of eight frequently prescribed FDA-approved antidepressants on the inhibition of both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV was assessed. Additionally, the in vitro anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-MERS-CoV activities were evaluated. Furthermore, molecular docking studies have been performed for these drugs against the spike (S) and main protease (Mpro) pockets of both SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV. Results showed that Amitriptyline, Imipramine, Paroxetine, and Sertraline had potential anti-viral activities. Our findings suggested that the aforementioned drugs deserve more in vitro and in vivo studies targeting COVID-19 especially for those patients suffering from depression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Drugs Aging ; 39(8): 657-669, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930610

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psychotropic medicine utilisation in older adults continues to be of interest because of overuse and concerns surrounding its safety and efficacy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterise the utilisation of psychotropic medicines in older people in New Zealand. METHODS: We conducted a repeated cross-sectional analysis of national dispensing data from 1 January, 2005 to 31 December, 2019. We defined utilisation using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification defined daily dose system. Utilisation was measured in terms of the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 older people per day (TOPD). RESULTS: Overall, the utilisation of psychotropic medicines increased marginally by 0.42% between 2005 and 2019. The utilisation increased for antidepressants (72.42 to 75.21 DDD/TOPD) and antipsychotics (6.06-19.04 DDD/TOPD). In contrast, the utilisation of hypnotics and sedatives (53.74-38.90 DDD/TOPD) and anxiolytics decreased (10.20-9.87 DDD/TOPD). The utilisation of atypical antipsychotics increased (4.06-18.72 DDD/TOPD), with the highest percentage change in DDD/TOPD contributed by olanzapine (520.6 %). In comparison, utilisation of typical antipsychotics was relatively stable (2.00-2.06 DDD/TOPD). The utilisation of venlafaxine increased remarkably by 5.7 times between 2005 and 2019. The utilisation of zopiclone was far greater than that of other hypnotics in 2019. CONCLUSIONS: There was only a marginal increase in psychotropic medicines utilisation from 2005 to 2019 in older adults in New Zealand. There was a five-fold increase in the utilisation of antipsychotic medicines. Continued monitoring of psychotropic medicine utilisation will be of interest to understand the utilisation of antidepressants and antipsychotic medicines during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic year.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Aged , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives , New Zealand , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
12.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(7): e25959, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929864

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a prevalent and debilitating disease that may affect medication adherence and thus maternal health and vertical transmission among women with HIV. We assessed the feasibility of a trial of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) versus antidepressant medication (ADM) to treat PPD and/or anxiety among postpartum women with HIV in Lusaka, Zambia. METHODS: Between 29 October 2019 and 8 September 2020, we pre-screened women 6-8 weeks after delivery with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and diagnosed PPD or anxiety with the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Consenting participants were randomized 1:1 to up to 11 sessions of IPT or daily self-administered sertraline and followed for 24 weeks. We assessed EPDS score, Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-S) and medication side effects at each visit and measured maternal HIV viral load at baseline and final study visit. Retention, visit adherence, change in EPDS, CGI-S and log viral load were compared between groups with t-tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests; we report mean differences, relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. A participant satisfaction survey assessed trial acceptability. RESULTS: 78/80 (98%) participants were retained at the final study visit. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, visit adherence was greater among women allocated to ADM (9.9 visits, SD 2.2) versus IPT (8.9 visits, SD 2.4; p = 0.06). EPDS scores decreased from baseline to final visit overall, though mean change was greater in the IPT group (-13.8 points, SD 4.7) compared to the ADM group (-11.4 points, SD 5.5; p = 0.04). Both groups showed similar changes in mean log viral load from baseline to final study visit (mean difference -0.43, 95% CI -0.32, 1.18; p = 0.48). In the IPT group, viral load decreased significantly from baseline (0.9 log copies/ml, SD 1.7) to final visit (0.2 log copies/ml, SD 0.9; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study demonstrates that a trial of two forms of PPD treatment is feasible and acceptable among women with HIV in Zambia. IPT and ADM both improved measures of depression severity; however, a full-scale trial is required to determine whether treatment of PPD and anxiety improves maternal-infant HIV outcomes.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Depression, Postpartum , HIV Infections , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/drug therapy , Depression, Postpartum/diagnosis , Depression, Postpartum/drug therapy , Feasibility Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Zambia/epidemiology
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 315: 114704, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914934

