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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(5)2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875695

ABSTRACT

Oral fungal infections are a worldwide healthcare problem. Although Candida albicans is still the most common yeast involved in the infections of oral cavity, non-Candida albicans Candida species (NCACs) have been highly related to these infections, particularly in older, immunosuppressed or patients with long exposure to antimicrobial drugs. The goal of this work was to perform a quick epidemiological and mycological study on the oral samples collected from a laboratory of a hospital in Slovakia, for 60 days. The samples' identification was performed by Germ-tube formation test, CHROMID® Candida, Auxacolor 2, ID 32C automated method, and the antifungal susceptibility testing determined by E-test®. Results confirm that comparing with bacteria, yeasts still occur in the lower number, but there is a high rate of antifungal resistance (81.6%)-to, at least one drug-among the collected samples, particularly to azoles and 5'-FC, which is clinically noteworthy.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Candida , Aged , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Fluconazole , Hospitals , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Prevalence , Slovakia/epidemiology
2.
Med Mycol ; 60(5)2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831252

ABSTRACT

Studies demonstrated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the prevalence and susceptibility profiles of bacterial and fungal organisms. We analyzed 4821 invasive fungal isolates collected during 2018, 2019, and 2020 in 48 hospitals worldwide to evaluate the impact of this event in the occurrence and susceptibility rates of common fungal species. Isolates were tested using the CLSI broth microdilution method. While the percentage of total isolates that were C. glabrata (n = 710 isolates) or C. krusei (n = 112) slightly increased in 2020, the percentage for C. parapsilosis (n = 542), A. fumigatus (n = 416), and C. lusitaniae (n = 84) significantly decreased (P < .05). Fluconazole resistance in C. glabrata decreased from 5.8% in 2018-2019 to 2.0% in 2020, mainly due to fewer hospitals in the US having these isolates (5 vs. 1 hospital). Conversely, higher fluconazole-resistance rates were noted for C. parapsilosis (13.9 vs. 9.8%) and C. tropicalis (3.5 vs. 0.7%; P < .05) during 2020. Voriconazole resistance also increased for these species. Echinocandin resistance was unchanged among Candida spp. Voriconazole susceptibility rates in A. fumigatus were similar in these two periods (91.7% in 2018 and 2019 vs. 93.0% in 2020). Changes were also noticed in the organisms with smaller numbers of collected isolates. We observed variations in the occurrence of organisms submitted to a global surveillance and the susceptibility patterns for some organism-antifungal combinations. As the COVID-19 pandemic is still ongoing, the impact of this event must continue to be monitored to guide treatment of patients affected by bacterial and fungal infections. LAY SUMMARY: Secondary infections were documented in COVID-19 patients. We compared the prevalence of invasive fungal isolates consecutively collected in 48 worldwide hospitals and their susceptibility patterns between 2020, the year of the global COVID-19 pandemic, and the two prior years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Animals , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/veterinary , Candida glabrata , Candida parapsilosis , Candida tropicalis , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Invasive Fungal Infections/veterinary , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary , Pandemics , Voriconazole/pharmacology , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
3.
Mycoses ; 65(6): 643-649, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Candida auris a frequently multidrug-resistant yeast species that poses a global health threat due to its high potential for hospital outbreaks. While C. auris has become endemic in parts of Asia and Africa, transmissions have so far rarely been reported in Western Europe except for Great Britain and Spain. We describe the first documented patient-to-patient transmission of C. auris in Germany in a COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) and infection control measures implemented to prevent further spread of the pathogen. METHODS: Identification of C. auris was performed by MALDI-TOF and confirmed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility testing was carried out. We conducted repeated cross-sectional examinations for the presence of C. auris in the patients of the affected ICU and investigated possible routes of transmission. RESULTS: The index patient had been transferred to Germany from a hospital in Northern Africa and was found to be colonised with C. auris. The contact patient developed C. auris sepsis. Infection prevention and control (IPC) measures included strict isolation of the two C. auris patients and regular screening of non-affected patients. No further case occurred during the subsequent weeks. Reusable blades used in video laryngoscope-guided intubation were considered as the most likely vehicle of transmission. CONCLUSIONS: In view of its high risk of transmission, vigilance regarding C. auris colonisation in patients referred from endemic countries is crucial. Strict and immediate IPC measures may have the potential to prevent C. auris outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candida , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Candida/genetics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
4.
Mycoses ; 65(6): 613-624, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant pathogen in intensive care settings (ICU). During the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic, ICU admissions were overwhelmed, possibly contributing to the C. auris outbreak in COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: The present systematic review addresses the prevalence, underlying diseases, iatrogenic risk factors, treatment and outcome of C. auris infections in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science and LitCovid databases were systematically searched with appropriate keywords from 1 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. RESULTS: A total of 97 cases of C. auris were identified in COVID-19 patients. The pooled prevalence of C. auris infections (encompassing candidemia and non-candidemia cases) in COVID-19 patients was 14%. The major underlying diseases were diabetes mellitus (42.7%), hypertension (32.9%) and obesity (14.6%), followed by the iatrogenic risk factors such as a central venous catheter (76.8%%), intensive care unit (ICU) stay (75.6%) and broad-spectrum antibiotic usage (74.3%). There were no significant differences in underlying disease and iatrogenic risk factors among C. auris non-candidemia/colonisation and C. auris candidemia cases. The mortality rate of the total cohort is 44.4%, whereas, in C. auris candidemia patients, the mortality was 64.7%. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the prevalence of C. auris infections remains unchanged in the COVID-19 pandemic. Hospital-acquired risk factors may contribute to the clinical illness. Proper infection control practices and hospital surveillance may stop future hospital outbreaks during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidemia , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Candida , Candidemia/drug therapy , Candidemia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Humans , Iatrogenic Disease/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Microb Pathog ; 166: 105520, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778376

