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1.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 321(5): L847-L858, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403121

ABSTRACT

Increased blood fibrocytes are associated with a poor prognosis in fibrotic lung diseases. We aimed to determine whether the percentage of circulating fibrocytes could be predictive of severity and prognosis during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. Blood fibrocytes were quantified by flow cytometry as CD45+/CD15-/CD34+/collagen-1+ cells in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia. In a subgroup of patients admitted in an intensive care unit (ICU), fibrocytes were quantified in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Serum amyloid P (SAP), transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1), CXCL12, CCL2, and FGF2 concentrations were measured. We included 57 patients in the hospitalized group (median age = 59 yr [23-87]) and 16 individuals as healthy controls. The median percentage of circulating fibrocytes was higher in the patients compared with the controls (3.6% [0.2-9.2] vs. 2.1% [0.9-5.1], P = 0.04). Blood fibrocyte count was lower in the six patients who died compared with the survivors (1.6% [0.2-4.4] vs. 3.7% [0.6-9.2], P = 0.02). Initial fibrocyte count was higher in patients showing a complete lung computed tomography (CT) resolution at 3 mo. Circulating fibrocyte count was decreased in the ICU group (0.8% [0.1-2.0]), whereas BAL fibrocyte count was 6.7% (2.2-15.4). Serum SAP and TGF-ß1 concentrations were increased in hospitalized patients. SAP was also increased in ICU patients. CXCL12 and CCL2 were increased in ICU patients and negatively correlated with circulating fibrocyte count. We conclude that circulating fibrocytes were increased in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia, and a lower fibrocyte count was associated with an increased risk of death and a slower resolution of lung CT opacities.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/blood , Blood Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , Cytokines/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serum Amyloid A Protein/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Cell Count , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 99-114, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188014

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly emerging pandemic disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Critical COVID-19 is thought to be associated with a hyper-inflammatory process that can develop into acute respiratory distress syndrome, a critical disease normally mediated by dysfunctional neutrophils. This study tested the hypothesis whether the neutrophil compartment displays characteristics of hyperinflammation in COVID-19 patients. Therefore, a prospective study was performed on all patients with suspected COVID-19 presenting at the emergency room of a large academic hospital. Blood drawn within 2 d after hospital presentation was analyzed by point-of-care automated flow cytometry and compared with blood samples collected at later time points. COVID-19 patients did not exhibit neutrophilia or eosinopenia. Unexpectedly neutrophil activation markers (CD11b, CD16, CD10, and CD62L) did not differ between COVID-19-positive patients and COVID-19-negative patients diagnosed with other bacterial/viral infections, or between COVID-19 severity groups. In all patients, a decrease was found in the neutrophil maturation markers indicating an inflammation-induced left shift of the neutrophil compartment. In COVID-19 this was associated with disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Flow Cytometry , Neutrophil Activation , Neutrophils , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, CD/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Neutrophils/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 91-97, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188013

ABSTRACT

Regulatory T cell can protect against severe forms of coronaviral infections attributable to host inflammatory responses. But its role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is still unclear. In this study, frequencies of total and multiple subsets of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals were analyzed using a multicolor flow cytometry assay. Plasma concentration of IL-10 was measured using a microsphere-based immunoassay kit. Comparing to healthy controls, the frequencies of total lymphocytes and T cells decreased significantly in both acutely infected COVID-19 patients and discharged individuals. The frequencies of total lymphocytes correlated negatively with the frequencies of CD3- CD56+ NK cells. The frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells correlated with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios positively, while the frequencies of regulatory CD4+ CD25+ CD127- T cells correlated negatively with CD4+ /CD8+ T cell ratios. Ratios of CD4+ /CD8+ T cells increased significantly in patients beyond age of 45 years. And accordingly, the frequencies of regulatory CD8+ CD25+ T cells were also found significantly increased in these patients. Collectively, the results suggest that regulatory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells may play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. Moreover, the data indicate that NK cells might contribute to the COVID-19 associated lymphopenia.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, CD/immunology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/pathology
4.
Front Immunol ; 12: 627548, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156119

