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1.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(5): 442-447, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637623

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the possible association between invasive fungal sinusitis (mucormycosis) and coronavirus disease. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary care centre over four months, involving all patients with mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses suffering from or having a history of coronavirus disease infection. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients presented with mucormycosis, all had an association with coronavirus disease 2019. The ethmoids (100 per cent) were the most common sinuses affected. Intra-orbital extension was seen in 43.47 per cent of cases, while intracranial extension was only seen in 8.69 per cent. Diabetes mellitus was present in 21 of 23 cases, and was uncontrolled in 12 cases. All patients had a history of steroid use during their coronavirus treatment. CONCLUSION: New manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 are appearing over time. The association between coronavirus and mucormycosis of the paranasal sinuses must be given serious consideration. Uncontrolled diabetes and over-zealous use of steroids are two main factors aggravating the illness, and both of these must be properly checked.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Mucorales/isolation & purification , Mucormycosis/microbiology , Paranasal Sinuses/microbiology , Administration, Intravenous , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/microbiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Mucorales/drug effects , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/etiology , Pandemics , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/microbiology , Steroids/adverse effects , Steroids/therapeutic use
2.
Indian J Pharmacol ; 53(6): 499-510, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603884

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Till now, no meta-analysis is available to address the clinical profile, risk factors, different interventions, and outcomes among COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (C-ROCM) cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight literature databases were screened using appropriate keywords from November 1, 2019, to June 30, 2021. The objectives were to analyze the clinical and microbiological profile, risk factor/comorbidity, intervention, and outcome. "R-metafor package" was used for analysis. RESULTS: A total of 23 studies were included. The mean age of presentation of C-ROCM was 54.6 years. The most common presentation was ptosis (72.7%), lid edema (60.6%), proptosis (60.6%), ophthalmoplegia (57.3%), loss of vision (53.7%), facial edema (34.7%), and nasal-blockage (11.8%). Evidence of intracranial spread was seen in 42.8% of cases. Rhizopus was the most common fungus (57.1%) isolated in fungal culture. Among C-ROCM patients, diabetes was the commonest comorbid condition, and the use of corticosteroids related to COVID-19 treatment was the most common risk factor (85.75%). Compared to controlled diabetics, C-ROCM was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetics (odds ratio [OR] 0.15, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] 0.041-0.544, P = 0.0010). However, no significant association was seen between C-ROCM and COVID-19 severity (OR 0.930, 95% C.I. 0.212-4.087, P = 0.923). For treatment, amphotericin-B was the most common antifungal drug used which was followed by surgical options. However, mortality was high (prevalence 0.344, 95% C.I. 0.205-0.403) despite treatment. CONCLUSION: Although local rhino-orbito symptoms were the first to appear, rapid intracranial extension was seen in a significant number of C-ROCM cases. Uncontrolled diabetes and excessive use of corticosteroid were the most common risk factors present among the C-ROCM cases. High index clinical suspicion is imperative (specifically among COVID-19 patients with diabetes), and routine screening may be helpful.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/complications , Nose Diseases/complications , Orbital Diseases/complications , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Diseases/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 302-305, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596279

ABSTRACT

Rhino-orbital mucormycosis has seen a huge resurgence in patients post COVID-19 infection. In patients with minimal orbital disease and especially with preserved vision, retrobulbar injections of amphotericin B can be of great help in controlling the disease. Instead of giving daily injections of amphotericin B using needles every time, we used an 18-gauge intravenous (IV) cannula with injection port and suture holes to deliver the amphotericin into the orbital space for a period of 5 days. Patients were more compliant and less distressed with this method compared with being given an injection with a needle daily. We got a good response in terms of orbital disease regression with this method. In our review of the literature, we did not come across any such case of amphotericin B injection using an IV cannula. Injection of amphotericin B into the orbit using an IV cannula is a viable and easy treatment option for cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Amphotericin B , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Cannula , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnosis , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Chest ; 161(1): e5-e11, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595933

ABSTRACT

CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old obese man (BMI 38.0) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic atrial fibrillation, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia stage II, stable for 8 years after chemotherapy, and a history of smoking presented to the ED with progressive dyspnea and fever due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. He was admitted to a general ward and treated with dexamethasone (6 mg IV once daily) and oxygen. On day 3 of hospital admission, he became progressively hypoxemic and was admitted to the ICU for invasive mechanical ventilation. Dexamethasone treatment was continued, and a single dose of tocilizumab (800 mg) was administered. On day 9 of ICU admission, voriconazole treatment was initiated after tracheal white plaques at bronchoscopy, suggestive of invasive Aspergillus tracheobronchitis, were noticed. However, his medical situation dramatically deteriorated.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aged , Amphotericin B/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Bronchoscopy , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Male , Nitriles/therapeutic use , Obesity/complications , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pyridines/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Smoking/adverse effects , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Triazoles/therapeutic use , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 323-326, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594596

ABSTRACT

A 62-year-old female diabetic recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia after receiving a prolonged course of steroids. She presented with a clinical picture of left-eye panuveitis with white cotton ball chorioretinal lesions and RAPD suggesting an optic neuropathy (VA HM). Diagnostic vitrectomy was performed to take samples for infective screen and to give intravitreal voriconazole empirically. Smear, culture, and PCR for viral DNA confirmed mixed infection of endogenous Candida endophthalmitis and incidental CMV infection. With further treatment, her corrected vision improved to 6/18 with regressing fungal lesions in serial fundus photographs. Prompt diagnosis and intervention preserved her vision and prevented potential life-threatening complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Endophthalmitis , Eye Infections, Fungal , Optic Nerve Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Fungal/complications , Eye Infections, Fungal/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Optic Nerve Diseases/diagnosis , Optic Nerve Diseases/drug therapy , Optic Nerve Diseases/etiology , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitrectomy
6.
Intern Med J ; 51 Suppl 7: 143-176, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583531

ABSTRACT

Invasive aspergillosis (IA) in haematology/oncology patients presents as primary infection or breakthrough infection, which can become refractory to antifungal treatment and has a high associated mortality. Other emerging patient risk groups include patients in the intensive care setting with severe respiratory viral infections, including COVID-19. These guidelines present key diagnostic and treatment recommendations in light of advances in knowledge since the previous guidelines in 2014. Culture and histological-based methods remain central to the diagnosis of IA. There is increasing evidence for the utility of non-culture methods employing fungal biomarkers in pre-emptive screening for infection, as well as for IA diagnosis when used in combination. Although azole resistance appears to be uncommon in Australia, susceptibility testing of clinical Aspergillus fumigatus complex isolates is recommended. Voriconazole remains the preferred first-line antifungal agent for treating primary IA, including for extrapulmonary disease. Recommendations for paediatric treatment broadly follow those for adults. For breakthrough and refractory IA, a change in class of antifungal agent is strongly recommended, and agents under clinical trial may need to be considered. Newer immunological-based imaging modalities warrant further study, while surveillance for IA and antifungal resistance remain essential to informing the relevance of current treatment recommendations.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Aspergillus fumigatus , Child , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Voriconazole/therapeutic use
7.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(11): 1622-1623, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561980
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(11): e0009921, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523404

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), during the second wave in early 2021, has caused devastating chaos in India. As daily infection rates rise alarmingly, the number of severe cases has increased dramatically. The country has encountered health infrastructure inadequacy and excessive demand for hospital beds, drugs, vaccines, and oxygen. Adding more burden to such a challenging situation, mucormycosis, an invasive fungal infection, has seen a sudden surge in patients with COVID-19. The rhino-orbital-cerebral form is the most common type observed. In particular, approximately three-fourths of them had diabetes as predisposing comorbidity and received corticosteroids to treat COVID-19. Possible mechanisms may involve immune and inflammatory processes. Diabetes, when coupled with COVID-19-induced systemic immune change, tends to cause decreased immunity and an increased risk of secondary infections. Since comprehensive data on this fatal opportunistic infection are evolving against the backdrop of a major pandemic, prevention strategies primarily involve managing comorbid conditions in high-risk groups. The recommended treatment strategies primarily included surgical debridement and antifungal therapy using Amphotericin B and selected azoles. Several India-centric clinical guidelines have emerged to rightly diagnose the infection, characterise the clinical presentation, understand the pathogenesis involved, and track the disease course. Code Mucor is the most comprehensive one, which proposes a simple but reliable staging system for the rhino-orbital-cerebral form. A staging system has recently been proposed, and a dedicated registry has been started. In this critical review, we extensively analyse recent evidence and guidance on COVID-19-associated mucormycosis in India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/virology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/microbiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/microbiology , Comorbidity , Diabetes Complications/microbiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Risk Factors
10.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0123021, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501536

ABSTRACT

The global incidence of mucormycosis has increased in recent years owing to higher numbers of individuals at risk for these infections. The diagnosis and treatment of this aggressive fungal infection are of clinical concern due to differences in species distribution in different geographic areas and susceptibility profiles between different species that are capable of causing highly aggressive infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiology and susceptibility profiles of Mucorales isolates in the United States over a 52-month period. Species identification was performed by combined phenotypic characteristics and DNA sequence analysis, and antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by CLSI M38 broth microdilution for amphotericin B, isavuconazole, itraconazole, and posaconazole. During this time frame, 854 isolates were included, representing 11 different genera and over 26 species, of which Rhizopus (58.6%) was the predominant genus, followed by Mucor (19.6%). The majority of isolates were cultured from the upper and lower respiratory tracts (55%). Amphotericin B demonstrated the most potent in vitro activity, with geometric mean (GM) MICs of ≤0.25 µg/ml against all genera with the exception of Cunninghamella species (GM MIC of 1.30 µg/ml). In head-to-head comparisons, the most active azole was posaconazole, followed by isavuconazole. Differences in azole and amphotericin B susceptibility patterns were observed between the genera with the greatest variability observed with isavuconazole. Awareness of the epidemiology of Mucorales isolates and differences in antifungal susceptibility patterns in the United States may aide clinicians in choosing antifungal treatment regimens. Further studies are warranted to correlate these findings with clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Mucorales , Mucormycosis , Amphotericin B/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Fungi , Humans , Itraconazole , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
12.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(4): 673-682, 2021 Oct.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478369

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection causes excessive cytokine response and a decrease in cellular immune response and this increases susceptibility to fungal co-infections. Mucormycosis is a rare, lifethreatening invasive fungal infection. In this report, two cases who developed rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis shortly after having COVID-19 infection were presented. The first case was a 68-year old woman who admitted to our clinic with orbital cellulitis in her left eye and had a known diagnosis of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis. She was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia 40 days ago, stayed in the intensive care unit for a long time, and received pulse steroid (1000 mg methylprednisolone), interleukin-1 (IL-1) inhibitor (anakinra) and broad-spectrum antibiotic treatments together with antiviral therapy during this period. The second case was a 63-year-old male patient with known diabetes mellitus, hypertension and retinitis pigmentosa, with a history of hospitalization in the intensive care unit due to COVID-19 pneumonia 20 days ago and received pulse steroid therapy during this period. He admitted to our clinic with the complaints of droopy right eyelid, swelling, nausea and vomiting. In both cases, paranasal sinus tomography findings were consistent with invasive sinusitis. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed immediately in less than 16 hours from the first admission in both cases. Histopathological examination of the both cases revealed results consistent with mucormycosis. Mucorales spp. was isolated in sinus tissue culture of the second case taken during the operation. Both of the patients received liposomal amphotericin B. First case died on the 19th day of the treatment. Second case was discharged with full recovery after nine weeks of treatment. The suppression of cellular immunity during the COVID-19 infection, and the use of steroids and interleukin inhibitors in the treatment of severe cases may increase secondary invasive fungal infections. Therefore, clinicians should more frequently consider possible fungal infections in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eye Infections, Fungal , Orbital Diseases , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Eye Infections, Fungal/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Mikrobiyol Bul ; 55(4): 648-655, 2021 Oct.
Article in Turkish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478368

ABSTRACT

Candida auris is a species of fungus that has gained importance in recent years owing to its ability to cause hospital infections and epidemics, resistant to antifungal agents and disinfection processes and frequently misidentified by commercial systems. Hospital outbreaks caused by C.auris have been reported from some countries. It has been determined that C.auris has lower virulence than Candida albicans; however, it is associated with high mortality rates in immunocompromised individuals. An increase in the incidence of invasive fungal infections which can lead to serious complications and death, has been identified in severe coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) patients or immunocompromised individuals with underlying disease. Studies demonstrated an increase in the frequency of C.auris isolation in COVID-19 patients with candidemia. In this report, the first case of COVID-19 positive C.auris fungemia detected in Turkey was presented. A 71-year-old male patient with a history of myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, donation of a single kidney and lobectomy surgery due to lung cancer was hospitalized in the pandemic thoracic surgery service due to the findings consistent with viral pneumonia on thoracic computed tomography. Favipiravir 2 x 600 mg and intravenous dexamethasone 1 x 6 mg therapy was administered. The patient tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction, and severe involvement of the left lung was detected in the following days. Antibiotics were administered, followed by insertion of a right jugular vein catheter and initation of tocilizumab. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit due to increased respiratory distress. Yeast growth was detected in the patient's hemoculture. The yeast strain could not be identified using API ID 32C (bioMerieux, France) (Sacchromyces kluyveri, Candida sake, unacceptable profile), but was identified as C.auris using the VITEK MALDI TOF MS (bioMerieux, France) (99.9%) system and confirmed by sequencing. The minimum inhibitor concentration values were detected as 3 µg/ml for amphotericin B; > 256 µg/ml for fluconazole; 0.19 µg/ml for voriconazole; 0.19 µg/ml for itraconazole; 0.016 µg/ml for posaconazole; 1 µg/ml for caspofungin and 0.094 µg/ml for anidulafungin by using the antibiotic gradient method. The patient's initial treatment comprised meropenem 3 x 1 g, vancomycin 2 x 1 g, caspofungin 1 x 70 mg, and continued as caspofungine 1 x 50 mg after the loading dose, and vancomycin 1 x 1 g/48 hours from the third day of treatment. The patient died on the ninth day after developing candidemia. The present case is the first case of fungemia caused by C.auris in a COVID-19 positive patient in Turkey, and it emphasizes the need of caution for fungemia due to C.auris in intensive care units in our country which has a high COVID-19 incidence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Candidemia , Fungemia , Aged , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Candida , Candidemia/diagnosis , Candidemia/drug therapy , Candidemia/epidemiology , Fungemia/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Turkey/epidemiology
14.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0113821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476402

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate diagnostic means, host factors, delay of occurrence, and outcome of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and fungal coinfections in the intensive care unit (ICU). From 1 February to 31 May 2020, we anonymously recorded COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), fungemia (CA-fungemia), and pneumocystosis (CA-PCP) from 36 centers, including results on fungal biomarkers in respiratory specimens and serum. We collected data from 154 episodes of CAPA, 81 of CA-fungemia, 17 of CA-PCP, and 5 of other mold infections from 244 patients (male/female [M/F] ratio = 3.5; mean age, 64.7 ± 10.8 years). CA-PCP occurred first after ICU admission (median, 1 day; interquartile range [IQR], 0 to 3 days), followed by CAPA (9 days; IQR, 5 to 13 days), and then CA-fungemia (16 days; IQR, 12 to 23 days) (P < 10-4). For CAPA, the presence of several mycological criteria was associated with death (P < 10-4). Serum galactomannan was rarely positive (<20%). The mortality rates were 76.7% (23/30) in patients with host factors for invasive fungal disease, 45.2% (14/31) in those with a preexisting pulmonary condition, and 36.6% (34/93) in the remaining patients (P = 0.001). Antimold treatment did not alter prognosis (P = 0.370). Candida albicans was responsible for 59.3% of CA-fungemias, with a global mortality of 45.7%. For CA-PCP, 58.8% of the episodes occurred in patients with known host factors of PCP, and the mortality rate was 29.5%. CAPA may be in part hospital acquired and could benefit from antifungal prescription at the first positive biomarker result. CA-fungemia appeared linked to ICU stay without COVID-19 specificity, while CA-PCP may not really be a concern in the ICU. Improved diagnostic strategy for fungal markers in ICU patients with COVID-19 should support these hypotheses. IMPORTANCE To diagnose fungal coinfections in patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit, it is necessary to implement the correct treatment and to prevent them if possible. For COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), respiratory specimens remain the best approach since serum biomarkers are rarely positive. Timing of occurrence suggests that CAPA could be hospital acquired. The associated mortality varies from 36.6% to 76.7% when no host factors or host factors of invasive fungal diseases are present, respectively. Fungemias occurred after 2 weeks in ICUs and are associated with a mortality rate of 45.7%. Candida albicans is the first yeast species recovered, with no specificity linked to COVID-19. Pneumocystosis was mainly found in patients with known immunodepression. The diagnosis occurred at the entry in ICUs and not afterwards, suggesting that if Pneumocystis jirovecii plays a role, it is upstream of the hospitalization in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Fungemia/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/epidemiology , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Critical Care , Female , France/epidemiology , Fungemia/drug therapy , Fungemia/mortality , Galactose/analogs & derivatives , Galactose/blood , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mannans/blood , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Pneumocystis/mortality , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 116: e210207, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1463351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Treatment of mycoses is often ineffective, usually prolonged, and has some side effects. These facts highlight the importance of discovering new molecules to treat fungal infections. OBJECTIVES To search the Medicines for Malaria Venture COVID Box for drugs with antifungal activity. METHODS Fourteen human pathogenic fungi were tested against the 160 drugs of this collection at 1.0 µM concentration. We evaluated the ability of the drugs to impair fungal growth, their fungicidal nature, and morphological changes caused to cells. FINDINGS Thirty-four molecules (21.25%) presented antifungal activity. Seven are antifungal drugs and one is the agricultural fungicide cycloheximide. The other drugs with antifungal activity included antibiotics (n = 3), antimalarials (n = 4), antivirals (n = 2), antiparasitcs (n = 3), antitumor agents (n = 5), nervous system agents (n = 3), immunosuppressants (n = 3), antivomiting (n = 1), antiasthmatic (n = 1), and a genetic disorder agent (n = 1). Several of these drugs inhibited Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis growth (15 and 20, respectively), while Fusarium solani was not affected by the drugs tested. Most drugs were fungistatic, but niclosamide presented fungicidal activity against the three dimorphic fungi tested. Cyclosporine affected morphology of Cryptococcus neoformans. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These drugs represent new alternatives to the development of more accessible and effective therapies to treat human fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cryptococcus neoformans , COVID-19 , Malaria/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2 , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology
18.
Emerg Radiol ; 28(6): 1097-1106, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449970

ABSTRACT

Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) has regained significance following its resurgence in the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India. Rapid and progressive intracranial spread occurs either by direct extension across the neural foraminae, cribriform plate/ethmoid, walls of sinuses, or angioinvasion. Having known to have a high mortality rate, especially with intracranial extension of disease, it becomes imperative to familiarise oneself with its imaging features. MRI is the imaging modality of choice. This pictorial essay aims to depict and detail the various intracranial complications of mucormycosis and to serve as a broad checklist of structures and pathologies that must be looked for in a known or suspected case of ROCM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Mucormycosis/drug therapy , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(3): 421-424, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441341

ABSTRACT

There has been increasing reports of secondary bacterial and fungal infections associated with COVID-19. Following the initial reports of infection with Aspergillus spp., and Candida spp. there has been a significant rise in infections with Mucorales spp. In this case report, we present a case of Geotrichum spp. infection in an immunocompetent host with COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Geotrichum infection in COVID-19. Geotrichum is a rare emerging pathogen that causes invasive disease, termed geotrichosis, which occurs in immunocompromised adult hosts with neutropenia. The development of invasive fungal infection such as Geotrichum in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and should be considered particularly in those who have an underlying immunocompromised state and those receiving corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive agents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Geotrichosis , Adult , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Geotrichosis/drug therapy , Geotrichum , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Small Methods ; 5(11): e2100713, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437086

ABSTRACT

The past year has established the link between the COVID-19 pandemic and the global spread of severe fungal infections; thus, underscoring the critical need for rapid and realizable fungal disease diagnostics. While in recent years, health authorities, such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, have reported the alarming emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogenic fungi and warned against the devastating consequences, progress in the diagnosis and treatment of fungal infections is limited. Early diagnosis and patient-tailored therapy are established to be key in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with fungal (and cofungal) infections. As such, antifungal susceptibility testing (AFST) is crucial in revealing susceptibility or resistance of these pathogens and initiating correct antifungal therapy. Today, gold standard AFST methods require several days for completion, and thus this much delayed time for answer limits their clinical application. This review focuses on the advancements made in developing novel AFST techniques and discusses their implications in the context of the practiced clinical workflow. The aim of this work is to highlight the advantages and drawbacks of currently available methods and identify the main gaps hindering their progress toward clinical application.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mycoses/diagnosis , Mycoses/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Drug Resistance, Fungal , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Mycoses/epidemiology , Mycoses/microbiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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