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is attributable to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been causing a worldwide health issue. Airways colonization by Candida spp. is prevalent among patients on automatic ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs). This research aimed to ascertain the risk factors and roles of Candida spp. respiratory tract colonization, and Candida lung infection during the progression of COVID-19 pneumonia in critically ill patients. In total, Candida spp. were recovered in 69 from 100 immunosuppressed patients with COVID-19. Bronchoscopy was used to collect the Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens. For the identification of Candida spp. PCR sequencing was done using the ITS1 and ITS4 primers. The amplification of the HWP1 gene was conducted to identify the Candida albicans complex. The antifungal activities of fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against Candida spp. were evaluated using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M60. In 63.77% of the patients, Candida respiratory colonization at D0 and D14 had no impact on the severity of COVID-19. In comparison to C. albicans strains, Candida respiratory disorder with C. glabrata had influenced the severity of COVID-19 for critically ill patients following adjustment for the risk factors of COVID-19 (P < 0.05). Amphotericin B and caspofungin showed superior activity against all Candida spp. All antifungal agents showed 100% sensitivity against the two C. africana strains. Our observation on patients who used automatic ventilation, respiratory colonization by Candida spp. was not seen to influence the infection or death caused by COVID-19. Amphotericin B and caspofungin showed superior activity against all Candida spp. and were recommended for the treatment regime of pulmonary candidiasis associated with COVID-19 infection. Although "Candida pneumonia" is rarely being reported in critically ill patients, Candida airway colonization mainly by Candida albicans is common especially among patients with diabetes, malignancies, and kidney disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidiasis , Pneumonia , Amphotericin B , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida/genetics , Candida albicans , Candida glabrata , Candidiasis/microbiology , Caspofungin/therapeutic use , Critical Illness , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Humans , Lung , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pneumonia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(2): e0164221, 2022 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774934