ABSTRACT

Background: Emerging evidence argues that monocytes, circulating innate immune cells, are principal players in COVID-19 pneumonia. The study aimed to investigate the role of soluble (s)CD163 and sCD14 plasmatic levels in predicting disease severity and characterize peripheral blood monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs), in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (COVID-19 subjects). Methods: On admission, in COVID-19 subjects sCD163 and sCD14 plasmatic levels, and peripheral blood monocyte and DC subsets were compared to healthy donors (HDs). According to clinical outcome, COVID-19 subjects were divided into ARDS and non-ARDS groups. Results: Compared to HDs, COVID-19 subjects showed higher sCD163 (p<0.0001) and sCD14 (p<0.0001) plasmatic levels. We observed higher sCD163 plasmatic levels in the ARDS group compared to the non-ARDS one (p=0.002). The cut-off for sCD163 plasmatic level greater than 2032 ng/ml was predictive of disease severity (AUC: 0.6786, p=0.0022; sensitivity 56.7% [CI: 44.1-68.4] specificity 73.8% [CI: 58.9-84.7]). Positive correlation between plasmatic levels of sCD163, LDH and IL-6 and between plasmatic levels of sCD14, D-dimer and ferritin were found. Compared to HDs, COVID-19 subjects showed lower percentages of non-classical (p=0.0012) and intermediate monocytes (p=0.0447), slanDCs (p<0.0001), myeloid DCs (mDCs, p<0.0001), and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs, p=0.0014). Compared to the non-ARDS group, the ARDS group showed lower percentages of non-classical monocytes (p=0.0006), mDCs (p=0.0346), and pDCs (p=0.0492). Conclusions: The increase in sCD163 and sCD14 plasmatic levels, observed on hospital admission in COVID-19 subjects, especially in those who developed ARDS, and the correlations of these monocyte/macrophage activation markers with typical inflammatory markers of COVID-19 pneumonia, underline their potential use to assess the risk of progression of the disease. In an early stage of the disease, the assessment of sCD163 plasmatic levels could have clinical utility in predicting the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/blood , Monocytes/immunology , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Receptors, Cell Surface/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Dendritic Cells/metabolism , Dendritic Cells/virology , Disease Progression , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/virology , Myeloid Cells/metabolism , Myeloid Cells/virology , Patient Admission , Phenotype , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation
5.
Elife ; 102021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121691

ABSTRACT

Background: It was studied if early suPAR-guided anakinra treatment can prevent severe respiratory failure (SRF) of COVID-19. Methods: A total of 130 patients with suPAR ≥6 ng/ml were assigned to subcutaneous anakinra 100 mg once daily for 10 days. Primary outcome was SRF incidence by day 14 defined as any respiratory ratio below 150 mmHg necessitating mechanical or non-invasive ventilation. Main secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and inflammatory mediators; 28-day WHO-CPS was explored. Propensity-matched standard-of care comparators were studied. Results: 22.3% with anakinra treatment and 59.2% comparators (hazard ratio, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.20-0.46) progressed into SRF; 30-day mortality was 11.5% and 22.3% respectively (hazard ratio 0.49; 95% CI 0.25-0.97). Anakinra was associated with decrease in circulating interleukin (IL)-6, sCD163 and sIL2-R; IL-10/IL-6 ratio on day 7 was inversely associated with SOFA score; patients were allocated to less severe WHO-CPS strata. Conclusions: Early suPAR-guided anakinra decreased SRF and restored the pro-/anti-inflammatory balance. Funding: This study was funded by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis, Technomar Shipping Inc, Swedish Orphan Biovitrum, and the Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. Clinical trial number: NCT04357366.


People infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, can develop severe respiratory failure and require a ventilator to keep breathing, but this does not happen to every infected individual. Measuring a blood protein called suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) may help identify patients at the greatest risk of developing severe respiratory failure and requiring a ventilator. Previous investigations have suggested that measuring suPAR can identify pneumonia patients at highest risk for developing respiratory failure. The protein can be measured by taking a blood sample, and its levels provide a snapshot of how the body's immune system is reacting to infection, and of how it may respond to treatment. Anakinra is a drug that forms part of a class of medications called interleukin antagonists. It is commonly prescribed alone or in combination with other medications to reduce pain and swelling associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Kyriazopoulou et al. investigated whether treating COVID-19 patients who had developed pneumonia with anakinra could prevent the use of a ventilator and lower the risk of death. The findings show that treating COVID-19 patients with an injection of 100 milligrams of anakinra for ten days may be an effective approach because the drug combats inflammation. Kyriazopoulou et al. examined various markers of the immune response and discovered that anakinra was able to improve immune function, protecting a significant number of patients from going on a ventilator. The drug was also found to be safe and cause no significant adverse side effects. Administering anakinra decreased of the risk of progression into severe respiratory failure by 70%, and reduced death rates significantly. These results suggest that it may be beneficial to use suPAR as an early biomarker for identifying those individuals at highest risk for severe respiratory failure, and then treat them with anakinra. While the findings are promising, they must be validated in larger studies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Respiratory Insufficiency/prevention & control , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/blood , Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator/metabolism , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Standard of Care , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Leukoc Biol ; 109(1): 13-22, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095316

ABSTRACT

Excessive monocyte/macrophage activation with the development of a cytokine storm and subsequent acute lung injury, leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is a feared consequence of infection with COVID-19. The ability to recognize and potentially intervene early in those patients at greatest risk of developing this complication could be of great clinical utility. In this study, we performed flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood samples from 34 COVID-19 patients in early 2020 in an attempt to identify factors that could help predict the severity of disease and patient outcome. Although we did not detect significant differences in the number of monocytes between patients with COVID-19 and normal healthy individuals, we did identify significant morphologic and functional differences, which are more pronounced in patients requiring prolonged hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Patients with COVID-19 have larger than normal monocytes, easily identified on forward scatter (FSC), side scatter analysis by routine flow cytometry, with the presence of a distinct population of monocytes with high FSC (FSC-high). On more detailed analysis, these CD14+ CD16+ , FSC-high monocytes show features of mixed M1/M2 macrophage polarization with higher expression of CD80+ and CD206+ compared with the residual FSC-low monocytes and secretion of higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α, when compared with the normal controls. In conclusion, the detection and serial monitoring of this subset of inflammatory monocytes using flow cytometry could be of great help in guiding the prognostication and treatment of patients with COVID-19 and merits further evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macrophages , Monocytes , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Antigens, CD/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , Monocytes/pathology , Young Adult
7.
J Infect Dis ; 222(9): 1435-1438, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998345
8.
Clin Exp Immunol ; 203(3): 424-432, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-926453

ABSTRACT

The role of lymphocytes and their main subsets as prognostic factors of death in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients remains unclear, with no information obtained from patients outside China. We aimed to assess whether measuring lymphocyte subpopulations added clinical value to the total lymphocyte counting regarding mortality when they were simultaneously tested at hospital admission. Peripheral blood was analysed in 701 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed consecutive patients by lysed-no washed flow cytometry. Demographic and clinical features were registered in electronic medical records. Statistical analysis was performed after a 3-month follow-up. The 112 patients who died were older and had significantly higher frequencies of known co-morbidities than survivor COVID-19 patients. A significant reduction in total lymphocytes, CD3+ , CD4+ , CD8+ and CD19+ counts and CD3+ percentage was found in the group of deceased patients (P < 0·001), while the percentage of CD56+ /CD16+ natural killer (NK) cells was significantly higher (P < 0·001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed a significantly increased risk of in-hospital death associated to age [odds ratio (OR) = 2·36, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·9-3·0 P < 0·001]; CD4+  T counts ≤ 500 cells/µl, (OR = 2·79, 95% CI = 1·1-6·7, P = 0·021); CD8+  T counts ≤ 100 cells/µl, (OR = 1·98, 95% CI = 1·2-3·3) P = 0·009) and CD56+ /CD16+ NK ≥ 30%, (OR = 1·97, 95% CI = 1·1-3·1, P = 0·002) at admission, independent of total lymphocyte numbers and co-morbidities, with area under the curve 0·85 (95% CI = 0·81-0·88). Reduced counts of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with proportional expansion of NK lymphocytes at admission were prognostic factors of death in this Spanish series. In COVID-19 patients with normal levels of lymphocytes or mild lymphopenia, imbalanced lymphocyte subpopulations were early markers of in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Spain
9.
Front Immunol ; 11: 560381, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-853933

