Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 48
Filter
1.
Biomater Sci ; 10(15): 4037-4057, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900676

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is a proven way to protect individuals against many infectious diseases, as currently highlighted in the global COVID-19 pandemic. Peptides- or small molecule antigen-based vaccination offer advantages over the classical vaccine approaches. However, peptides or small molecules by themselves are generally not sufficiently immunogenic, and thus require an adjuvant to boost an immune response. Several conjugated systems have been developed in recent years to overcome this obstacle. This review summarises different moieties which, when conjugated to peptide antigens, facilitate a specific immune response. Different classes of self-adjuvant moieties are reviewed, including self-assembly peptides, lipids, glycolipids, and polymers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccine Development , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Antigens , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Peptides/chemistry
2.
Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst ; 39(4): 49-82, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875218

ABSTRACT

To achieve optimal immunogenicity, particulates present a promising vehicle for antigen delivery and have the potential to skew immune response. Particulate vaccine offers several advantages including targeting of antigen to sentinel cells, protection from degradation, sustained release, and itself acts an adjuvant mimics viral structure. Adjuvant presence is vital in overcoming the poor immunogenicity of vaccines, e.g., subunit vaccines. Adjuvants have antigen dose sparing potential and provide danger signals to alert the immune system. Various particulate carriers received attention in the delivery of vaccine antigens such as virus-like particles, liposomes, immunostimulating complexes, and polymeric particles. This review also discussed the properties of particles such as size, shape, and rigidity affecting the immunological outcome. It further highlights the cellular uptake of the particulate vaccine, antigen processing, and its presentation by antigen-presenting cells. For mass vaccination, especially in countries lacking resources, effect of storage temperature condition on stability of vaccine is pivotal. The current COVID-19 pandemic is not showing any signs of abatement and role of nanocarriers are highly relevant in SARS-CoV-2 pandemic as an effective immunization strategy. Eradication of pandemic demands the rapid evaluation of multiple approaches that can provides successful vaccination platform, enabling scalability and global distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antigen Presentation , Antigens , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Subunit
3.
Curr Opin Struct Biol ; 73: 102348, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852025

ABSTRACT

Vaccine-induced immunity is expected to target the native antigens expressed by the pathogens. Therefore, it is highly important to generate vaccine antigens that are immunologically indistinguishable from the native antigens. Nucleic acid vaccines, comprised of DNA, mRNA, or recombinant viral vector vaccines, introduce the genetic material encoding the antigenic protein for the host to express. Because these proteins will undergo host posttranslational modifications, host glycosylation can potentially alter the structure and immunological efficacy of the antigen. In this review, we discuss the potential impact of host protein glycosylation on the immune responses generated by nucleic acid vaccines against bacterial and viral pathogens.


Subject(s)
Viral Vaccines , Antigens , Glycosylation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational , Viral Vaccines/genetics
4.
Nanoscale ; 14(19): 7110-7122, 2022 May 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830194

ABSTRACT

The increasing demand for convenient, miniaturized and multifunctional antibodies necessitates the development of novel antigen-recognition molecules for biological and medical studies. Nanobodies, the functional variable regions of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies, as a new tool, complement the conventional antibodies and are in the stage of rapid development. The outstanding advantages of nanobodies include a stable structure, easy production, excellent water solubility, high affinity toward antigens and low immunogenicity. With promising application potential, nanobodies are now increasingly applied to various studies, including protein structure analysis, microscopic imaging, medical diagnosis, and drug development. The approval of the first nanobody drug Caplacizumab by the FDA disclosed the therapeutic potential of nanobodies. The outbreak of COVID-19 accelerated the development of nanobody drugs in non-injectable and bispecific biotherapeutic applications. Herein, we reviewed recent studies on the nanobody structure, screening and their applications in protein structure analysis and nanobody drugs, especially on non-injectable nanobody and bispecific nanobody development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Single-Domain Antibodies , Antibodies , Antigens , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diagnostic Imaging , Humans , Single-Domain Antibodies/chemistry
5.
Circ Res ; 130(10): 1510-1530, 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is an incurable, life-threatening disease that was once considered primarily a disorder of lipid deposition. Coronary artery disease is now also characterized by chronic inflammation' notable for the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques containing immune cells in various states of activation and differentiation. Understanding how these immune cells contribute to disease progression may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. METHODS: We used single-cell technology and in vitro assays to interrogate the immune microenvironment of human coronary atherosclerotic plaque at different stages of maturity. RESULTS: In addition to macrophages, we found a high proportion of αß T cells in the coronary plaques. Most of these T cells lack high expression of CCR7 and L-selectin, indicating that they are primarily antigen-experienced memory cells. Notably, nearly one-third of these cells express the HLA-DRA surface marker, signifying activation through their TCRs (T-cell receptors). Consistent with this, TCR repertoire analysis confirmed the presence of activated αß T cells (CD4

Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , T-Lymphocytes , Antigens , Clone Cells/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Endothelial Cells , Epitopes , HLA-DR alpha-Chains , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Plaque, Atherosclerotic/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
6.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765946

ABSTRACT

Numerous pathogenic microbes, including viruses, bacteria, and fungi, usually infect the host through the mucosal surfaces of the respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and reproductive tract. The mucosa is well known to provide the first line of host defense against pathogen entry by physical, chemical, biological, and immunological barriers, and therefore, mucosa-targeting vaccination is emerging as a promising strategy for conferring superior protection. However, there are still many challenges to be solved to develop an effective mucosal vaccine, such as poor adhesion to the mucosal surface, insufficient uptake to break through the mucus, and the difficulty in avoiding strong degradation through the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, increasing efforts to overcome these issues have been made, and we herein summarize the latest findings on these strategies to develop mucosa-targeting vaccines, including a novel needle-free mucosa-targeting route, the development of mucosa-targeting vectors, the administration of mucosal adjuvants, encapsulating vaccines into nanoparticle formulations, and antigen design to conjugate with mucosa-targeting ligands. Our work will highlight the importance of further developing mucosal vaccine technology to combat the frequent outbreaks of infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antigens , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Mucosal , Mucous Membrane , Vaccination
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2412: 483-501, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756649

ABSTRACT

A vaccine is an immunogen, the administration of which is intended to stimulate the immune system to prevent, ameliorate, or treat a disease or infection. A vaccine may be a live attenuated preparation of microorganisms, inactivated (killed) whole organisms, living irradiated cells, crude fractions, or purified immunogens, including those derived from recombinant DNA in a host cell, conjugates formed by covalent linkage of components, synthetic antigens, polynucleotides (such as the plasmid DNA vaccines), mRNA, living vectored cells expressing specific heterologous immunogens, or cells pulsed with immunogen. Vaccines are highly complex products that differ from small molecule drugs because of the biological nature of the source materials such as those derived from microorganisms as well as the various cell substrates from which some are derived. Regardless of the technology used, because of their complexities, vaccines must undergo extensive testing and characterization. Special expertise and procedures are required for the manufacture, control, and regulation of vaccines. Throughout their life cycle from preclinical evaluation to post-licensure lot release testing, vaccines are subject to rigorous testing and oversight by manufacturers and national regulatory authorities. In this chapter, an overview of the regulatory evaluation and testing requirements for vaccines is presented.


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Antigens , Humans , Licensure , Vaccines, Attenuated , Vaccines, Synthetic
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2412: 179-231, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756648

ABSTRACT

Adjuvants are key components of many vaccines, used to enhance the level and breadth of the immune response to a target antigen, thereby enhancing protection from the associated disease. In recent years, advances in our understanding of the innate and adaptive immune systems have allowed for the development of a number of novel adjuvants with differing mechanisms of action. Herein, we review adjuvants currently approved for human and veterinary use, describing their use and proposed mechanisms of action. In addition, we will discuss additional promising adjuvants currently undergoing preclinical and/or clinical testing.


Subject(s)
Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Antigens , Humans , Immunity, Innate
9.
Trends Biotechnol ; 40(4): 463-481, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735006

ABSTRACT

Humoral immunity is divided into the cellular B cell and protein-level antibody responses. High-throughput sequencing has advanced our understanding of both these fundamental aspects of B cell immunology as well as aspects pertaining to vaccine and therapeutics biotechnology. Although the protein-level serum and mucosal antibody repertoire make major contributions to humoral protection, the sequence composition and dynamics of antibody repertoires remain underexplored. This limits insight into important immunological and biotechnological parameters such as the number of antigen-specific antibodies, which are for example, relevant for pathogen neutralization, microbiota regulation, severity of autoimmunity, and therapeutic efficacy. High-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) has allowed initial insights into the antibody repertoire. We outline current challenges in MS-based sequence analysis of antibody repertoires and propose strategies for their resolution.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Antibodies/chemistry , Antigens , B-Lymphocytes , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Mass Spectrometry
10.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 5(3): 905-944, 2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705996