ABSTRACT

Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of yeasts belonging to the Candida genus, there is an urgent need to discover antifungal agents directed at alternative molecular targets. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the capacity of three different series of synthetic compounds to inhibit the Candida glabrata enzyme denominated 3-hydroxy-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase and thus affect ergosterol synthesis and yeast viability. Compounds 1c (α-asarone-related) and 5b (with a pyrrolic core) were selected as the best antifungal candidates among over 20 synthetic compounds studied. Both inhibited the growth of fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible C. glabrata strains. A yeast growth rescue experiment based on the addition of exogenous ergosterol showed that the compounds act by inhibiting the mevalonate synthesis pathway. A greater recovery of yeast growth occurred for the C. glabrata 43 fluconazole-resistant (versus fluconazole-susceptible) strain and after treatment with 1c (versus 5b). Given that the compounds decreased the concentration of ergosterol in the yeast strains, they probably target ergosterol synthesis. According to the docking analysis, the inhibitory effect of 1c and 5b could possibly be mediated by their interaction with the amino acid residues of the catalytic site of the enzyme. Since 1c displayed higher binding energy than α-asarone and 5b, it is the best candidate for further research, which should include structural modifications to increase its specificity and potency. The derivatives could then be examined with in vivo animal models using a therapeutic dose. IMPORTANCE Within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is currently an epidemiological alert in health care services due to outbreaks of Candida auris, Candida glabrata, and other fungal species multiresistant to conventional antifungals. Therefore, it is important to propose alternative molecular targets, as well as new antifungals. The three series of synthetic compounds herein designed and synthesized are inhibitors of ergosterol synthesis in yeasts. Of the more than 20 compounds studied, two were selected as the best antifungal candidates. These compounds were able to inhibit the growth and synthesis of ergosterol in C. glabrata strains, whether susceptible or resistant to fluconazole. The rational design of antifungal compounds derived from clinical drugs (statins, fibrates, etc.) has many advantages. Future studies are needed to modify the structure of the two present test compounds to obtain safer and less toxic antifungals. Moreover, it is important to carry out a more in-depth mechanistic approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candida glabrata , Acyl Coenzyme A , Animals , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida glabrata/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Ergosterol/metabolism , Fibric Acids/metabolism , Fluconazole/metabolism , Fluconazole/pharmacology , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/chemistry , Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases/metabolism , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , Pyrroles/metabolism , Pyrroles/pharmacology
7.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 45, 2022 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731546

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 is difficult to distinguish from other viral and bacterial etiologies. Broad-spectrum antimicrobials are frequently prescribed to patients hospitalized with COVID-19 which potentially acts as a catalyst for the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis during the first 18 months of the pandemic to quantify the prevalence and types of resistant co-infecting organisms in patients with COVID-19 and explore differences across hospital and geographic settings. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science (BioSIS), and Scopus from November 1, 2019 to May 28, 2021 to identify relevant articles pertaining to resistant co-infections in patients with laboratory confirmed SARS-CoV-2. Patient- and study-level analyses were conducted. We calculated pooled prevalence estimates of co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms using random effects models. Stratified meta-analysis by hospital and geographic setting was also performed to elucidate any differences. RESULTS: Of 1331 articles identified, 38 met inclusion criteria. A total of 1959 unique isolates were identified with 29% (569) resistant organisms identified. Co-infection with resistant bacterial or fungal organisms ranged from 0.2 to 100% among included studies. Pooled prevalence of co-infection with resistant bacterial and fungal organisms was 24% (95% CI 8-40%; n = 25 studies: I2 = 99%) and 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.6%; n = 8 studies: I2 = 78%), respectively. Among multi-drug resistant organisms, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and multi-drug resistant Candida auris were most commonly reported. Stratified analyses found higher proportions of AMR outside of Europe and in ICU settings, though these results were not statistically significant. Patient-level analysis demonstrated > 50% (n = 58) mortality, whereby all but 6 patients were infected with a resistant organism. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 18 months of the pandemic, AMR prevalence was high in COVID-19 patients and varied by hospital and geography although there was substantial heterogeneity. Given the variation in patient populations within these studies, clinical settings, practice patterns, and definitions of AMR, further research is warranted to quantify AMR in COVID-19 patients to improve surveillance programs, infection prevention and control practices and antimicrobial stewardship programs globally.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/drug effects , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19/complications , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mycoses/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/classification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , Bacterial Infections/etiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Fungi/classification , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/genetics , Fungi/isolation & purification , Humans , Mycoses/etiology , Mycoses/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
8.
Mycoses ; 65(4): 458-465, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is associated with increased mortality. Cases of CAPA caused by azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus strains have been reported. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the twelve-month CAPA prevalence in a German tertiary care hospital and to characterise clinical A. fumigatus isolates from two German hospitals by antifungal susceptibility testing and microsatellite genotyping. PATIENTS/METHODS: Retrospective observational study in critically ill adults from intensive care units with COVID-19 from 17 February 2020 until 16 February 2021 and collection of A. fumigatus isolates from two German centres. EUCAST broth microdilution for four azole compounds and microsatellite PCR with nine markers were performed for each collected isolate (N = 27) and additional for three non-COVID A. fumigatus isolates. RESULTS: welve-month CAPA prevalence was 7.2% (30/414), and the rate of azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates from patients with CAPA was 3.7% with detection of one TR34/L98H mutation. The microsatellite analysis revealed no major clustering of the isolates. Sequential isolates mainly showed the same genotype over time. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate similar CAPA prevalence to other reports and a low azole-resistance rate. Genotyping of A. fumigatus showed polyclonal distribution except for sequential isolates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus fumigatus , Azoles/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Fungal/genetics , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology
9.
Med Mycol ; 60(4)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684751

ABSTRACT

Candida auris is an emerging, multi drug resistant fungal pathogen that has caused infectious outbreaks in over 45 countries since its first isolation over a decade ago, leading to in-hospital crude mortality rates as high as 72%. The fungus is also acclimated to disinfection procedures and persists for weeks in nosocomial ecosystems. Alarmingly, the outbreaks of C. auris infections in Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients have also been reported. The pathogenicity, drug resistance and global spread of C. auris have led to an urgent exploration of novel, candidate antifungal agents for C. auris therapeutics. This narrative review codifies the emerging data on the following new/emerging antifungal compounds and strategies: antimicrobial peptides, combinational therapy, immunotherapy, metals and nano particles, natural compounds, and repurposed drugs. Encouragingly, a vast majority of these exhibit excellent anti- C. auris properties, with promising drugs now in the pipeline in various stages of development. Nevertheless, further research on the modes of action, toxicity, and the dosage of the new formulations are warranted. Studies are needed with representation from all five C. auris clades, so as to produce data of grater relevance, and broader significance and validity. LAY SUMMARY: Elimination of Candida auris that causes deadly infections to susceptible individuals is extremely challenging due to the lack of effective treatment options. Promising, new antifungal agents and strategies are being developed and further refinement will facilitate their clinical use in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candida , Animals , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/veterinary , Ecosystem , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/veterinary
10.
Brief Bioinform ; 23(2)2022 03 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684526