ABSTRACT

Background: Emerging evidence indicates a potential role for monocytes in COVID-19 immunopathology. We investigated two soluble markers of monocyte activation, sCD14 and sCD163, in COVID-19 patients, with the aim of characterizing their potential role in monocyte-macrophage disease immunopathology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind. Methods: Fifty-nine SARS-Cov-2 positive hospitalized patients, classified according to ICU or non-ICU admission requirement, were prospectively recruited and analyzed by ELISA for levels of sCD14 and sCD163, along with other laboratory parameters, and compared to a healthy control group. Results: sCD14 and sCD163 levels were significantly higher among COVID-19 patients, independently of ICU admission requirement, compared to the control group. We found a significant correlation between sCD14 levels and other inflammatory markers, particularly Interleukin-6, in the non-ICU patients group. sCD163 showed a moderate positive correlation with the time lapsed from admission to sampling, independently of severity group. Treatment with corticoids showed an interference with sCD14 levels, whereas hydroxychloroquine and tocilizumab did not. Conclusions: Monocyte-macrophage activation markers are increased and correlate with other inflammatory markers in SARS-Cov-2 infection, in association to hospital admission. These data suggest a preponderant role for monocyte-macrophage activation in the development of immunopathology of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Receptors, Cell Surface , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/blood , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Intensive Care Units , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-6/immunology , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/blood , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/immunology , Macrophage Activation , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Macrophages/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/pathology , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptors, Cell Surface/blood , Receptors, Cell Surface/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(1): 92-98, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still incompletely understood, but it seems to involve immune activation and immune dysregulation. OBJECTIVE: We examined the parameters of activation of different leukocyte subsets in COVID-19-infected patients in relation to disease severity. METHODS: We analyzed plasma levels of myeloperoxidase (a marker of neutrophil activation), soluble (s) CD25 (sCD25) and soluble T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-3 (sTIM-3) (markers of T-cell activation and exhaustion), and sCD14 and sCD163 (markers of monocyte/macrophage activation) in 39 COVID-19-infected patients at hospital admission and 2 additional times during the first 10 days in relation to their need for intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. RESULTS: Our major findings were as follows: (1) severe clinical outcome (ICU treatment) was associated with high plasma levels of sTIM-3 and myeloperoxidase, suggesting activated and potentially exhausted T cells and activated neutrophils, respectively; (2) in contrast, sCD14 and sCD163 showed no association with need for ICU treatment; and (3) levels of sCD25, sTIM-3, and myeloperoxidase were inversely correlated with degree of respiratory failure, as assessed by the ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen, and were positively correlated with the cardiac marker N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that neutrophil activation and, in particular, activated T cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 infection, suggesting that T-cell-targeted treatment options and downregulation of neutrophil activation could be of importance in this disorder.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 2/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic/blood , Female , Humans , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Lipopolysaccharide Receptors/blood , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Cell Surface/blood , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Time Factors
11.
J Exp Med ; 217(12)2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744478

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 includes lung infection ranging from mild pneumonia to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Dysregulated host immune response in the lung is a key feature in ARDS pathophysiology. However, cellular actors involved in COVID-19-driven ARDS are poorly understood. Here, in blood and airways of severe COVID-19 patients, we serially analyzed unconventional T cells, a heterogeneous class of T lymphocytes (MAIT, γδT, and iNKT cells) with potent antimicrobial and regulatory functions. Circulating unconventional T cells of COVID-19 patients presented with a profound and persistent phenotypic alteration. In the airways, highly activated unconventional T cells were detected, suggesting a potential contribution in the regulation of local inflammation. Finally, expression of the CD69 activation marker on blood iNKT and MAIT cells of COVID-19 patients on admission was predictive of clinical course and disease severity. Thus, COVID-19 patients present with an altered unconventional T cell biology, and further investigations will be required to precisely assess their functions during SARS-CoV-2-driven ARDS.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/metabolism , Natural Killer T-Cells/metabolism , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Aged , Antigens, CD/blood , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/blood , COVID-19 , Cells, Cultured , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Natural Killer T-Cells/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
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