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1.
Physiol Rep ; 10(22): e15512, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115675

ABSTRACT

Previous studies suggested that ongoing treatment with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor drugs may alter the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and promote the development of more severe forms of the disease. The authors conducted a comparative, observational study to retrospectively analyze data collected from 394 patients admitted to ICU due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The primary aim of the study was to establish an association between the use of RAAS inhibitor drugs and mortality in the ICU. The secondary aims of the study were to establish an association between the use of RAAS inhibitor drugs and clinical severity at ICU admission, the need for tracheal intubation, total days of mechanical ventilation, and the ICU length of stay. The authors found no statistically significant difference in ICU mortality between patients on RAAS inhibitor drugs at admission and those who were not (31.3% versus 26.2% mortality, p-value 0.3). However, the group of patients taking RAAS inhibitor drugs appeared to be more critical at ICU admission, and this difference became statistically significant in the subgroup of non-hypertensive patients. ICU mortality in the subgroup of non-hypertensive patients treated with RAAS inhibitor drugs also tended to be higher. Overexpression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in human cells, induced by RAAS inhibitor drugs, promotes viral entry-replication of SARS-CoV-2 and alters the basal balance of the RAAS, which may explain the findings observed in the present study. These phenomena may be amplified in non-hypertensive patients treated with RAAS inhibitor therapy.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , COVID-19 , Renin-Angiotensin System , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Prognosis , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Intensive Care Units , Hospitalization
2.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets ; 22(2): 104-117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098958

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and heart failure are known risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severity and mortality outcomes. Beta-blocker is one of the drugs of choice to treat these conditions. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between preadmission beta-blocker use and COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Europe PMC were used as the database for our search strategy by using combined keywords related to our aims until December 10th, 2020. All articles related to COVID- 19 and beta-blocker were retrieved. Review Manager 5.4 and Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3 software were used to perform statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 43 studies consisting of 11,388,556 patients were included in our analysis. Our meta-analysis showed that the use of beta-blocker was associated with increased risk of COVID-19 [OR 1.32 (95% CI 1.02 - 1.70), p = 0.03, I2 = 99%, random-effect modelling], clinical progression [OR 1.37 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.88), p = 0.04, I2 = 89%, random-effect modelling], and mortality from COVID-19 [OR 1.64 (95% CI 1.22 - 2.19), p = 0.0009, I2 = 94%, random-effect modelling]. Metaregression showed that the association with mortality outcome were influenced by age (p = 0.018) and hypertension (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The risk and benefits of using beta-blocker as a drug of choice to treat hypertensive patients should be considered and reviewed individually, case by case, knowing their association with higher incidence and severity of COVID-19 infections. Other first-line antihypertensive drugs may be considered as an alternative therapy if the risk of administering beta blockers outweighs the benefits of COVID-19 infection. REGISTRATION DETAILS: PROSPERO (CRD42021260455).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Hypertension/drug therapy , Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082136

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to assess the changes in the prevalence and determinants of self-reported hypertension among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. This repeated cross-sectional study was conducted on two successive occasions (October 2020 and September 2021), overlapping the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. The survey was conducted through telephone interviews among Bangladeshi older adults aged 60 years and above. The prevalence of hypertension was measured by asking a question about whether a doctor or health professional told the participants that they have hypertension or high blood pressure and/or whether they are currently using medication to control it. We also collected information on the socio-economic characteristics of the participants, their cognitive ability, and their COVID-19-related attributes. A total of 2077 older adults with a mean age of 66.7 ± 6.4 years participated in the study. The samples were randomly selected on two successive occasions from a pre-established registry developed by the ARCED Foundation. Thus, the sample in the 2021-survey (round two; n = 1045) was not the same as that in the 2020-survey (round one; n = 1031) but both were drawn from the same population. The findings revealed that the prevalence of hypertension significantly increased across the two periods (43.7% versus 56.3%; p = 0.006). The odds of hypertension were 1.34 times more likely in round two than in the round one cohort (AOR 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.70). We also found that having formal schooling, poorer memory or concentration, and having had received COVID-19 information were all associated with an increased risk of hypertension in both rounds (p < 0.05). The findings of the present study suggest providing immediate support to ensure proper screening, control, and treatment of hypertension among older adults in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Aged , Middle Aged , Prevalence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Self Report , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/drug therapy , Bangladesh/epidemiology
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(10): e064284, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053221

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess factors associated with poor medication adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic among hypertensive patients visiting public hospitals in Eastern Ethiopia. SETTING: Hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Harari regional state and Dire Dawa Administration from 1 January to 30 February 2022. Both settings are found in Eastern Ethiopia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 402 adult hypertensive patients who visited the chronic diseases clinic for follow-up were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was poor medication adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The level of poor antihypetensive medication adherence was 63% (95% CI 48.1 to 67.9). Patients who had no formal education (adjusted OR (AOR)=1.56, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.30), existing comorbid conditions (AOR=1.98, 95% CI 1.35 to 4.35), self-funded for medication cost (AOR=2.05, 95% CI 1.34 to 4.73), poor knowledge about hypertension (HTN) and its treatment (AOR=2.67, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.99), poor patient-physician relationship (AOR=1.22, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.34) and unavailability of medication (AOR=5.05, 95% CI 2.78 to 12.04) showed significant association with poor medication adherence during the pandemic of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: The level of poor antihypertensive medication adherence was high in this study. No formal education, comorbidity, self-funded medication cost, poor knowledge about HTN and its treatment, poor patient-physician relationship, and unavailability of medication during the COVID-19 pandemic were factors significantly associated with poor adherence to antihypertensive medication. All stakeholders should take into account and create strategies to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medication adherence of chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Pandemics
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043742

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses major challenges to healthcare systems. We aimed to investigate the impact of the pandemic on prescription and adherence patterns of chronic cardiovascular therapies (lipid-lowering [LL], oral antidiabetic drugs [AD], and antihypertensives [AH]) using administrative pharmaceutical databases. For each treatment, two cohorts of prevalent cases in 2019 and 2020 were compared. We evaluated the percentage change in dispensed packages and treatment adherence as a proportion of days covered (PDC). For all therapies, an increase was observed during March-April 2020 (LL: +4.52%; AD: +2.72%; AH: +1.09%), with a sharp decrease in May-June 2020 (LL: -8.40%; AD: -12.09%; AH: -10.54%) compared to 2019. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on chronic cardiovascular treatments appears negligible on adherence: 533,414 patients showed high adherence to LL (PDC ≥ 80%) in January-February 2020, and 2.29% became poorly adherent (PDC < 20%) in the following four-month period (vs. 1.98% in 2019). A similar increase was also observed for AH (1.25% with poor adherence in 2020 vs. 0.93% in 2019). For AD, the increase was restrained (1.55% with poor adherence in 2020 vs. 1.37% in 2019). The rush to supply drugs at the beginning of lockdown preserved the continuity of chronic cardiovascular therapies.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , COVID-19 , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Lipids , Medication Adherence , Outpatients , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
6.
Cardiol J ; 29(5): 730-738, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2040289

ABSTRACT

Hypertension and lipid disorders are two of the main cardiovascular risk factors. Both risk factors - if detected early enough - can be controlled and treated with modern, effective drugs, devoid of significant side effects, available in four countries as different as Italy, Spain, Poland, and Uzbekistan. The aim herein, was to develop this TIMES TO ACT consensus to raise the awareness of the available options of the modern and intensified dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension treatments. The subsequent paragraphs involves consensus and discussion of the deleterious effects of COVID-19 in the cardiovascular field, the high prevalence of hypertension and lipid disorders in our countries and the most important reasons for poor control of these two factors. Subsequently proposed, are currently the most efficient and safe therapeutic options in treating dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, focusing on the benefits of single-pill combination (SPCs) in both conditions. An accelerated algorithm is proposed to start the treatment with a PCSK9 inhibitor, if the target low-density-lipoprotein values have not been reached. As most patients with hypertension and lipid disorders present with multiple comorbidities, discussed are the possibilities of using new SPCs, combining modern drugs from different therapeutic groups, which mode of action does not confirm the "class effect". We believe our consensus strongly advocates the need to search for patients with cardiovascular risk factors and intensify their lipid-lowering and antihypertensive treatment based on SPCs will improve the control of these two basic cardiovascular risk factors in Italy, Spain, Poland and Uzbekistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Dyslipidemias , Hypertension , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Dyslipidemias/diagnosis , Dyslipidemias/drug therapy , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Lipids , Lipoproteins , Poland , Proprotein Convertase 9 , Risk Factors
7.
Hypertension ; 79(11): 2601-2610, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases including arterial hypertension are common comorbidities among patients hospitalized due to COVID-19. We assessed the influence of preexisting hypertension and its pharmacological treatment on in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: We studied all consecutive patients who were admitted to the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland, due to COVID-19 between March 2020 and May 2021. Data of 5191 patients (mean age 61.9±16.7 years, 45.2% female) were analyzed. RESULTS: The median hospitalization time was 14 days, and the mortality rate was 18.4%. About a quarter of patients had an established cardiovascular disease including coronary artery disease (16.6%) or stroke (7.6%). Patients with hypertension (58.3%) were older and had more comorbidities than patients without hypertension. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, age above median (64 years), male gender, history of heart failure or chronic kidney disease, and higher C-reactive protein level, but not preexisting hypertension, were independent risk factors for in-hospital death in the whole study group. Patients with hypertension already treated (n=1723) with any first-line antihypertensive drug (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, or thiazide/thiazide-like diuretics) had a significantly lower risk of in-hospital death (odds ratio, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.2-0.3]; P<0.001) compared to nontreated hypertensives (n=1305). CONCLUSIONS: Although the diagnosis of preexisting hypertension per se had no significant impact on in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19, treatment with any first-line blood pressure-lowering drug had a profound beneficial effect on survival in patients with hypertension. These data support the need for antihypertensive pharmacological treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Hospital Mortality , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/chemically induced , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Thiazides/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitalization
8.
Hypertension ; 79(9): 1971-1980, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data indicate that the proportion of US adults with hypertension that had controlled blood pressure (BP) declined from 2013 to 2014 through 2017 to 2018. We analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009 to 2012, 2013 to 2016, and 2017 to 2020 to confirm this finding. METHODS: Hypertension was defined as systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication use. BP control among those with hypertension was defined as systolic BP <140 mm Hg and diastolic BP <90 mm Hg. RESULTS: The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 31.5% (95% CI, 30.3%-32.8%), 32.0% (95% CI, 30.6%-33.3%), and 32.9% (95% CI, 31.0%-34.7%) in 2009 to 2012, 2013 to 2016, and 2017 to 2020, respectively (P trend=0.218). The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension increased among non-Hispanic Asian adults from 27.0% in 2011 to 2012 to 33.5% in 2017 to 2020 (P trend=0.003). Among Hispanic adults, the age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension increased from 29.4% in 2009 to 2012 to 33.2% in 2017 to 2020 (P trend=0.029). In 2009 to 2012, 2013 to 2016, and 2017 to 2020, 52.8% (95% CI, 50.0%-55.7%), 51.3% (95% CI, 47.9%-54.6%), and 48.2% (95% CI, 45.7%-50.8%) of US adults with hypertension had controlled BP (P trend=0.034). Among US adults taking antihypertensive medication, 69.9% (95% CI, 67.8%-72.0%), 69.3% (95% CI, 66.6%-71.9%), and 67.7% (95% CI, 65.2%-70.3%) had controlled BP in 2009 to 2012, 2013 to 2016, and 2017 to 2020, respectively (P trend=0.189). Among all US adults with hypertension and those taking antihypertensive medication, a decline in BP control between 2009 to 2012 and 2017 to 2020 occurred among those ≥75 years, women, and non-Hispanic black adults. CONCLUSIONS: These data confirm that the proportion of US adults with hypertension who have controlled BP has declined.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents , Hypertension , Adult , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure , Female , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(17): e026143, 2022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001999

ABSTRACT

Background Published randomized controlled trials are underpowered for binary clinical end points to assess the safety and efficacy of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) in adults with COVID-19. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to assess the safety and efficacy of RASi in adults with COVID-19. Methods and Results MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register were searched for randomized controlled trials that randomly assigned patients with COVID-19 to RASi continuation/commencement versus no RASi therapy. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at ≤30 days. A total of 14 randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and enrolled 1838 participants (aged 59 years, 58% men, mean follow-up 26 days). Of the trials, 11 contributed data. We found no effect of RASi versus control on all-cause mortality (7.2% versus 7.5%; relative risk [RR], 0.95; [95% CI, 0.69-1.30]) either overall or in subgroups defined by COVID-19 severity or trial type. Network meta-analysis identified no difference between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors versus angiotensin II receptor blockers. RASi users had a nonsignificant reduction in acute myocardial infarction (2.1% versus 3.6%; RR, 0.59; [95% CI, 0.33-1.06]), but increased risk of acute kidney injury (7.0% versus 3.6%; RR, 1.82; [95% CI, 1.05-3.16]), in trials that initiated and continued RASi. There was no increase in need for dialysis or differences in congestive cardiac failure, cerebrovascular events, venous thromboembolism, hospitalization, intensive care admission, inotropes, or mechanical ventilation. Conclusions This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers versus control in patients with COVID-19 found no difference in all-cause mortality, a borderline decrease in myocardial infarction, and an increased risk of acute kidney injury with RASi. Our findings provide strong evidence that RASi can be used safely in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Myocardial Infarction , Acute Kidney Injury/chemically induced , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Renin-Angiotensin System
10.
J Hypertens ; 40(12): 2323-2336, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypertension and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs)/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been reported to be associated with the prognosis of COVID-19, but the findings remain controversial. Here, we conducted a systematic review to summarize the current evidence. METHODS: We retrieved all the studies by MEDLINE via PubMed, CENTRAL, and Embase using the MeSH terms until 30 April 2021. A fixed or random effect model was applied to calculate pooled adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Interactive analysis was performed to identify the interaction effect of hypertension and age on in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: In total, 86 articles with 18 775 387 COVID-19 patients from 18 countries were included in this study. The pooled analysis showed that the COVID-19 patients with hypertension had increased risks of in-hospital mortality and other adverse outcomes, compared with those without hypertension, with an AOR (95% CI) of 1.36 (1.28-1.45) and 1.32 (1.24-1.41), respectively. The results were mostly repeated in countries with more than three independent studies. Furthermore, the effect of hypertension on in-hospital mortality is more evident in younger and older COVID-19 patients than in 60-69-year-old patients. ACEI/ARBs did not significantly affect the mortality and adverse outcomes of COVID-19 patients, compared with those receiving other antihypertensive treatments. CONCLUSION: Hypertension is significantly associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality and adverse outcomes in COVID-19. The effect of hypertension on in-hospital mortality among consecutive age groups followed a U-shaped curve. ACEI/ARB treatments do not increase in-hospital mortality and other poor outcomes of COVID-19 patients with hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Hypertension/drug therapy , Prognosis
11.
J Hypertens ; 40(9): 1702-1712, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring combined with case management leads to BP reductions in individuals with hypertension. However, its benefits are less clear in older (age ≥ 65 years) adults. METHODS: Twelve-month, open-label, randomized trial of community-dwelling older adults comparing the combination of home BP telemonitoring (HBPM) and pharmacist-led case management, vs. enhanced usual care with HBPM alone. The primary outcome was the proportion achieving systolic BP targets on 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM). Changes in HBPM were also examined. Logistic and linear regressions were used for analyses, adjusted for baseline BP. RESULTS: Enrollment was stopped early due to coronavirus disease 2019. Participants randomized to intervention (n = 61) and control (n = 59) groups were mostly female (77%), with mean age 79.5 years. The adjusted odds ratio for ABPM BP target achievement was 1.48 (95% confidence interval 0.87-2.52, P = 0.15). At 12 months, the mean difference in BP changes between intervention and control groups was -1.6/-1.1 for ABPM (P-value 0.26 for systolic BP and 0.10 for diastolic BP), and -4.9/-3.1 for HBPM (P-value 0.04 for systolic BP and 0.01 for diastolic BP), favoring the intervention. Intervention group participants had hypotension (systolic BP < 110) more frequently (21% vs. 5%, P = 0.009), but no differences in orthostatic symptoms, syncope, non-mechanical falls, or emergency department visits. CONCLUSIONS: Home BP telemonitoring and pharmacist case management did not improve achievement of target range ambulatory BP, but did reduce home BP. It did not result in major adverse consequences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure/physiology , Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory , Case Management , Female , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Independent Living , Male
12.
Crit Care Med ; 50(10): e744-e758, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961176

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of prior use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASIs) with mortality and outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: Multicenter, international COVID-19 registry. SUBJECTS: Adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients on antihypertensive agents (AHAs) prior to admission, admitted from March 31, 2020, to March 10, 2021. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Data were compared between three groups: patients on RAASIs only, other AHAs only, and those on both medications. Multivariable logistic and linear regressions were performed after controlling for prehospitalization characteristics to estimate the effect of RAASIs on mortality and other outcomes during hospitalization. Of 26,652 patients, 7,975 patients were on AHAs prior to hospitalization. Of these, 1,542 patients (19.3%) were on RAASIs only, 3,765 patients (47.2%) were on other AHAs only, and 2,668 (33.5%) patients were on both medications. Compared with those taking other AHAs only, patients on RAASIs only were younger (mean age 63.3 vs 66.9 yr; p < 0.0001), more often male (58.2% vs 52.4%; p = 0.0001) and more often White (55.1% vs 47.2%; p < 0.0001). After adjusting for age, gender, race, location, and comorbidities, patients on combination of RAASIs and other AHAs had higher in-hospital mortality than those on RAASIs only (odds ratio [OR] = 1.28; 95% CI [1.19-1.38]; p < 0.0001) and higher mortality than those on other AHAs only (OR = 1.09; 95% CI [1.03-1.15]; p = 0.0017). Patients on RAASIs only had lower mortality than those on other AHAs only (OR = 0.87; 95% CI [0.81-0.94]; p = 0.0003). Patients on ACEIs only had higher mortality compared with those on ARBs only (OR = 1.37; 95% CI [1.20-1.56]; p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 who were taking AHAs, prior use of a combination of RAASIs and other AHAs was associated with higher in-hospital mortality than the use of RAASIs alone. When compared with ARBs, ACEIs were associated with significantly higher mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Adult , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System , Retrospective Studies
13.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(11): e025289, 2022 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950539

ABSTRACT

Background Renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor-COVID-19 studies, observational in design, appear to use biased methods that can distort the interaction between RAAS inhibitor use and COVID-19 risk. This study assessed the extent of bias in that research and reevaluated RAAS inhibitor-COVID-19 associations in studies without critical risk of bias. Methods and Results Searches were performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases (December 1, 2019 to October 21, 2021) identifying studies that compared the risk of infection and/or severe COVID-19 outcomes between those using or not using RAAS inhibitors (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers). Weighted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were extracted and pooled in fixed-effects meta-analyses, only from studies without critical risk of bias that assessed severe COVID-19 outcomes. Of 169 relevant studies, 164 had critical risks of bias and were excluded. Ultimately, only two studies presented data relevant to the meta-analysis. In 1 351 633 people with uncomplicated hypertension using a RAAS inhibitor, calcium channel blocker, or thiazide diuretic in monotherapy, the risk of hospitalization (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor: HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.66-0.87; P<0.001; angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers: HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77-0.97; P=0.015) and intubation or death (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor: HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.48-0.85; P=0.002; angiotensin II type-I receptor blockers: HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.58-0.95; P=0.019) with COVID-19 was lower in those using a RAAS inhibitor. However, these protective effects are probably not clinically relevant. Conclusions This study reveals the critical risk of bias that exists across almost an entire body of COVID-19 research, raising an important question: Were research methods and/or peer-review processes temporarily weakened during the surge of COVID-19 research or is this lack of rigor a systemic problem that also exists outside pandemic-based research? Registration URL: www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/; Unique identifier: CRD42021237859.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aldosterone , Angiotensin II/pharmacology , Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Renin , Renin-Angiotensin System , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Hum Hypertens ; 36(9): 852-859, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935408

ABSTRACT

The study was conducted to identify the impact of the pandemic on hypertensive older people's COVID-19 fear, blood pressure control, and medication adherence. In this descriptive, correlational study, mean medication adherence was taken as 45.6 ± 6.06% based on the literature, with a 5% margin of error, and the sample size was determined as 292 with 95% confidence interval and 80% power. Data were collected from 419 older individuals using a sociodemographic information form, an infodemic-related questionnaire, Fear of COVID-19 Scale, and Medication Adherence Self-Efficacy Scale via Google Forms. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software via independent sample t test, one-way variance analysis, χ2 analysis, and the Pearson correlation coefficient. It was found that, rather than avoiding hospitals during a pandemic, one out of two older people had had their blood pressure checked. One out of every five had abnormal/uncontrolled blood pressure during the pandemic. The infodemic was found to increase concern levels, and those with high fear scores had abnormal/uncontrolled levels of blood pressure. Moreover, a low-level positive correlation was found between medication adherence and the level of fear of COVID-19. As the pandemic continues, older people with hypertension need support in terms of monitoring blood pressure and medication adherence as well as increased awareness about the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/pharmacology , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Blood Pressure , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fear , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Hypertension/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology
15.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0269240, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933316

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Uncontrolled hypertension is the most common cause of major adverse clinical events (MACE), such as myocardial infarction, strokes, and death due to CVDs, in both developed and developing countries. Western-led studies found that treated hypertensive adults with uncontrolled hypertension were more at-risk of all-cause and CVD-specific mortality than normotensives. The PRospEctive longituDInal sTudy of Treated HyperTensive patients of Northern-Bangladesh (PREDIcT-HTN) study principally aims to estimate the incidence of MACE in treated hypertensive patients and identify the determinants of MACE. The secondary objective is to find the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension in treated hypertensive patients and the associated risk factors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The treated hypertensive patients were obtained from the Hypertension and Research Center (H&RC), Rangpur, Bangladesh, from January to December 2020. Based on the eligibility criteria, 2643 patients were included to constitute the PREDIcT-HTN cohort. Baseline data was retrieved from the H&RC registry, and five follow-up waves are planned yearly (2021-2025). A questionnaire will be administered at each follow-up visit on hypertension control status, behavioral factors, quality of life, dietary adherence, and high blood pressure compliance-related variables. The participant will be right censored if the patient develops MACE, death due to any cause, loss to follow-up, or at the end of the study. A proportional hazard model will identify the risk factors of MACE. Multinomial logistic regression analyses will be performed to determine the predictors of the hypertension control status by medication and dietary adherence after adjusting confounders. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Institutional Review Board, North South University [Ref: 2019/OR-NSU/IRB-No.0902]. The participants will provide written consent to participate. The findings will be disseminated through manuscripts in clinical/academic journals and presentations at professional conferences and stakeholder communication.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Hypertension , Adult , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
17.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 4727-4734, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905892

ABSTRACT

Comorbidities such as hypertension could exacerbate symptoms of coronaviral disease 2019 (COVID)-19 infection. Patients with hypertension may receive both anti-COVID-19 and antihypertension therapies when infected with COVID-19. However, it is not clear how different classes of anti-hypertension drugs impact the outcome of COVID-19 treatment. Herein, we explore the association between the inpatient use of different classes of anti-hypertension drugs and mortality among patients with hypertension hospitalized with COVID-19. We totally collected data from 278 patients with hypertension diagnosed with COVID-19 admitted to hospitals in Wuhan from February 1 to April 1, 2020. A retrospective study was conducted and single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of treatment-related genes was performed. The results showed that Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and calcium channel blocker (CCB) drugs significantly increased the survival rate but the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/ß-block/diuretic drugs did not affect the mortality caused by COVID-19. Based on the analysis of four public data sets of single-cell RNA-Seq on COVID-19 patients, we concluded that JUN, LST1 genes may play a role in the effect of ARB on COVID-19-related mortality, whereas CALM1 gene may contribute to the effect of CCB on COVID-19-related mortality. Our results provide guidance on the selection of antihypertension drugs for hypertensive patients infected with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Computational Biology , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Rev Port Cardiol ; 41(10): 823-830, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907718

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic use of Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEi) and aldosterone-receptor blockers (ARB) is not associated with worse outcomes in patients with COVID-19. However, evidence on the impact of their discontinuation during hospital admission is scarce. Our aim was to determine whether withdrawal of ACEi, ARB and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRA) is associated with all-cause mortality in a real-life large cohort of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Observational cohort study from a large referral center from 1 March 2020 to 20 April 2020. Withdrawal of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors was defined as the absence of any received dose during hospital admission in patients receiving chronic treatment. Prescriptions during admission were confirmed by data from the central pharmacy computerized system. Results: A total of 2042 patients (mean age 68.4±17.6, 57.1% male) with confirmed COVID-19 were included. During a median follow-up of 57 (21-55) days, 583 (28.6%) died. Prior to hospital admission 468 (22.9%), 343 (16.8%) and 83 (4.1%) patients were receiving ACEi, ARB and MRA respectively. During the study period, 216 (46.2%), 193 (56.3%) and 41 (49.4%) were withdrawn from the corresponding drug. After adjusting for age, cardiovascular risk factors, baseline comorbidities and in-hospital COVID-19 dedicated treatment, withdrawal of ACE inhibitors (hazard ration [HR] 1.48 [95% confidence interval -CI- 1.16-1.89]) and MRA (HR 2.01 [95% CI 1.30-3.10]) were shown to be independent predictors of all-cause mortality. No independent relationship between ARB withdrawal and mortality was observed. Conclusion: ACEi and MRA withdrawal were associated with higher mortality. Strong consideration should be given to not discontinuing these medications during hospital admission.


Introdução: O uso crónico de inibidores da ECA (IECA) e de antagonistas dos recetores de aldosterona (ARA) não está associado a resultados piores em doentes com Covid-19. No entanto, a evidência relativa ao impacto da sua retirada durante a admissão hospitalar é escassa. O nosso objetivo foi determinar se a retirada do IECA, ARA e antagonistas dos recetores dos mineralocorticóides (ARM) está associada à mortalidade por todas as causas numa grande coorte real de doentes com infeção por SRA-CoV-2. Métodos: Estudo coorte observacional a partir de um grande centro de referência de 1 de março de 2020 a 20 de abril de 2020. A retirada dos inibidores do sistema RAAS foi definida como a ausência de qualquer dose recebida durante a admissão hospitalar em doentes que recebem tratamento prolongado. As prescrições durante a admissão foram confirmadas por dados do sistema informático da farmácia central. Resultados: Um total de 2042 doentes (idade média de 68,4 ±17,6, 57,1% do sexo masculino) com COVID-19 confirmado foram incluídos. Durante um acompanhamento médio de 57 (21-55) dias, 583 (28,6%) morreram. Conclusão: A retirada do IECA e do ARM foi associada a uma mortalidade mais elevada. Deve ser dada grande atenção para não interromper estes medicamentos durante a admissão hospitalar.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aldosterone , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Angiotensins , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Renin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 24(10): 425-433, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899316

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarises the literature data and provides an overview of the role and impact of the use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has a key role in the regulation of the RAAS pathway, downregulating angiotensin II and attenuating inflammation, vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Additionally, it plays an instrumental part in COVID-19 infection as it facilitates the cell entry of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and enables its replication. The use and role of RAAS inhibitors therefore during the COVID-19 pandemic have been intensively investigated. Although it was initially assumed that RAAS inhibitors may relate to worse clinical outcomes and severe disease, data from large studies and meta-analyses demonstrated that they do not have an adverse impact on clinical outcomes or prognosis. On the contrary, some experimental and retrospective observational cohort studies showed a potential protective mechanism, although this effect remains to be seen in large clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypertension , Aldosterone/metabolism , Angiotensin II/metabolism , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/drug therapy , Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Renin/metabolism , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 280: 121523, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895420

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have reported that using certain antihypertensive therapies such as angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blocker (CCBs) is associated with reduction of fatal outcomes and improving clinical characteristics of patients suffering from hypertension during coronavirus pandemic. Thus, in the current work an effective, innovative and eco-friendly spectrophotometric manner namely, parent spectrum extraction (PSE)was established for evaluation of recommended triple antihypertensive combination therapies incorporate valsartan (VAL) as ARBs, amlodipine besylate as CCBs (AML) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT)as diuretic into single-pill in challengeable ratio. PSE manner composed of two complementary steps, auxiliary resolution coupled with data analysis resolution(DAR)and it is characterized by resolving the spectral bands of the drugs and extraction of their discrete parent spectra (D0); accordingly, enabling determination of each analyte at its λmax. Auxiliary resolution of AML in triple mixture was applied to decrease complexity of overlapped spectra via constant multiplication (CM) followed by spectrum subtraction (SS) to obtain resolved mixture of VAL and HCT while data analysis resolution (DAR) of this binary mixture was applied via one of three novel methods namely, absorbance extraction (AE), peak-amplitude extraction (PE) and ratio extraction (RE) along with SS method. The proposed methods had analyzed VAL, AML and HCT in the range of 4.0-44.0 µg/mL, 4.0-40.0 µg/mL and 2.0-24.0 µg/mL, respectively with an excellent correlation coefficient (r ≥ 0.9999). Further, the proposed methods in PSR manner were validated as stated by ICH guidelines and it was found that accuracy and precision results are within the acceptable limit. The suggested procedures were effectively utilized for the concurrent quantification of VAL, AML and HCT in synthetic mixtures and tablets. The greenness of the proposed spectrophotometric methods was evaluated by National Environmental Methods Index (NEMI), the Analytical Eco-Scale, the Green Analytical Procedure Index (GAPI) and Analytical greenness metric (AGREE) where the four tools affirmed the eco-friendly nature of the proposed methods. A comparison between the outcomes of the studied methods with the official and reported ones was performed and no statistical difference was arisen between the methods regarding to accuracy and precision.The achieved results along with the simplicity, affordability and low-cost of the proposed methods recommended their appropriateness for the regular quality control examination and analysis of pure materials and pharmaceutical formulations as well as their applicability for the spectralprint recognition of the studied drugs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Hypertension , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Amlodipine/analysis , Amlodipine/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/analysis , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrochlorothiazide/analysis , Hydrochlorothiazide/therapeutic use , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/drug therapy , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/chemically induced , Pandemics , Spectrophotometry/methods , Valsartan
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