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2.
EBioMedicine ; 81: 104102, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMS), while disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may influence the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in this population. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of DMTs on immune response to COVID-19 vaccines in pwMS. METHODS: Literature search from December 1, 2019 to March 31, 2022 was performed in PubMed, MedRxiv, Embase and Cochrane Library. The risk of impaired response to vaccination in pwMS receiving DMTs was estimated in odds ratios (ORs) using random-effects method. FINDINGS: A total of 48 studies comprising 6860 pwMS were included. Overall, pwMS with anti-CD20 (OR=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01-0.03) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator (S1PRM) (OR=0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.06) treatments had attenuated serologic response after full vaccination compared with those without DMTs. Additionally, pwMS vaccinated within six months since last anti-CD20 therapy were at significantly higher risk of blunted response compared with those receiving anti-CD20 therapy more than six months prior to vaccination (P = 0.001). We found no significant associations between other treatments (including IFN-ß, GA, DMF, TERI, NTZ, CLAD, and ALE) and humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in pwMS. As for T-cell response, no significant difference was found between pwMS on anti-CD20 and those without DMTs after vaccination, while S1PRM was marginally associated with impaired cellular response (P = 0.03). INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggested that routine serological monitoring may be required for pwMS on anti-CD20 and S1PRMs after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and highlighted the benefits of a booster dose. The effect of cellular response and optimal interval from last anti-CD20 treatment to vaccination should be further addressed. FUNDING: This study was supported by Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (21ZR1433000).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antigens, CD20 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , China , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
4.
J Autoimmun ; 131: 102848, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885882

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: to investigate the responses to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in a cohort of immunosuppressed patients affected by immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMID). METHODS: we have measured humoral and cellular immunity using quantitative IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike antibody (anti-S-IgG), neutralization assays and specific interferon-gamma (IFN-g) release assay (IGRA) before and after the third dose of BNT162b2. The response of those on anti-CD20 (n = 18) was then compared with healthy controls (HC, n = 18) and IMID naïve to anti-CD20 drugs (n = 13). RESULTS: a third BNT162b2 dose is highly immunogenic in IMID patients naïve to anti-CD20, as 100% of the subjects seroconverted compared to the 55% in anti-CD20. The rate of IGRA response was of 79% in anti-CD20, 50% in IMID naïve to anti-CD20, 100% in HC. Among those who have seroconverted, IMID patients had significantly reduced anti-S-IgG and neutralization titers compared to HC, whereas no significant difference was observed when comparing anti-CD20 and HC. Furthermore, 13% of anti-CD20 and 7.7% of IMID were simultaneously negative for both neutralizing antibodies and IGRA after three doses. CONCLUSION: these data draw attention to the immunogenicity of COVID-19 vaccination in treated IMID, taking specific groups into consideration for vaccination program.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, CD20 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin G , RNA, Messenger/genetics
5.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 63: 103893, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851849

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The impact of COVID-19 in patients with neuroimmunological disorders is not fully established. There is some evidence suggesting an increased risk of more severe infection associated with the use of immunosuppressors in this population. OBJECTIVE: To characterize SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients followed in the neuroimmunology outpatient clinic of a tertiary centre from the north of Portugal. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of neuroimmunological patients with PCR-proven SARS-CoV-2 infection during the observational period of 20 months. RESULTS: Ninety-one patients were infected, 68.1% female, with a mean age of 48.9±16.7 years. The median disease duration was 11.0 (IQR 6.0-19.0) years. Sixty-one patients (67.0%) had Multiple Sclerosis, of which 50 with relapsing-remitting course, 12 (13.2%) Myasthenia Gravis (MG), 6 (6.6%) Autoimmune Encephalitis and 6 (6.6%) Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy. Seventy-six patients (83.5%) were taking disease-modifying therapy, 77.6% of which were on immunosuppressants, including anti-CD20 in 12 (13.2%). Most patients had mild COVID-19 (84.6%), with 3 cases (3.3%) of severe disease and, 7 cases (7.7%) of critical disease being reported. In total, 13 patients were hospitalized and 4 died. Patients with severe to critical disease were significantly older than patients with milder forms (69.4±21.0 versus 46.5±14.4 years, p<0.01). MG was also associated with more severe disease (p=0.02). There was no association between comorbidities or use of immunosuppressors (including anti-CD20) and COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSIONS: Greater age and MG were associated with severe or critical COVID-19. We found no association between a specific DMT, including anti-CD20, and outcome. Clinical recovery was achieved by 93.4%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD20 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(2)2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745397