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Few studies investigated the impact of the pandemic on antidepressant (AD) use. METHODS: The Social and Health Information System of Friuli Venezia Giulia region, Italy, provided data on AD use. Sex, age, AD class and month used the amount of AD prescriptions, measured by defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants per day, to compare AD use in 2020 with the period 2015-2019. A linear trend model predicted AD use for 2020, based on years 2015-2019. RESULTS: AD use was on average 20% higher in each month of 2020 when compared with the same month for the period 2015-2019, with an increase of more than 30% in the first four and in the last two months of 2020. The observed AD use in 2020 was higher than predicted, particularly in men, and in the 30-59 years age group. LIMITATIONS: Descriptive study of AD use without analysis of data at the individual level. No information on psychiatric diagnoses of AD users. CONCLUSION: AD use was higher in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Further research is warranted to understand if this may be related to a rise in mental disorders in the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prescriptions
14.
Drugs Aging ; 39(6): 417-439, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906580

ABSTRACT

Depression is one of the most frequent and burdensome non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), across all stages. Even when its severity is mild, PD depression has a great impact on quality of life for these patients and their caregivers. Accordingly, accurate diagnosis, supported by validated scales, identification of risk factors, and recognition of motor and non-motor symptoms comorbid to depression are critical to understanding the neurobiology of depression, which in turn determines the effectiveness of dopaminergic drugs, antidepressants and non-pharmacological interventions. Recent advances using in vivo functional and structural imaging demonstrate that PD depression is underpinned by dysfunction of limbic networks and monoaminergic systems, depending on the stage of PD and its associated symptoms, including apathy, anxiety, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), cognitive impairment and dementia. In particular, the evolution of serotonergic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic dysfunction and abnormalities of limbic circuits across time, involving the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortices, amygdala, thalamus and ventral striatum, help to delineate the variable expression of depression in patients with prodromal, early and advanced PD. Evidence is accumulating to support the use of dual serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (desipramine, nortriptyline, venlafaxine) in patients with PD and moderate to severe depression, while selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and cognitive behavioral therapy may also be considered. In all patients, recent findings advocate that optimization of dopamine replacement therapy and evaluation of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus to improve motor symptoms represents an important first step, in addition to physical activity. Overall, this review indicates that increasing understanding of neurobiological changes help to implement a roadmap of tailored interventions for patients with PD and depression, depending on the stage and comorbid symptoms underlying PD subtypes and their prognosis.


Subject(s)
Apathy , Parkinson Disease , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Apathy/physiology , Depression/complications , Depression/therapy , Humans , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Quality of Life
15.
Drugs Aging ; 39(6): 467-475, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899385

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To limit the introduction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) into nursing homes, restrictive measures and social distancing were implemented; however, these caused an increase in affective disorders such as depression and anxiety and an alteration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. Therefore, it is expected that prescription trends of psychotropic drugs in nursing homes during the pandemic may have changed significantly. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to compare patterns of prescribing psychotropic drugs in nursing homes during the COVID-19 pandemic to those of the pre-pandemic period. METHODS: This cross-sectional multicenter study was conducted in geriatric units and psychogeriatric units in seven nursing homes in Gipuzkoa, Spain. On 1 March, 2020, data regarding 511 residents in geriatric units and 163 in psychogeriatric units were recorded. This study examined utilization percentages for psychotropic drugs before the pandemic (April 2018-March 2020) and during the pandemic (April 2020-March 2021) in light of projected usage based on previous years. Following the Anatomical, Therapeutic, Chemical Classification System, four therapeutic groups were analyzed: antipsychotics (N05A), benzodiazepines (N05B and N05C), antidepressants (N06A), and antiepileptic drugs (N03A). RESULTS: In the case of geriatric units, a downward trend of prescription was reversed for antipsychotics (-0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.41, 0.60). Benzodiazepine use also decreased less than expected (-2.00; 95% CI -3.00, -1.00). Antidepressant use increased more than predicted (0.02; 95% CI -0.97, 1.01), as did antiepileptic drug use (2.93; 95% CI 2.27, 3.60). In the psychogeriatric units, the drop in antipsychotic utilization was less than expected (-2.31; 95% CI -3.68, -0.93). Although it was expected that the prescription of benzodiazepines would decrease, usage remained roughly the same (-0.28; 95% CI -2.40, 2.34). Utilization of antidepressants (8.57; 95% CI 6.89, 10.24) and antiepileptic drugs (6.10; 95% CI 3.20, 9.00) increased significantly, which was expected, based on the forecast. CONCLUSIONS: For all categories, usage of psychotropic drugs was higher than anticipated based on the forecast; this increase might be related to the worsening of emotional and behavioral disorders caused by the restrictive measures of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents , COVID-19 , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Utilization , Humans , Nursing Homes , Pandemics , Psychotropic Drugs/therapeutic use
16.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892924

ABSTRACT

Excessive corticosterone (CORT), resulting from a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, is associated with cognitive impairment and behavioral changes, including depression. In Korean oriental medicine, Pedicularis resupinata is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. However, the antidepressant properties of P. resupinata have not been well characterized. Here, the antidepressant-like effects of P. resupinata extract (PRE) were evaluated in terms of CORT-induced depression using in vivo models. HPLC confirmed that acteoside, a phenylethanoid glycoside, was the main compound from PRE. Male ICR mice (8 weeks old) were injected with CORT (40 mg/kg, i.p.) and orally administered PRE daily (30, 100, and 300 mg/kg) for 21 consecutive days. Depressive-like behaviors were evaluated using the open-field test, sucrose preference test, passive avoidance test, tail suspension test, and forced swim test. Treatment with a high dose of PRE significantly alleviated CORT-induced, depressive-like behaviors in mice. Additionally, repeated CORT injection markedly reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, whereas total glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and GR phosphorylation at serine 211 were significantly increased in the mice hippocampus but improved by PRE treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that PRE has potential antidepressant-like effects in CORT-induced, depressive-like behavior in mice.


Subject(s)
Corticosterone , Pedicularis , Animals , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Behavior, Animal , Corticosterone/adverse effects , Depression/chemically induced , Depression/drug therapy , Depression/psychology , Disease Models, Animal , Hippocampus , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred ICR , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Receptors, Glucocorticoid
17.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 88(4): 1567-1589, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840337

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Growing evidence suggests an association between the use of sedative-hypnotic medications and risk of dementia. The aim of this study is to examine this association using a meta-analysis approach. METHODS: MEDLINE (PubMed) and Scopus were systematically searched for studies published in English only. The quality of studies was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and an overall odds ratio was pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: A total of 35 articles were included in the analysis. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for dementia from all records were (OR; 1.33, 95% CI 1.19-1.49) for benzodiazepine (BZD) combined use (Subgroup-1), (OR: 1.46, 95% CI 1.23-1.73) for short-acting BZD use (Subgroup-2), (OR: 1.72, 95% CI 1.48-1.99) for long-acting BZD use (Subgroup-3), (OR: 1.13, 95% CI 0.97-1.32) for BZDs without specification of duration of action (Subgroup-4), (OR: 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.38) for the combined BZDs and Z-drugs, (OR: 1.43, 95% CI 1.17-1.74) for Z-drugs only, (OR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.88-1.46) for antidepressant use, (OR: 0.97, 95% CI 0.68-1.39) for antipsychotic use and (OR: 0.98, 95% CI 0.85-1.13) for anticonvulsant use. When sensitivity analysis was performed, association between overall use of BZDs and short-acting BZDs with the increased risk of dementia disappeared after exclusion of studies that were not adjusted for age covariate (OR: 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.44) and (OR: 1.22, 95% CI 0.75-2.01), respectively. Adjustment for protopathic bias by introduction of a lag period showed no evidence of increased risk of dementia with the use of BZDs (Subgroup-1) (OR: 1.14, 95% CI 0.82-1.58), Z-drugs (OR: 1.29, 95% CI 0.78-2.13), and combined BZDs and Z-drugs (OR: 1.51, 95% CI 0.91-2.53). Combined use of BZDs and Z-drugs showed more positive association when only studies of non-user design were analysed (OR: 2.75, 95% CI 2.23-3.39). CONCLUSIONS: All the investigated sedative-hypnotics showed no association with increased risk of dementia except for BZDs. However, the observed association with BZDs did not persist after exclusion of studies with potential reverse causation and confounding by indication. Therefore, this association needs to be assessed carefully in future research.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/adverse effects , Dementia/chemically induced , Dementia/drug therapy , Dementia/epidemiology , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/adverse effects , Odds Ratio
18.
Diabet Med ; 39(8): e14852, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794713

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To examine whether the incidence rates of diagnosed depression, anxiety disorders and stress reactions, as well as prescription rates of antidepressants and anxiolytics were higher during the COVID-19 pandemic than before in persons with type 2 diabetes in Germany. Contrary to earlier studies, clinical diagnoses of psychiatric disorders (ICD classification) were used. METHODS: The German Disease Analyzer (DA) database is an outpatient database containing routine data on patients´ diseases and treatments provided by a representative panel of physician practices selected from across Germany. We assessed incidence rates of depressive disorders (ICD-10: F32, F33), anxiety disorders (F41) and stress reactions (F43) in quarters from January 2019 to March 2021 in 95,765 people with type 2 diabetes included in the DA in 2019 (mean age 68.9 years, 58% men). Prescription rates of antidepressants and anxiolytics in quarters from January 2020 to March 2021 were compared with prescription rates from 1 year earlier. RESULTS: During the study period, the incidence rate of newly diagnosed depressive disorders in persons with type 2 diabetes declined slightly, while the incidence rates of anxiety and stress disorders remained largely constant. The rates of new prescriptions for antidepressants and anxiolytics were lower in all quarters of 2020 and in the first quarter of 2021 than in the quarters 1 year earlier. Diabetes-related complications were more prevalent in persons with incident psychiatric disorders than in those without. CONCLUSIONS: No increase in the incidence rates of clinically diagnosed psychiatric disorders was observed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany in persons with type 2 diabetes.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Mental Disorders , Aged , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(8)2022 04 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792719

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main objective of this research was to analyze whether there were changes in the use of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and hypnotic-sedative drugs, in the context of primary health care, during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-pandemic period. We further sought to study consumption in vulnerable population groups. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was performed in a primary health district of Spain. The data were obtained from the Andalusian Public Health System database, for the pre-COVID-19 period, from March 2019 to February 2020, and for the COVID-19 period, from March 2020 to February 2021. Univariant and bivariant analyses were performed. The effect size was measured using the Rosenthal test. RESULTS: While the total number of medical prescriptions decreased by 2.5% in the COVID-19 period, the prescriptions of psychiatric drugs increased by 6.1%. The increase in the dose consumption per 1000 inhabitants (DHD) was highest for anxiolytics (7.2%), followed by hypnotic-sedatives (5.6%) and antidepressants (3.7%). The consumption of antidepressants, anxiolytics, and sedative-hypnotic drugs was higher in women, older people, and rural areas and lower in areas with social transformation needs, with these differences being statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of psychiatric drugs has increased over the COVID-19 pandemic, especially in women, older people, and rural areas. Thus, we should reflect on the adequate use of these drugs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Anxiety Agents , COVID-19 , Aged , Anti-Anxiety Agents/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Primary Health Care
20.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 42(3): 284-292, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788555

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Studies for repurposed drugs in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2-infected and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are ongoing. According to preclinical research, antidepressants (ADs) might be useful in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a scoping review including clinical studies on AD effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. FINDING/RESULTS: As of January 2, 2022, we found 14 clinical studies, which could be included into this review. Among them, there were 2 randomized, placebo-controlled studies and 2 prospective parallel-group studies about the efficacy/effectiveness and tolerability of fluvoxamine. The remaining studies were mainly retrospective studies considering COVID-19 hospital populations predominantly exposed to fluoxetine (N = 3), other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), and trazodone. The vast majority were hospital studies and assessed COVID-19 severity (morbidity) and mortality as primary endpoints. The only outpatient study (fluvoxamine) investigated the COVID-19-related hospitalization rate, and 1 psychiatric hospital study (SSRI, SNRI, trazodone) focused on the SARS-CoV-2 infection rate. IMPLICATIONS/CONCLUSIONS: At present, the best evidence of an "anti-COVID-19" potential of ADs exists for fluvoxamine and, to a lesser extent, for fluoxetine. Preliminary evidence had found that patients exposed to SSRI or SNRI substance classes might have a reduced mortality risk and that trazodone might reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection rates. Three studies found no relevant influence of ADs on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, and 1 study described increased mortality. The latter study, however, did not differentiate between psychotropic medication and ADs. Tricyclics and monoamine oxidase inhibitors are still absolute "dark zones" in COVID-19 research. Further controlled studies testing the effectiveness/efficacy and tolerability/safety (as well as the treatment timing and duration) of different AD substance classes in COVID-19 and post/long-COVID patients of various populations are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Serotonin and Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitors , Trazodone , Antidepressive Agents/pharmacology , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Fluoxetine/pharmacology , Fluvoxamine/pharmacology , Fluvoxamine/therapeutic use , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/adverse effects
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