ABSTRACT

This review discusses peptide epitopes used as antigens in the development of vaccines in clinical trials as well as future vaccine candidates. It covers peptides used in potential immunotherapies for infectious diseases including SARS-CoV-2, influenza, hepatitis B and C, HIV, malaria, and others. In addition, peptides for cancer vaccines that target examples of overexpressed proteins are summarized, including human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), mucin 1 (MUC1), folate receptor, and others. The uses of peptides to target cancers caused by infective agents, for example, cervical cancer caused by human papilloma virus (HPV), are also discussed. This review also provides an overview of model peptide epitopes used to stimulate non-specific immune responses, and of self-adjuvanting peptides, as well as the influence of other adjuvants on peptide formulations. As highlighted in this review, several peptide immunotherapies are in advanced clinical trials as vaccines, and there is great potential for future therapies due the specificity of the response that can be achieved using peptide epitopes.


Subject(s)
Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antigens/immunology , Cancer Vaccines/administration & dosage , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Neoplasms/therapy , Peptides/immunology
11.
Trends Immunol ; 43(4): 271-273, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1702351

ABSTRACT

According to Röltgen and colleagues vaccination generates antibody breadth, whereas SARS-CoV-2 infection does not. Vaccination results in germinal center B cell responses and generates immunological breadth, with antibodies that bind viral variants. COVID-19 from SARS-CoV-2 infection does not induce germinal centers; it sustains immune imprinting, also known as 'original antigenic sin', and this results in limited immunological breadth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antigens , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Vaccination
12.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103807, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611695

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 mRNA vaccines have proven to be highly safe and effective. Myocarditis is an adverse event associated with mRNA vaccination, especially in young male subjects. These events are rare and, in the majority of cases, resolve quickly. As myocarditis can be driven by autoimmune responses, we wanted to determine if the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antigen encoded in the mRNA COVID vaccines had potential cross-reactivity with auto-antigens previously associated with myocarditis. METHODS: We performed a sequence identity comparison between SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-derived peptides and myocarditis-associated antigens. We also performed a structural analysis of these antigens and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to identify potential discontinuous 3-D epitope similarities. FINDINGS: We found no significant enrichment in the frequency of spike-derived peptides similar to myocarditis-associated antigens as compared to several controls. INTERPRETATION: Our results do not support the notion that increased occurrence of myocarditis after SARS-CoV-2-spike vaccination is mediated by a cross-reactive adaptive immune response.


Subject(s)
Antigens/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Epitopes/genetics , Myocarditis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Adaptive Immunity , Antigens/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cross Reactions , Epitopes/immunology , Humans , Myocarditis/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 776933, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581333

ABSTRACT

The efficacy of COVID-19 vaccines appears to depend in complex ways on the vaccine dosage and the interval between the prime and boost doses. Unexpectedly, lower dose prime and longer prime-boost intervals have yielded higher efficacies in clinical trials. To elucidate the origins of these effects, we developed a stochastic simulation model of the germinal center (GC) reaction and predicted the antibody responses elicited by different vaccination protocols. The simulations predicted that a lower dose prime could increase the selection stringency in GCs due to reduced antigen availability, resulting in the selection of GC B cells with higher affinities for the target antigen. The boost could relax this selection stringency and allow the expansion of the higher affinity GC B cells selected, improving the overall response. With a longer dosing interval, the decay in the antigen with time following the prime could further increase the selection stringency, amplifying this effect. The effect remained in our simulations even when new GCs following the boost had to be seeded by memory B cells formed following the prime. These predictions offer a plausible explanation of the observed paradoxical effects of dosage and dosing interval on vaccine efficacy. Tuning the selection stringency in the GCs using prime-boost dosages and dosing intervals as handles may help improve vaccine efficacies.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Clonal Selection, Antigen-Mediated/immunology , Germinal Center/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antigens/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Germinal Center/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Models, Theoretical , Vaccination
14.
Mikrochim Acta ; 189(1): 14, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556195