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Information about humoral and cellular responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and antibody persistence in convalescent (COVID-19) patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) is scarce. The objectives of this study were to investigate factors influencing humoral and cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 and its persistence in convalescent COVID-19 PwMS. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of confirmed COVID-19 convalescent PwMS identified between February 2020 and May 2021 by SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing. We examined relationships between demographics, MS characteristics, disease-modifying therapy (DMT), and humoral (immunoglobulin G against spike and nucleocapsid proteins) and cellular (interferon-gamma [IFN-γ]) responses to SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 121 (83.45%) of 145 PwMS were seropositive, and 25/42 (59.5%) presented a cellular response up to 13.1 months after COVID-19. Anti-CD20-treated patients had lower antibody titers than those under other DMTs (p < 0.001), but severe COVID-19 and a longer time from last infusion increased the likelihood of producing a humoral response. IFN-γ levels did not differ among DMT. Five of 7 (71.4%) anti--CD20-treated seronegative patients had a cellular response. The humoral response persisted for more than 6 months in 41/56(81.13%) PwMS. In multivariate analysis, seropositivity decreased due to anti-CD20 therapy (OR 0.08 [95% CI 0.01-0.55]) and increased in males (OR 3.59 [1.02-12.68]), whereas the cellular response decreased in those with progressive disease (OR 0.04 [0.001-0.88]). No factors were associated with antibody persistence. DISCUSSION: Humoral and cellular responses to SARS-CoV-2 are present in COVID-19 convalescent PwMS up to 13.10 months after COVID-19. The humoral response decreases under anti-CD20 treatment, although the cellular response can be detected in anti-CD20-treated patients, even in the absence of antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antigens, CD20/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Interferon-gamma/biosynthesis , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Nucleocapsid/chemistry , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Retrospective Studies
8.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 60: 103729, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1720661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine humoral and cellular response in multiple sclerosis patients on anti-CD20 therapy after third BNT162b2 mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal study design from first throughout third vaccination in Danish and American MS centers. All participants were treated with ocrelizumab. Antibody (Ab) levels were assessed before and after third vaccination using SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant assay (Abbott Laboratories). B- and T-lymphocytes enumeration was done with BD Multitest™6-color TBNK reagent. Spike-specific T-cell responses were measured through PBMC stimulation with spike peptide pools (JPT Peptide Technologies). RESULTS: We found that 14.0%, 37.7%, and 33.3% were seropositive after first, second and third vaccination. The median Ab-levels were 74.2 BAU/mL (range: 8.5-2427) after second vaccination, as well as 43.7 BAU/ml (range: 7.8-366.1) and 31.3 BAU/mL (range: 7.9-507.0) before and after third vaccination, respectively. No difference was found in levels after second and third vaccination (p = 0.1475). Seropositivity dropped to 25.0% of participants before the third vaccination, a relative reduction of 33.3% (p = 0.0020). No difference was found between frequencies of spike reactive CD4+and CD8+ T-cells after second (0.65 ± 0.08% and 0.95 ± 0.20%, respectively) and third vaccination (0.99 ± 0.22% and 1.3 ± 0.34%, respectively). CONCLUSION: In this longitudinal cohort we found no significant increased humoral or cellular response with administration of a third SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. These findings suggest the need for clinical strategies to include allowance of B cell reconstitution before repeat vaccination and/or provision of pre-exposure prophylactic monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Antibodies, Viral , Antigens, CD20 , BNT162 Vaccine , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Longitudinal Studies , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
11.
Int J Hematol ; 115(1): 7-10, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604920

ABSTRACT

We investigated the efficacy of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in patients with B-cell malignancies treated with anti-CD20 antibody. Although T-cell-mediated immune responses were detected even in patients receiving R-CHOP treatment, the S1 antibody titer following BNT162b2 vaccination remained only marginally increased for more than 3 years after the final dose of anti-CD20 antibody. We found no relationship between the percent of B-cells and S1 antibody titer. The duration of this suppression was much longer than we anticipated. Further protection and treatment strategies against COVID-19 for these patients are warranted.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymphoma, B-Cell/complications , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation , Antigens, CD20/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Doxorubicin/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Lymphoma, B-Cell/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisone/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Vincristine/therapeutic use
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 763412, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528822

ABSTRACT

B cell-targeting strategies such as rituximab are widely used in B cell hematologic malignancies, rheumatologic and musculoskeletal diseases and a variety of autoimmune disorders. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how exposure to anti-CD20 treatment profoundly affects B cell functions involved in anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunity and significantly impacts on the clinical and serological course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, long term immunity and vaccine responses. The data presented here suggest that the effects of B cell-depleting agents on adaptive immunity should be taken into account for the proper selection and interpretation of SARS-CoV-2 diagnostics and to guide appropriate therapeutic approaches and protective measures. Combination therapeutic strategies including immunotherapy in association with prolonged antiviral treatment may play a decisive role in the setting of B cell immune deficiencies.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD20/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans
14.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 1990-2001, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526094

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccination in healthy individuals generates immune protection against COVID-19. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine-induced responses in immunosuppressed patients. We investigated induction of antigen-specific antibody, B cell and T cell responses longitudinally in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on anti-CD20 antibody monotherapy (n = 20) compared with healthy controls (n = 10) after BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 mRNA vaccination. Treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (aCD20) significantly reduced spike-specific and receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibody and memory B cell responses in most patients, an effect ameliorated with longer duration from last aCD20 treatment and extent of B cell reconstitution. By contrast, all patients with MS treated with aCD20 generated antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. Treatment with aCD20 skewed responses, compromising circulating follicular helper T (TFH) cell responses and augmenting CD8 T cell induction, while preserving type 1 helper T (TH1) cell priming. Patients with MS treated with aCD20 lacking anti-RBD IgG had the most severe defect in circulating TFH responses and more robust CD8 T cell responses. These data define the nature of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune landscape in aCD20-treated patients and provide insights into coordinated mRNA vaccine-induced immune responses in humans. Our findings have implications for clinical decision-making and public health policy for immunosuppressed patients including those treated with aCD20.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, CD20/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Immunotherapy/methods , Longitudinal Studies , Multiple Sclerosis/blood , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , Rituximab/pharmacology , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vero Cells
15.
Br J Haematol ; 196(4): 892-901, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511287

ABSTRACT

Patients with haematological malignancies have a high risk of severe infection and death from SARS-CoV-2. In this prospective observational study, we investigated the impact of cancer type, disease activity, and treatment in 877 unvaccinated UK patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and active haematological cancer. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities, the highest mortality was in patients with acute leukaemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1·73, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·1-2·72, P = 0·017] and myeloma (OR 1·3, 95% CI 0·96-1·76, P = 0·08). Having uncontrolled cancer (newly diagnosed awaiting treatment as well as relapsed or progressive disease) was associated with increased mortality risk (OR = 2·45, 95% CI 1·09-5·5, P = 0·03), as was receiving second or beyond line of treatment (OR = 1·7, 95% CI 1·08-2·67, P = 0·023). We found no association between recent cytotoxic chemotherapy or anti-CD19/anti-CD20 treatment and increased risk of death within the limitations of the cohort size. Therefore, disease control is an important factor predicting mortality in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection alongside the possible risks of therapies such as cytotoxic treatment or anti-CD19/anti-CD20 treatments.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD20/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Adult , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Leukemia/complications , Leukemia/drug therapy , Leukemia/immunology , Male , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
Nat Med ; 27(11): 1990-2001, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410406

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccination in healthy individuals generates immune protection against COVID-19. However, little is known about SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine-induced responses in immunosuppressed patients. We investigated induction of antigen-specific antibody, B cell and T cell responses longitudinally in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) on anti-CD20 antibody monotherapy (n = 20) compared with healthy controls (n = 10) after BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 mRNA vaccination. Treatment with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (aCD20) significantly reduced spike-specific and receptor-binding domain (RBD)-specific antibody and memory B cell responses in most patients, an effect ameliorated with longer duration from last aCD20 treatment and extent of B cell reconstitution. By contrast, all patients with MS treated with aCD20 generated antigen-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses after vaccination. Treatment with aCD20 skewed responses, compromising circulating follicular helper T (TFH) cell responses and augmenting CD8 T cell induction, while preserving type 1 helper T (TH1) cell priming. Patients with MS treated with aCD20 lacking anti-RBD IgG had the most severe defect in circulating TFH responses and more robust CD8 T cell responses. These data define the nature of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced immune landscape in aCD20-treated patients and provide insights into coordinated mRNA vaccine-induced immune responses in humans. Our findings have implications for clinical decision-making and public health policy for immunosuppressed patients including those treated with aCD20.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, CD20/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunity, Humoral/physiology , Immunotherapy/methods , Longitudinal Studies , Multiple Sclerosis/blood , RNA, Messenger/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , Rituximab/pharmacology , Rituximab/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination , Vero Cells
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