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1.
J Cell Physiol ; 237(2): 1521-1531, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490820

ABSTRACT

Mechanical forces can modulate the immune response, mostly described as promoting the activation of immune cells, but the role and mechanism of pathological levels of mechanical stress in lymphocyte activation have not been focused on before. By an ex vivo experimental approach, we observed that mechanical stressing of murine spleen lymphocytes with 50 mmHg for 3 h induced the nuclear localization of NFAT1, increased C-Jun, and increased the expression of early activation marker CD69 in resting CD8+ cells. Interestingly, 50 mmHg mechanical stressing induced the nuclear localization of NFAT1; but conversely decreased C-Jun and inhibited the expression of CD69 in lymphocytes under lipopolysaccharide or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate/ionomycin stimulation. Additionally, we observed similar changes trends when comparing RNA-seq data of hypertensive and normotensive COVID-19 patients. Our results indicate a biphasic effect of mechanical stress on lymphocyte activation, which provides insight into the variety of immune responses in pathologies involving elevated mechanical stress.


Subject(s)
Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Stress, Mechanical , Animals , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Nucleus/drug effects , Cell Nucleus/metabolism , Comorbidity , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Ion Channels/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Lymphocyte Activation/genetics , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , NFATC Transcription Factors/metabolism , Protein Transport/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate/pharmacology
2.
Immunity ; 54(9): 2133-2142.e3, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433401

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have shown remarkable clinical efficacy, but questions remain about the nature and kinetics of T cell priming. We performed longitudinal antigen-specific T cell analyses on healthy SARS-CoV-2-naive and recovered individuals prior to and following mRNA prime and boost vaccination. Vaccination induced rapid antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in naive subjects after the first dose, whereas CD8+ T cell responses developed gradually and were variable in magnitude. Vaccine-induced Th1 and Tfh cell responses following the first dose correlated with post-boost CD8+ T cells and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Integrated analysis revealed coordinated immune responses with distinct trajectories in SARS-CoV-2-naive and recovered individuals. Last, whereas booster vaccination improved T cell responses in SARS-CoV-2-naive subjects, the second dose had little effect in SARS-CoV-2-recovered individuals. These findings highlight the role of rapidly primed CD4+ T cells in coordinating responses to the second vaccine dose in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , Immunologic Memory , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Peptides/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
3.
Sci Immunol ; 5(51)2020 09 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-808356

ABSTRACT

Severe COVID-19 is characterized by excessive inflammation of the lower airways. The balance of protective versus pathological immune responses in COVID-19 is incompletely understood. Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are antimicrobial T cells that recognize bacterial metabolites, and can also function as innate-like sensors and mediators of antiviral responses. Here, we investigated the MAIT cell compartment in COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe disease, as well as in convalescence. We show profound and preferential decline in MAIT cells in the circulation of patients with active disease paired with strong activation. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses indicated significant MAIT cell enrichment and pro-inflammatory IL-17A bias in the airways. Unsupervised analysis identified MAIT cell CD69high and CXCR3low immunotypes associated with poor clinical outcome. MAIT cell levels normalized in the convalescent phase, consistent with dynamic recruitment to the tissues and later release back into the circulation when disease is resolved. These findings indicate that MAIT cells are engaged in the immune response against SARS-CoV-2 and suggest their possible involvement in COVID-19 immunopathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, CXCR3/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Nat Immunol ; 21(9): 1107-1118, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710376

ABSTRACT

In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the relationship between disease severity and the host immune response is not fully understood. Here we performed single-cell RNA sequencing in peripheral blood samples of 5 healthy donors and 13 patients with COVID-19, including moderate, severe and convalescent cases. Through determining the transcriptional profiles of immune cells, coupled with assembled T cell receptor and B cell receptor sequences, we analyzed the functional properties of immune cells. Most cell types in patients with COVID-19 showed a strong interferon-α response and an overall acute inflammatory response. Moreover, intensive expansion of highly cytotoxic effector T cell subsets, such as CD4+ effector-GNLY (granulysin), CD8+ effector-GNLY and NKT CD160, was associated with convalescence in moderate patients. In severe patients, the immune landscape featured a deranged interferon response, profound immune exhaustion with skewed T cell receptor repertoire and broad T cell expansion. These findings illustrate the dynamic nature of immune responses during disease progression.


Subject(s)
Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Interferon Type I/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antigens, CD/genetics , Antigens, CD/immunology , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , GPI-Linked Proteins/genetics , GPI-Linked Proteins/immunology , GPI-Linked Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Interferon Type I/genetics , Interferon Type I/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , RNA-Seq , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis
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