ABSTRACT

The application of machine intelligence in biological sciences has led to the development of several automated tools, thus enabling rapid drug discovery. Adding to this development is the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, due to which researchers working in the field of artificial intelligence have acquired an active interest in finding machine learning-guided solutions for diseases like mucormycosis, which has emerged as an important post-COVID-19 fungal complication, especially in immunocompromised patients. On these lines, we have proposed a temporal convolutional network-based binary classification approach to discover new antifungal molecules in the proteome of plants and animals to accelerate the development of antifungal medications. Although these biomolecules, known as antifungal peptides (AFPs), are part of an organism's intrinsic host defense mechanism, their identification and discovery by traditional biochemical procedures is arduous. Also, the absence of a large dataset on AFPs is also a considerable impediment in building a robust automated classifier. To this end, we have employed the transfer learning technique to pre-train our model on antibacterial peptides. Subsequently, we have built a classifier that predicts AFPs with accuracy and precision of 94%. Our classifier outperforms several state-of-the-art models by a considerable margin. The results of its performance were proven as statistically significant using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, followed by a post hoc analysis performed using the Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test. Furthermore, we identified potent AFPs in representative animal (Histatin) and plant (Snakin) proteins using our model. We also built and deployed a web app that is freely available at https://tcn-afppred.anvil.app/ for the identification of AFPs in protein sequences.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Deep Learning , Drug Discovery/methods , Neural Networks, Computer , Algorithms , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Artificial Intelligence , Databases, Factual , Humans , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Software , Workflow
11.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 83-90, 2021 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections caused by fungi can be important causes of morbidity and mortality in certain patient populations, including those who are highly immunocompromised or critically ill. Invasive mycoses can be caused by well-known species, as well as emerging pathogens, including those that are resistant to clinically available antifungals. CONTENT: This review highlights emerging fungal infections, including newly described species, such as Candida auris, and those that having undergone taxonomic classification and were previously known by other names, including Blastomyces and Emergomyces species, members of the Rasamsonia argillacea species complex, Sporothrix brasiliensis, and Trichophyton indotinae. Antifungal resistance also is highlighted in several of these emerging species, as well as in the well-known opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Finally, the increased recognition and importance of fungal co-infections with respiratory pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is discussed. SUMMARY: Both clinicians and clinical microbiology laboratories should remain vigilant regarding emerging fungal infections. These may be difficult both to diagnose and treat due to the lack of experience of clinicians and laboratory personnel with these organisms and the infections they may cause. Many of these fungal infections have been associated with poor clinical outcomes, either due to inappropriate therapy or the development of antifungal resistance.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Mycoses , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology , Fungi/drug effects , Fungi/pathogenicity , Humans , Mycoses/drug therapy , Mycoses/epidemiology
12.
Mycopathologia ; 187(1): 121-127, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544530

ABSTRACT

Candida auris, a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen, has emerged globally with high morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised individuals and COVID19 hospitalized patients. Five major clades of C. auris have been previously described. The fifth clade is exclusively found in Iran where C. auris isolates are genetically distinct from other clades by > 200,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The origin of C. auris remains unclear, and limited clinical data are available at present regarding clade V infection or colonization. Herein, another case of otomycosis in Iran caused by an isolate of C. auris belonging to the fifth clade is reported. Genotyping revealed that the obtained C. auris isolate from Isfahan clustered with earlier clade V isolates from Babol, cities around 600 km separated, which indicates that C. auris clade V is established in Iran. C. auris is thought to exist more commonly in Iran, given that limited diagnostic capacity in the country has probably curbed the identification of more C. auris cases. Therefore, surveillance of the environment, patients and healthcare facilities in different geographical regions in Iran is urgently required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidiasis , Otomycosis , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida/genetics , Candidiasis/diagnosis , Candidiasis/drug therapy , Humans , Iran , Otomycosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542586

ABSTRACT

Compounds of natural origin, an infinite treasure of bioactive chemical entities, persist as an inexhaustible resource for discovering new medicines. In this review, we summarize the naturally occurring ellagitannins, sanguiins, which are bioactive constituents of various traditional medicinal plants, especially from the Rosaceae family. In-depth studies of sanguiin H-6 as an antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and osteoclastogenesis inhibitory agent have led to potent drug candidates. In addition, recently, virtual screening studies have suggested that sanguiin H-6 might increase resistance toward SARS-CoV-2 in the early stages of infection. Further experimental investigations on ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity) supplemented with molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation are still needed to fully understand sanguiins' mechanism of action. In sum, sanguiins appear to be promising compounds for additional studies, especially for their application in therapies for a multitude of common and debilitating ailments.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Animals , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pharmacokinetics , Rosaceae/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
14.
Molecules ; 26(22)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524087

ABSTRACT

A series of methyl ß-D-galactopyranoside (MGP, 1) analogs were selectively acylated with cinnamoyl chloride in anhydrous N,N-dimethylformamide/triethylamine to yield 6-O-substitution products, which was subsequently converted into 2,3,4-tri-O-acyl analogs with different acyl halides. Analysis of the physicochemical, elemental, and spectroscopic data of these analogs revealed their chemical structures. In vitro antimicrobial testing against five bacteria and two fungi and the prediction of activity spectra for substances (PASS) showed promising antifungal functionality comparing to their antibacterial activities. Minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) tests were conducted for four compounds (4, 5, 6, and 9) based on their activity. MTT assay showed low antiproliferative activity of compound 9 against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells with an IC50 value of 2961.06 µg/mL. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to calculate the thermodynamic and physicochemical properties whereas molecular docking identified potential inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (6Y84). A 150-ns molecular dynamics simulation study revealed the stable conformation and binding patterns in a stimulating environment. In-silico ADMET study suggested all the designed molecules to be non-carcinogenic, with low aquatic and non-aquatic toxicity. In summary, all these antimicrobial, anticancer and in silico studies revealed that newly synthesized MGP analogs possess promising antiviral activity, to serve as a therapeutic target for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Galactose/chemistry , Galactose/pharmacokinetics , Galactose/pharmacology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Static Electricity , Thermodynamics
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(46): 54648-54655, 2021 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505998

ABSTRACT

The main route of the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is through airborne small aerosol particles containing viable virus as well as through droplets transmitted between people within close proximity. Transmission via contaminated surfaces has also been recognized as an important route for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus. Among a variety of antimicrobial agents currently in use, polymers represent a class of biocides that have become increasingly important as an alternative to existing biocidal approaches. Two transparent polymeric compounds, containing silver and benzalkonium ions electrostatically bound to a polystyrene sulfonate backbone, were synthesized, through simple procedures, and evaluated for their antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans (ISO EN 1276) and for their antiviral activity toward 229E and SARS-CoV-2 coronaviruses (ISO UNI EN 14476:2019). The results showed that the two tested formulations are able to inhibit the growth of (1.5-5.5) × 1011 CFU of Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and of the fungal species Candida albicans. Both compounds were able to control the 229E and SARS-CoV-2 infection of a target cell in a time contact of 5 min, with a virucidal effect from 24 to 72 h postinfection, according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines, where a product is considered virucidal upon achieving a reduction of 4 logarithms. This study observed a decrease of more than 5 logarithms, which implies that these formulations are likely ideal candidates for the realization of transparent surface coatings that are capable of maintaining remarkable antibacterial activity and SARS-CoV-2 antiviral properties over time.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Polymers/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0123021, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501536

ABSTRACT

The global incidence of mucormycosis has increased in recent years owing to higher numbers of individuals at risk for these infections. The diagnosis and treatment of this aggressive fungal infection are of clinical concern due to differences in species distribution in different geographic areas and susceptibility profiles between different species that are capable of causing highly aggressive infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and susceptibility profiles of Mucorales isolates in the United States over a 52-month period. Species identification was performed by combined phenotypic characteristics and DNA sequence analysis, and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by CLSI M38 broth microdilution for amphotericin B, isavuconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole. During this time frame, 854 isolates were included, representing 11 different genera and over 26 species, of which Rhizopus (58.6%) was the predominant genus, followed by Mucor (19.6%). The majority of isolates were cultured from the upper and lower respiratory tracts (55%). Amphotericin B demonstrated the most potent in vitro activity, with geometric mean (GM) MICs of ≤0.25 µg/ml against all genera with the exception of Cunninghamella species (GM MIC of 1.30 µg/ml). In head-to-head comparisons, the most active azole was posaconazole, followed by isavuconazole. Differences in azole and amphotericin B susceptibility patterns were observed between the genera with the greatest variability observed with isavuconazole. Awareness of the epidemiology of Mucorales isolates and differences in antifungal susceptibility patterns in the United States may aide clinicians in choosing antifungal treatment regimens. Further studies are warranted to correlate these findings with clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Fungi , Humans , Itraconazole , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
17.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(12): 1848-1853, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The increasing azole drug resistance in fungal pathogens poses a pressing threat to global health care. The coexistence of drug-resistant Candida albicans with tuberculosis patients and the failure of several drugs to treat C. albicans infection extend hospital stay, economic burden, and death. The misuse or abuse of azole-derived antifungals, chronic use of TB drugs, different immune-suppressive drugs, and diseases like HIV, COVID-19, etc., have aggravated the situation. So it is vital to understand the molecular changes in drug-resistant genes to modify the treatment to design an alternative mechanism. METHOD: C. albicans isolated from chronic tuberculosis patients were screened for antifungal sensitivity studies using disk diffusion assay. The multidrug-resistant C. albicans were further screened for molecular-level changes in drug resistance using MDR1 gene sequencing and compared with Gen bank data of similar species using the BLAST tool. RESULTS: The investigation proved that the isolated C. albicans from TB patients are significantly resistant to the action of six drugs. The molecular changes in MDR1 genes showed differences in seven nucleotide base pairs that interfered with the efflux pump.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candida albicans , ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Subfamily B, Member 1 , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Candida albicans/genetics , Drug Resistance , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Drugs ; 81(15): 1703-1729, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491481

ABSTRACT

The epidemiology of invasive fungal infections is changing, with new populations at risk and the emergence of resistance caused by the selective pressure from increased usage of antifungal agents in prophylaxis, empiric therapy, and agriculture. Limited antifungal therapeutic options are further challenged by drug-drug interactions, toxicity, and constraints in administration routes. Despite the need for more antifungal drug options, no new classes of antifungal drugs have become available over the last 2 decades, and only one single new agent from a known antifungal class has been approved in the last decade. Nevertheless, there is hope on the horizon, with a number of new antifungal classes in late-stage clinical development. In this review, we describe the mechanisms of drug resistance employed by fungi and extensively discuss the most promising drugs in development, including fosmanogepix (a novel Gwt1 enzyme inhibitor), ibrexafungerp (a first-in-class triterpenoid), olorofim (a novel dihyroorotate dehydrogenase enzyme inhibitor), opelconazole (a novel triazole optimized for inhalation), and rezafungin (an echinocandin designed to be dosed once weekly). We focus on the mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics, as well as the spectrum of activity and stages of clinical development. We also highlight the potential future role of these drugs and unmet needs.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Fungi/drug effects , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Animals , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Antifungal Agents/classification , Drug Development , Drug Interactions , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology
19.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(4): 648-655, 2021 Oct.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478368

ABSTRACT

Candida auris is a species of fungus that has gained importance in recent years owing to its ability to cause hospital infections and epidemics, resistant to antifungal agents and disinfection processes and frequently misidentified by commercial systems. Hospital outbreaks caused by C.auris have been reported from some countries. It has been determined that C.auris has lower virulence than Candida albicans; however, it is associated with high mortality rates in immunocompromised individuals. An increase in the incidence of invasive fungal infections which can lead to serious complications and death, has been identified in severe coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) patients or immunocompromised individuals with underlying disease. Studies demonstrated an increase in the frequency of C.auris isolation in COVID-19 patients with candidemia. In this report, the first case of COVID-19 positive C.auris fungemia detected in Turkey was presented. A 71-year-old male patient with a history of myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, donation of a single kidney and lobectomy surgery due to lung cancer was hospitalized in the pandemic thoracic surgery service due to the findings consistent with viral pneumonia on thoracic computed tomography. Favipiravir 2 x 600 mg and intravenous dexamethasone 1 x 6 mg therapy was administered. The patient tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction, and severe involvement of the left lung was detected in the following days. Antibiotics were administered, followed by insertion of a right jugular vein catheter and initation of tocilizumab. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit due to increased respiratory distress. Yeast growth was detected in the patient's hemoculture. The yeast strain could not be identified using API ID 32C (bioMerieux, France) (Sacchromyces kluyveri, Candida sake, unacceptable profile), but was identified as C.auris using the VITEK MALDI TOF MS (bioMerieux, France) (99.9%) system and confirmed by sequencing. The minimum inhibitor concentration values were detected as 3 µg/ml for amphotericin B; > 256 µg/ml for fluconazole; 0.19 µg/ml for voriconazole; 0.19 µg/ml for itraconazole; 0.016 µg/ml for posaconazole; 1 µg/ml for caspofungin and 0.094 µg/ml for anidulafungin by using the antibiotic gradient method. The patient's initial treatment comprised meropenem 3 x 1 g, vancomycin 2 x 1 g, caspofungin 1 x 70 mg, and continued as caspofungine 1 x 50 mg after the loading dose, and vancomycin 1 x 1 g/48 hours from the third day of treatment. The patient died on the ninth day after developing candidemia. The present case is the first case of fungemia caused by C.auris in a COVID-19 positive patient in Turkey, and it emphasizes the need of caution for fungemia due to C.auris in intensive care units in our country which has a high COVID-19 incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidemia , Fungemia , Aged , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida , Candidemia/diagnosis , Candidemia/drug therapy , Candidemia/epidemiology , Fungemia/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
20.
Med Mycol ; 59(12): 1238-1242, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462423

ABSTRACT

We compared candidemia due to Candida auris and other non-C.auris cases in hospitalized COVID-19 patients over a period of 9 months at our institution. Candidemia cases in all admitted patients (with or without COVID-19) from April to December 2020 were identified. Electronic records were accessed to record clinical data of COVID-19 patients with candidemia. For statistical analysis, independent samples Mann-Whitney U test was used for continuous and Fisher's exact test was used for categorical variables.A total of 26 candidemia cases (four C.auris, 22 non-C.auris) in 2438 admitted COVID-19 (10.7 per 1000 admissions) and 59 candidemia cases (six C.auris, 53 non-C.auris) in admitted non-COVID patients (8.2 per 1000 admission) were identified. The proportion of C.auris candidemia in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients was 15.4 and 10%, respectively. 4/26 of COVID-19 candidemia patients were aged ≤ 15 years (10 months--15 years). Comparison of C.auris and non-C. auris candidemia cases reveal significant difference in prior antifungal exposure, present in 100% C. auris candidemia versus 27% non-C. auris candidemia patients (P-value 0.014). Although not statistically significant, C. auris candidemia patients had a longer stay in hospital before candidemia (20 vs. 9 days), higher isolation rate of multidrug resistant bacteria (100 vs. 50%), increased rate of prior colonization of Candida species (50 vs. 14%) and lower mean beta-d-glucan levels (48.73 pg/ml vs. 138.146 pg/ml). Both C. auris and non-C. auris COVID-19 patients had similar mortality rate (67 vs. 65%). A significant number of critically ill COVID-19 patients developed candidemia in our study highlighting the need for prompt diagnosis and management. LAY SUMMARY: 26 candidemia cases (4 Candida auris;22 non-C. auris) in COVID-19 patients (April-December 2020) are reported from Pakistan. Compared to non-C. auris, C. auris candidemia patients had higher prior antifungal exposure, longer hospital stay, higher rates of MDR bacteria and Candida colonization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Candidemia/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Candida/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
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