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, simple, rapid, point-of-care tests not requiring trained personnel for primary care testing are essential. Saliva-based antigen rapid tests (ARTs) can fulfil this need, but these tests require overnight-fasted samples; without which independent studies have demonstrated sensitivities of only 11.7 to 23.1%. Herein, we report an Amplified Parallel ART (AP-ART) with sensitivity above 90%, even with non-fasted samples. The virus was captured multimodally, using both anti-spike protein antibodies and Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) protein. It also featured two parallel flow channels. The first contained spike protein binding gold nanoparticles which produced a visible red line upon encountering the virus. The second contained signal amplifying nanoparticles that complex with the former and amplify the signal without any linker. Compared to existing dual gold amplification techniques, a limit of detection of one order of magnitude lower was achieved (0.0064 ng·mL-1). AP-ART performance in detecting SARS-CoV-2 in saliva of COVID-19 patients was investigated using a case-control study (139 participants enrolled and 162 saliva samples tested). Unlike commercially available ARTs, the sensitivity of AP-ART was maintained even when non-fasting saliva was used. Compared to the gold standard reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction testing on nasopharyngeal samples, non-fasting saliva tested on AP-ART showed a sensitivity of 97.0% (95% CI: 84.7-99.8); without amplification, the sensitivity was 72.7% (95% CI: 83.7-94.8). Thus, AP-ART has the potential to be developed for point-of-care testing, which may be particularly important in resource-limited settings, and for early diagnosis to initiate newly approved therapies to reduce COVID-19 severity.


Subject(s)
Antigens/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Saliva/virology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Gold/chemistry , Immunoassay/instrumentation , Immunoassay/methods , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
Cell Rep ; 37(11): 110112, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530687

ABSTRACT

An ideal vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is expected to elicit broad immunity to prevent viral infection and disease, with efficient viral clearance in the upper respiratory tract (URT). Here, the N protein and prefusion-full S protein (SFLmut) are combined with flagellin (KF) and cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) to generate a candidate vaccine, and this vaccine elicits stronger systemic and mucosal humoral immunity than vaccines containing other forms of the S protein. Furthermore, the candidate vaccine administered via intranasal route can enhance local immune responses in the respiratory tract. Importantly, human ACE2 transgenic mice given the candidate vaccine are protected against lethal SARS-CoV-2 challenge, with superior protection in the URT compared with that in mice immunized with an inactivated vaccine. In summary, the developed vaccine can elicit a multifaceted immune response and induce robust viral clearance in the URT, which makes it a potential vaccine for preventing disease and infection of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Combined Modality Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Female , Flagellin/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Immunity/physiology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunization , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Nucleotides, Cyclic/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vero Cells
16.
Front Immunol ; 12: 732298, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506693

ABSTRACT

Immune modulating therapies and vaccines are in high demand, not least to the recent global spread of SARS-CoV2. To achieve efficient activation of the immune system, professional antigen presenting cells have proven to be key coordinators of such responses. Especially targeted approaches, actively directing antigens to specialized dendritic cells, promise to be more effective and accompanied by reduced payload due to less off-target effects. Although antibody and glycan-based targeting of receptors on dendritic cells have been employed, these are often expensive and time-consuming to manufacture or lack sufficient specificity. Thus, we applied a small-molecule ligand that specifically binds Langerin, a hallmark receptor on Langerhans cells, conjugated to a model protein antigen. Via microneedle injection, this construct was intradermally administered into intact human skin explants, selectively loading Langerhans cells in the epidermis. The ligand-mediated cellular uptake outpaces protein degradation resulting in intact antigen delivery. Due to the pivotal role of Langerhans cells in induction of immune responses, this approach of antigen-targeting of tissue-resident immune cells offers a novel way to deliver highly effective vaccines with minimally invasive administration.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens/administration & dosage , Green Fluorescent Proteins/administration & dosage , Langerhans Cells/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Mannose-Binding Lectins/metabolism , Animals , Antigens/immunology , Antigens/metabolism , COS Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Green Fluorescent Proteins/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Injections, Intradermal , Langerhans Cells/immunology , Ligands , Miniaturization , Nanomedicine , Needles , Protein Binding , Protein Transport , Proteolysis , THP-1 Cells , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/metabolism
17.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother ; 40(5): 203-209, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493637
18.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 101(Pt A): 108280, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487771

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by a highly virulent and transmissible pathogen, has proven to be devastating to society. Mucosal vaccines that can induce antigen-specific immune responses in both the systemic and mucosal compartments are considered an effective measure to overcome infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microbes. We have recently developed a nasal vaccine system using cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane and cholesteryl 3ß-N-(dimethylaminoethyl)carbamate in mice. However, the comprehensive molecular mechanism(s), especially the host soluble mediator involved in this process, by which cationic liposomes promote antigen-specific mucosal immune responses, remain to be elucidated. Herein, we show that intranasal administration of cationic liposomes elicited interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression at the site of administration. Additionally, both nasal passages and splenocytes from mice nasally immunized with cationic liposomes plus ovalbumin (OVA) were polarized to produce IL-6 when re-stimulated with OVA in vitro. Furthermore, pretreatment with anti-IL-6R antibody, which blocks the biological activities of IL-6, attenuated the production of OVA-specific nasal immunoglobulin A (IgA) but not OVA-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-6, exerted by nasally administered cationic liposomes, plays a crucial role in antigen-specific IgA induction.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Interleukin-6/immunology , Vaccines/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibody Formation/drug effects , Antigens/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cations/immunology , Cations/therapeutic use , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/immunology , Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated/therapeutic use , Female , Immunity, Mucosal/drug effects , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Liposomes/immunology , Liposomes/therapeutic use , Mice , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Nasal Mucosa/metabolism , Ovalbumin/immunology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/immunology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/therapeutic use , Spleen/metabolism , Vaccines/administration & dosage
19.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(23): e2100118, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482096

ABSTRACT

Recently, viral infectious diseases, including COVID-19 and Influenza, are the subjects of major concerns worldwide. One strategy for addressing these concerns focuses on nasal vaccines, which have great potential for achieving successful immunization via safe, easy, and affordable approaches. However, conventional nasal vaccines have major limitations resulting from fast removal when pass through nasal mucosa and mucociliary clearance hindering their effectiveness. Herein a nanoparticulate vaccine (NanoVac) exhibiting photochemical immunomodulation and constituting a new self-assembled immunization system of a photoactivatable polymeric adjuvant with influenza virus hemagglutinin for efficient nasal delivery and antigen-specific immunity against pathogenic influenza viruses is described. NanoVac increases the residence period of antigens and further enhances by spatiotemporal photochemical modulation in the nasal cavity. As a consequence, photochemical immunomodulation of NanoVacs successfully induces humoral and cellular immune responses followed by stimulation of mature dendritic cells, plasma cells, memory B cells, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, resulting in secretion of antigen-specific immunoglobulins, cytokines, and CD8+ T cells. Notably, challenge with influenza virus after nasal immunization with NanoVacs demonstrates robust prevention of viral infection. Thus, this newly designed vaccine system can serve as a promising strategy for developing vaccines that are active against current hazardous pathogen outbreaks and pandemics.


Subject(s)
Hemagglutinins/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Light , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Administration, Inhalation , Animals , Antigens/administration & dosage , Antigens/chemistry , Antigens/immunology , Dendritic Cells/cytology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Hemagglutinins/administration & dosage , Hemagglutinins/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Influenza Vaccines/chemistry , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/virology , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry
20.
Analyst ; 146(22): 6970-6980, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475491

ABSTRACT

Identification of specific antibodies in patient plasma is an essential part of many diagnostic procedures and is critical for safe blood transfusion. Current techniques require laboratory infrastructure and long turnaround times which limits access to those nearby tertiary healthcare providers. Addressing this challenge, a novel and rapid paper-based antibody test is reported. We validate antibody detection with reverse blood typing using IgM antibodies and then generalise the validity by adapting to detect SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) antibodies in patient serum samples. Reagent red blood cells (RBC) are first combined with the patient plasma containing the screened antibody and a droplet of the mixture is then deposited onto paper. The light intensity profile is analyzed to identify test results, which can be detected by eye and/or with image processing to allow full automation. The efficacy of this test to perform reverse blood typing is demonstrated and the performance and sensitivity of this test using different paper types and RBC reagents was investigated using clinical samples. As an example of the flexibility of this approach, we labeled the RBC reagent with an antibody-peptide conjugate to detect SARS CoV-2 (COVID-19) antibodies in patient serum samples. This concept could be generalized to any agglutination-based antibody diagnostics with blood plasma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL