Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 774491, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648672

ABSTRACT

Common human coronaviruses have been circulating undiagnosed worldwide. These common human coronaviruses share partial sequence homology with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); therefore, T cells specific to human coronaviruses are also cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Herein, we defined CD4+ T cell responses that were cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-2 antigens in blood collected in 2016-2018 from healthy donors at the single allele level using artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC) expressing a single HLA class II allotype. We assessed the allotype-restricted responses in the 42 individuals using the aAPCs matched 22 HLA-DR alleles, 19 HLA-DQ alleles, and 13 HLA-DP alleles. The response restricted by the HLA-DR locus showed the highest magnitude, and that by HLA-DP locus was higher than that by HLA-DQ locus. Since two alleles of HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP loci are expressed co-dominantly in an individual, six different HLA class II allotypes can be used to the cross-reactive T cell response. Of the 16 individuals who showed a dominant T cell response, five, one, and ten showed a dominant response by a single allotype of HLA-DR, -DQ, and -DP, respectively. The single allotype-restricted T cells responded to only one antigen in the five individuals and all the spike, membrane, and nucleocapsid proteins in the six individuals. In individuals heterozygous for the HLA-DPA and HLA-DPB loci, four combinations of HLA-DP can be expressed, but only one combination showed a dominant response. These findings demonstrate that cross-reactive T cells to SARS-CoV-2 respond with single-allotype dominance.


Subject(s)
Alleles , Antigens, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Genes, MHC Class II , HLA-D Antigens/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Blood Donors , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay/methods , Female , HLA-D Antigens/immunology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunoglobulin Allotypes/immunology , Male , Young Adult
2.
Cell Immunol ; 371: 104451, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499702

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has once again brought to the forefront the existence of a tight link between the coagulation/fibrinolytic system and the immunologic processes. Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine protease with a key role in fibrinolysis by converting plasminogen into plasmin that can finally degrade fibrin clots. tPA is released in the blood by endothelial cells and hepatocytes but is also produced by various types of immune cells including T cells and monocytes. Beyond its role on hemostasis, tPA is also a potent modulator of inflammation and is involved in the regulation of several inflammatory diseases. Here, after a brief description of tPA structure, we review its new functions in adaptive immunity focusing on T cells and antigen presenting cells. We intend to synthesize the recent knowledge on proteolysis- and receptor-mediated effects of tPA on immune response in physiological and pathological context.


Subject(s)
Blood Coagulation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Fibrinolysis/immunology , Immunity/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/immunology , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/immunology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Models, Immunological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/metabolism
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(44)2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470027

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in over 100 million infections and millions of deaths. Effective vaccines remain the best hope of curtailing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, morbidity, and mortality. The vaccines in current use require cold storage and sophisticated manufacturing capacity, which complicates their distribution, especially in less developed countries. We report the development of a candidate SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that is purely protein based and directly targets antigen-presenting cells. It consists of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike receptor-binding domain (SpikeRBD) fused to an alpaca-derived nanobody that recognizes class II major histocompatibility complex antigens (VHHMHCII). This vaccine elicits robust humoral and cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants. Both young and aged mice immunized with two doses of VHHMHCII-SpikeRBD elicit high-titer binding and neutralizing antibodies. Immunization also induces strong cellular immunity, including a robust CD8 T cell response. VHHMHCII-SpikeRBD is stable for at least 7 d at room temperature and can be lyophilized without loss of efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Camelids, New World/immunology , Female , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics/prevention & control , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Single-Domain Antibodies/administration & dosage , Single-Domain Antibodies/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5215, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392854

ABSTRACT

Achieving sufficient worldwide vaccination coverage against SARS-CoV-2 will require additional approaches to currently approved viral vector and mRNA vaccines. Subunit vaccines may have distinct advantages when immunizing vulnerable individuals, children and pregnant women. Here, we present a new generation of subunit vaccines targeting viral antigens to CD40-expressing antigen-presenting cells. We demonstrate that targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to CD40 (αCD40.RBD) induces significant levels of specific T and B cells, with long-term memory phenotypes, in a humanized mouse model. Additionally, we demonstrate that a single dose of the αCD40.RBD vaccine, injected without adjuvant, is sufficient to boost a rapid increase in neutralizing antibodies in convalescent non-human primates (NHPs) exposed six months previously to SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine-elicited antibodies cross-neutralize different SARS-CoV-2 variants, including D614G, B1.1.7 and to a lesser extent B1.351. Such vaccination significantly improves protection against a new high-dose virulent challenge versus that in non-vaccinated convalescent animals.


Subject(s)
CD40 Antigens/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Convalescence , Humans , Macaca , Mice , Mutation , Protein Domains , Reinfection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology
6.
Drug Discov Today ; 26(11): 2619-2636, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330754

ABSTRACT

Unlike conventional Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, intranasal vaccines display a superior advantage because the nasal mucosa is often the initial site of infection. Preclinical and clinical studies concerning intranasal immunization elicit high neutralizing antibody generation and mucosal IgA and T cell responses that avoid severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in both; the upper and lower respiratory tract. A nasal formulation is non-invasive with high appeal to patients. Intranasal vaccines enable self-administration and can be designed to survive at ambient temperatures, thereby simplifying logistical aspects of transport and storage. In this review, we provide an overview of nasal vaccines with a focus on formulation development as well as ongoing preclinical and clinical studies for SARS-CoV-2 intranasal vaccine products.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Development , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4117, 2021 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297301

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological and clinical reports indicate that SARS-CoV-2 virulence hinges upon the triggering of an aberrant host immune response, more so than on direct virus-induced cellular damage. To elucidate the immunopathology underlying COVID-19 severity, we perform cytokine and multiplex immune profiling in COVID-19 patients. We show that hypercytokinemia in COVID-19 differs from the interferon-gamma-driven cytokine storm in macrophage activation syndrome, and is more pronounced in critical versus mild-moderate COVID-19. Systems modelling of cytokine levels paired with deep-immune profiling shows that classical monocytes drive this hyper-inflammatory phenotype and that a reduction in T-lymphocytes correlates with disease severity, with CD8+ cells being disproportionately affected. Antigen presenting machinery expression is also reduced in critical disease. Furthermore, we report that neutrophils contribute to disease severity and local tissue damage by amplification of hypercytokinemia and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Together our findings suggest a myeloid-driven immunopathology, in which hyperactivated neutrophils and an ineffective adaptive immune system act as mediators of COVID-19 disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Monocytes/pathology , Neutrophil Activation , Aged , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/blood , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Female , Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/metabolism , Humans , Immunophenotyping , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index
8.
Front Immunol ; 12: 649359, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295634

ABSTRACT

Obesity is one of the foremost risk factors in coronavirus infection resulting in severe illness and mortality as the pandemic progresses. Obesity is a well-known predisposed chronic inflammatory condition. The dynamics of obesity and its impacts on immunity may change the disease severity of pneumonia, especially in acute respiratory distress syndrome, a primary cause of death from SARS-CoV-2 infection. The adipocytes of adipose tissue secret leptin in proportion to individuals' body fat mass. An increase in circulating plasma leptin is a typical characteristic of obesity and correlates with a leptin-resistant state. Leptin is considered a pleiotropic molecule regulating appetite and immunity. In immunity, leptin functions as a cytokine and coordinates the host's innate and adaptive responses by promoting the Th1 type of immune response. Leptin induced the proliferation and functions of antigen-presenting cells, monocytes, and T helper cells, subsequently influencing the pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by these cells, such as TNF-α, IL-2, or IL-6. Leptin scarcity or resistance is linked with dysregulation of cytokine secretion leading to autoimmune disorders, inflammatory responses, and increased susceptibility towards infectious diseases. Therefore, leptin activity by leptin long-lasting super active antagonist's dysregulation in patients with obesity might contribute to high mortality rates in these patients during SARS-CoV-2 infection. This review systematically discusses the interplay mechanism between leptin and inflammatory cytokines and their contribution to the fatal outcomes in COVID-19 patients with obesity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Leptin/immunology , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adipocytes/metabolism , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Susceptibility/pathology , Humans , Leptin/blood , Monocytes/immunology , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Th1 Cells/immunology
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5402, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123146

ABSTRACT

Most multiple sclerosis (MS) patients given currently available disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) experience progressive disability. Accordingly, there is a need for new treatments that can limit the generation of new waves T cell autoreactivity that drive disease progression. Notably, immune cells express GABAA-receptors (GABAA-Rs) whose activation has anti-inflammatory effects such that GABA administration can ameliorate disease in models of type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and COVID-19. Here, we show that oral GABA, which cannot cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), does not affect the course of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In contrast, oral administration of the BBB-permeable GABAA-R-specific agonist homotaurine ameliorates monophasic EAE, as well as advanced-stage relapsing-remitting EAE (RR-EAE). Homotaurine treatment beginning after the first peak of paralysis reduced the spreading of Th17 and Th1 responses from the priming immunogen to a new myelin T cell epitope within the CNS. Antigen-presenting cells (APC) isolated from homotaurine-treated mice displayed an attenuated ability to promote autoantigen-specific T cell proliferation. The ability of homotaurine treatment to limit epitope spreading within the CNS, along with its safety record, makes it an excellent candidate to help treat MS and other inflammatory disorders of the CNS.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System/pathology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Taurine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antigen Presentation/drug effects , Antigen-Presenting Cells/drug effects , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Central Nervous System/drug effects , Central Nervous System/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/immunology , Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental/pathology , Female , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Myelin Proteolipid Protein/immunology , Peptide Fragments/immunology , Recurrence , Spleen/pathology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Taurine/pharmacology , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/pharmacology
10.
Cells ; 10(2)2021 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055022

ABSTRACT

Monitoring antigen-specific T cell immunity relies on functional tests that require T cells and antigen presenting cells to be uncompromised. Drawing of blood, its storage and shipment from the clinical site to the test laboratory, and the subsequent isolation, cryopreservation and thawing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) before the actual test is performed can introduce numerous variables that may jeopardize the results. Therefore, no T cell test is valid without assessing the functional fitness of the PBMC being utilized. This can only be accomplished through the inclusion of positive controls that actually evaluate the performance of the antigen-specific T cell and antigen presenting cell (APC) compartments. For Caucasians, CEF peptides have been commonly used to this extent. Moreover, CEF peptides only measure CD8 cell functionality. We introduce here universal CD8+ T cell positive controls without any racial bias, as well as positive controls for the CD4+ T cell and APC compartments. In summary, we offer new tools and strategies for the assessment of PBMC functional fitness required for reliable T cell immune monitoring.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Antigens/immunology , Humans , Immunologic Tests/methods , Peptides/immunology
11.
Cell ; 184(6): 1401, 2021 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1030852

ABSTRACT

The first two vaccines proven to be effective for inhibiting COVID-19 illness were both mRNA, achieving 95% efficacy (and safety) among 74,000 participants (half receiving placebo) after intramuscular delivery of two shots, 3-4 weeks apart. To view this Bench to Bedside, open or download the PDF.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Delivery Systems/methods , Humans , Liposomes , Nanoparticles , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Treatment Outcome
12.
Vaccine ; 38(48): 7629-7637, 2020 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-879777

ABSTRACT

This work demonstrates the presence of immune regulatory cells in the cervical lymph nodes draining Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccinated site on the dorsum of the ear in guinea pigs. It is shown that whole cervical lymph node cells did not proliferate in vitro in the presence of soluble mycobacterial antigens (PPD or leprosin) despite being responsive to whole mycobacteria. Besides, T cells from these lymph nodes separated as a non-adherent fraction on a nylon wool column, proliferated to PPD in the presence of autologous antigen presenting cells. Interestingly, addition of as low as 20% nylon wool adherent cells to these, sharply decreased the proliferation by 83%. Looking into what cells in the adherent fraction suppressed the proliferation, it was found that neither the T cell nor the macrophage enriched cell fractions of this population individually showed suppressive effect, indicating that their co-presence was necessary for the suppression. Since BCG induced granulomas resolve much faster than granulomas induced by other mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium leprae the present experimental findings add to the existing evidence that intradermal BCG vaccination influences subsequent immune responses in the host and may further stress upon its beneficial role seen in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Bacterial/pharmacology , BCG Vaccine/pharmacology , Granuloma/immunology , Lymph Nodes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Tuberculin/pharmacology , Animals , Antigen-Presenting Cells/drug effects , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Antigen-Presenting Cells/microbiology , COVID-19 , Cell Adhesion , Cell Proliferation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Ear , Female , Granuloma/microbiology , Guinea Pigs , Humans , Injections, Intradermal , Lymph Nodes/microbiology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/microbiology , Male , Mycobacterium bovis/immunology , Mycobacterium leprae/immunology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Remission, Spontaneous , T-Lymphocytes/classification , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/microbiology
13.
Front Immunol ; 11: 559113, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-868963

ABSTRACT

As the recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has highlighted, the threat of a pandemic event from zoonotic viruses, such as the deadly influenza A/H7N9 virus subtype, continues to be a major global health concern. H7N9 virus strains appear to exhibit greater disease severity in mammalian hosts compared to natural avian hosts, though the exact mechanisms underlying this are somewhat unclear. Knowledge of the H7N9 host-pathogen interactions have mainly been constrained to natural sporadic human infections. To elucidate the cellular immune mechanisms associated with disease severity and progression, we used a ferret model to closely resemble disease outcomes in humans following influenza virus infection. Intriguingly, we observed variable disease outcomes when ferrets were inoculated with the A/Anhui/1/2013 (H7N9) strain. We observed relatively reduced antigen-presenting cell activation in lymphoid tissues which may be correlative with increased disease severity. Additionally, depletions in CD8+ T cells were not apparent in sick animals. This study provides further insight into the ways that lymphocytes maturate and traffic in response to H7N9 infection in the ferret model.


Subject(s)
Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/physiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Animals , Antigen-Presenting Cells/pathology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Ferrets , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110043, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-671756

ABSTRACT

HYPOTHESIS: The delayed lung damage after SARS-CoV-2 infection may be caused by an autoimmune response to ACE2 induced by forced presentation of the ACE2 protein in a complex with CoV Spike in Fc Receptor positive Antigen Presenting Cells in the lung. The likelihood that this hypothesis is valid is low, but it is easily tested. TESTABLE PREDICTIONS: 1) Autoantibodies and T cells to ACE2 may be found in patients with the lung damage but not in those without 2) There may be an HLA linkage with the delayed lung disease 3) Vaccines based on the spike protein might initiate the process by amplifying Fc mediated uptake of ACE2-Spike complexes into APCs. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The development of autoantibodies to ACE2 might predict the development of the inflammatory phase of Covid-19 disease. It might be wise to consider engineering versions of the spike that no longer bind to ACE2 for inclusion in vaccines.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Autoimmunity , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/virology , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Lung Diseases/immunology , Models, Theoretical , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Receptors, Fc/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Virus Internalization
15.
Biotechnol J ; 15(12): e2000100, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-650634

ABSTRACT

Biotinylated peptide amphiphile (Biotin-PA) nanofibers, are designed as a noncovalent binding location for antigens, which are adjuvants to enhance, accelerate, and prolong the immune response triggered by antigens. Presenting antigens on synthetic Biotin-PA nanofibers generated a higher immune response than the free antigens delivered with a cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODN) (TLR9 agonist) adjuvant. Antigen attached Biotin-PA nanofibers trigger splenocytes to produce high levels of cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-12, TNF-α, and IL-6) and to exhibit a superior cross-presentation of the antigen. Both Biotin-PA nanofibers and CpG ODN induce a Th-1-biased IgG subclass response; however, delivering the antigen with Biotin-PA nanofibers induce significantly greater production of total IgG and subclasses of IgG compared to delivering the antigen with CpG ODN. Contrary to CpG ODN, Biotin-PA nanofibers also enhance antigen-specific splenocyte proliferation and increase the proportion of the antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Given their biodegradability and biocompatibility, Biotin-PA nanofibers have a significant potential in immunoengineering applications as a biomaterial for the delivery of a diverse set of antigens derived from intracellular pathogens, emerging viral diseases such as COVID-19, or cancer cells to induce humoral and cellular immune responses against the antigens.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Nanofibers/chemistry , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antigen Presentation , Antigen-Presenting Cells/cytology , Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology , Antigens/administration & dosage , Antigens/chemistry , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biotechnology , Biotin/analogs & derivatives , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Design , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Nanofibers/administration & dosage , Nanofibers/ultrastructure , Ovalbumin/administration & dosage , Ovalbumin/immunology , Peptides/administration & dosage , Protein Engineering
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL