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1.
Molecules ; 27(9)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820341

ABSTRACT

Piper nigrum, or black pepper, produces piperine, an alkaloid that has diverse pharmacological activities. In this study, N-aryl amide piperine analogs were prepared by semi-synthesis involving the saponification of piperine (1) to yield piperic acid (2) followed by esterification to obtain compounds 3, 4, and 5. The compounds were examined for their antitrypanosomal, antimalarial, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 main protease activities. The new 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenyl piperamide 5 exhibited the most robust biological activities with no cytotoxicity against mammalian cell lines, Vero and Vero E6, as compared to the other compounds in this series. Its half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) for antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense was 15.46 ± 3.09 µM, and its antimalarial activity against the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum was 24.55 ± 1.91 µM, which were fourfold and fivefold more potent, respectively, than the activities of piperine. Interestingly, compound 5 inhibited the activity of 3C-like main protease (3CLPro) toward anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity at the IC50 of 106.9 ± 1.2 µM, which was threefold more potent than the activity of rutin. Docking and molecular dynamic simulation indicated that the potential binding of 5 in the 3CLpro active site had the improved binding interaction and stability. Therefore, new aryl amide analogs of piperine 5 should be investigated further as a promising anti-infective agent against human African trypanosomiasis, malaria, and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Piper nigrum , Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Benzodioxoles , Humans , Mammals , Molecular Docking Simulation , Piper nigrum/chemistry , Piperidines , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/chemistry , Polyunsaturated Alkamides/pharmacology
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594431

ABSTRACT

Malaria is still one of the most dangerous infectious diseases and the emergence of drug resistant parasites only worsens the situation. A series of new tetrahydro-ß-carbolines were designed, synthesized by the Pictet-Spengler reaction, and characterized. Further, the compounds were screened for their in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D10) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Moreover, molecular modeling studies were performed to assess the potential action of the designed molecules and toxicity assays were conducted on the human microvascular endothelial (HMEC-1) cell line and human red blood cells. Our studies identified N-(3,3-dimethylbutyl)-1-octyl-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole-3-carboxamide (7) (a mixture of diastereomers) as the most promising compound endowed with the highest antiplasmodial activity, highest selectivity, and lack of cytotoxicity. In silico simulations carried out for (1S,3R)-7 provided useful insights into its possible interactions with enzymes essential for parasite metabolism. Further studies are underway to develop the optimal nanosized lipid-based delivery system for this compound and to determine its precise mechanism of action.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/chemistry , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Carbolines/chemistry , Carbolines/pharmacology , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Antimalarials/chemical synthesis , Carbolines/chemical synthesis , Cell Line , Drug Design , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plasmodium falciparum/enzymology , Plasmodium falciparum/metabolism
3.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 915: 174670, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549763

ABSTRACT

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a derivative of the antimalaria drug chloroquine primarily prescribed for autoimmune diseases. Recent attempts to repurpose HCQ in the treatment of corona virus disease 2019 has raised concerns because of its propensity to prolong the QT-segment on the electrocardiogram, an effect associated with increased pro-arrhythmic risk. Since chirality can affect drug pharmacological properties, we have evaluated the functional effects of the R(-) and S(+) enantiomers of HCQ on six ion channels contributing to the cardiac action potential and on electrophysiological parameters of isolated Purkinje fibers. We found that R(-)HCQ and S(+)HCQ block human Kir2.1 and hERG potassium channels in the 1 µM-100 µM range with a 2-4 fold enantiomeric separation. NaV1.5 sodium currents and CaV1.2 calcium currents, as well as KV4.3 and KV7.1 potassium currents remained unaffected at up to 90 µM. In rabbit Purkinje fibers, R(-)HCQ prominently depolarized the membrane resting potential, inducing autogenic activity at 10 µM and 30 µM, while S(+)HCQ primarily increased the action potential duration, inducing occasional early afterdepolarization at these concentrations. These data suggest that both enantiomers of HCQ can alter cardiac tissue electrophysiology at concentrations above their plasmatic levels at therapeutic doses, and that chirality does not substantially influence their arrhythmogenic potential in vitro.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/chemistry , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Heart/drug effects , Hydroxychloroquine/chemistry , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Ion Channels/drug effects , Action Potentials/drug effects , Animals , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/chemically induced , Electrocardiography , Electrophysiologic Techniques, Cardiac , Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels , Humans , Membrane Potentials/drug effects , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Purkinje Fibers/drug effects , Rabbits , Stereoisomerism
4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 76(11): 2854-2862, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537567

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first potential focus for artemisinin resistance in South America was recently confirmed with the presence of the C580Y mutation in the Plasmodium falciparum kelch 13 gene (pfk13) in Guyana. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to strengthen pfk13 monitoring in the Amazon basin countries, to compile the available data and to evaluate the risk of spreading of mutations. METHODS: Sanger sequencing was done on 862 samples collected between 1998 and 2019, and a global map of pfk13 genotypes available for this region was constructed. Then, the risk of spreading of mutations based on P. falciparum case importation between 2015 and 2018 within countries of the Amazon basin was evaluated. RESULTS: No additional pfk13 C580Y foci were identified. Few mutations (0.5%, 95% CI = 0.3%-0.8%) in the propeller domain were observed in the general parasite population of this region despite a high proportion of K189T mutations (49.1%, 95% CI = 46.2%-52.0%) in the non-propeller domain. Case information revealed two patterns of intense human migration: Venezuela, Guyana and the Roraima State in Brazil; and French Guiana, Suriname and the Amapá State in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS: There are few pfk13 mutant foci, but a high risk of dispersion in the Amazon basin, mainly from the Guiana Shield, proportionate to mining activities. Therefore, access to prompt diagnosis and treatment, and continuous molecular monitoring is essential in these geographical areas.


Subject(s)
Malaria, Falciparum , Mutation , Plasmodium falciparum , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Brazil , Drug Resistance , Humans , Kelch Repeat , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics
5.
Acta Parasitol ; 67(1): 55-60, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525614

ABSTRACT

Plasmodium resistance to antimalarial drugs is an obstacle to the elimination of malaria in endemic areas. This situation is particularly dramatic for Africa, which accounts for nearly 92% of malaria cases worldwide. Drug pressure has been identified as a key factor in the emergence of antimalarial drug resistance. Indeed, this pressure is favoured by several factors, including the use of counterfeit forms of antimalarials, inadequate prescription controls, poor adherence to treatment regimens, dosing errors, and the increasing use of other forms of unapproved antimalarials. This resistance has led to the replacement of chloroquine (CQ) by artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) which are likely to become ineffective in the coming years due to the uncontrolled use of Artemisia annua in the sub-Saharan African region for malaria prevention and COVID-19. The use of Artemisia annua for the prevention of malaria and COVID-19 could be an important factor in the emergence of resistance to Artemisinin-based combination therapies.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , Artemisia annua , Artemisinins , COVID-19 , Malaria, Falciparum , Malaria , Plasmodium , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Artemisinins/pharmacology , Artemisinins/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/prevention & control , Malaria, Falciparum/drug therapy , Plasmodium falciparum
6.
Elife ; 102021 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513059

ABSTRACT

The emergence of mutant K13-mediated artemisinin (ART) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites has led to widespread treatment failures across Southeast Asia. In Africa, K13-propeller genotyping confirms the emergence of the R561H mutation in Rwanda and highlights the continuing dominance of wild-type K13 elsewhere. Using gene editing, we show that R561H, along with C580Y and M579I, confer elevated in vitro ART resistance in some African strains, contrasting with minimal changes in ART susceptibility in others. C580Y and M579I cause substantial fitness costs, which may slow their dissemination in high-transmission settings, in contrast with R561H that in African 3D7 parasites is fitness neutral. In Cambodia, K13 genotyping highlights the increasing spatio-temporal dominance of C580Y. Editing multiple K13 mutations into a panel of Southeast Asian strains reveals that only the R561H variant yields ART resistance comparable to C580Y. In Asian Dd2 parasites C580Y shows no fitness cost, in contrast with most other K13 mutations tested, including R561H. Editing of point mutations in ferredoxin or mdr2, earlier associated with resistance, has no impact on ART susceptibility or parasite fitness. These data underline the complex interplay between K13 mutations, parasite survival, growth and genetic background in contributing to the spread of ART resistance.


Subject(s)
Artemisinins/pharmacology , Drug Resistance/drug effects , Drug Resistance/genetics , Mutation , Plasmodium falciparum/drug effects , Plasmodium falciparum/genetics , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Africa , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Asia , Cambodia , Humans , Malaria, Falciparum/epidemiology , Malaria, Falciparum/parasitology , Molecular Epidemiology
7.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 142: 106114, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499649

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged from Wuhan in China before it spread to the entire globe. It causes coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) where mostly individuals present mild symptoms, some remain asymptomatic and some show severe lung inflammation and pneumonia in the host through the induction of a marked inflammatory 'cytokine storm'. New and efficacious vaccines have been developed and put into clinical practice in record time, however, there is a still a need for effective treatments for those who are not vaccinated or remain susceptible to emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant strains. Despite this, effective therapeutic interventions against COVID-19 remain elusive. Here, we have reviewed potential drugs for COVID-19 classified on the basis of their mode of action. The mechanisms of action of each are discussed in detail to highlight the therapeutic targets that may help in reducing the global pandemic. The review was done up to July 2021 and the data was assessed through the official websites of WHO and CDC for collecting the information on the clinical trials. Moreover, the recent research papers were also assessed for the relevant data. The search was mainly based on keywords like Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, drugs (specific name of the drugs), COVID-19, clinical efficiency, safety profile, side-effects etc.This review outlines potential areas for future research into COVID-19 treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Probiotics/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D1282-D1294, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493886

ABSTRACT

The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to PHARMACOLOGY (GtoPdb; www.guidetopharmacology.org) is an open-access, expert-curated database of molecular interactions between ligands and their targets. We describe expansion in content over nine database releases made during the last two years, which has focussed on three main areas of infection. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to have a major impact on health worldwide. GtoPdb has sought to support the wider research community to understand the pharmacology of emerging drug targets for SARS-CoV-2 as well as potential targets in the host to block viral entry and reduce the adverse effects of infection in patients with COVID-19. We describe how the database rapidly evolved to include a new family of Coronavirus proteins. Malaria remains a global threat to half the population of the world. Our database content continues to be enhanced through our collaboration with Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) on the IUPHAR/MMV Guide to MALARIA PHARMACOLOGY (www.guidetomalariapharmacology.org). Antibiotic resistance is also a growing threat to global health. In response, we have extended our coverage of antibacterials in partnership with AntibioticDB.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/etiology , Data Curation , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Humans , Ligands , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/metabolism , User-Computer Interface , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/metabolism
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354987

ABSTRACT

Recently, we have experienced a serious pandemic. Despite significant technological advances in molecular technologies, it is very challenging to slow down the infection spread. It appeared that due to globalization, SARS-CoV-2 spread easily and adapted to new environments or geographical or weather zones. Additionally, new variants are emerging that show different infection potential and clinical outcomes. On the other hand, we have some experience with other pandemics and some solutions in virus elimination that could be adapted. This is of high importance since, as the latest reports demonstrate, vaccine technology might not follow the new, mutated virus outbreaks. Thus, identification of novel strategies and markers or diagnostic methods is highly necessary. For this reason, we present some of the latest views on SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 therapeutic strategies and raise a solution based on miRNA. We believe that in the face of the rapidly increasing global situation and based on analogical studies of other viruses, the possibility of using the biological potential of miRNA technology is very promising. It could be used as a promising diagnostic and prognostic factor, as well as a therapeutic target and tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/therapy , MicroRNAs/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antimalarials/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Immunization, Passive , MicroRNAs/analysis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vitamins/pharmacology
10.
J Reprod Immunol ; 146: 103344, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315509

ABSTRACT

The pandemic COVID-19 presents a major challenge to identify effective drugs for treatment. Clinicians need evidence based on randomized trials regarding effective medical treatments for this infection. Currently no effective therapies exist for the progression of the mild forms to severe disease. Knowledge however is rapidly expanding. Remdesivir, an anti- retroviral agent has in vitro activity against this virus and has shown to decrease the duration of ICU care in patients with severe disease, while low dose dexamethasone also showed a decrease in the duration of stay in cases of severe disease requiring assisted ventilation. At the time of writing this article, two mRNA-based vaccines have shown an approximate 95 % efficacy in preventing infection in large clinical trials. At least one of these drugs has regulatory permission for vaccination in high-income countries. Low and middle-income countries may have difficulties in initiating vaccine programs on large scales because of availability, costs, refrigeration and dissemination. Adequately powered randomized trials are required for drugs with in vitro activity against the virus. Supportive care should be provided for stable, hypoxia and pneumonia free patients on imaging. Vaccines are of obvious benefit and given the preliminary evidence of the efficacy of over 95 %, Low and middle-income countries must develop links with the WHO COVAX program to ensure global distribution of vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Evidence-Based Medicine/trends , Global Health , Humans , International Cooperation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Treatment Outcome , Virus Internalization/drug effects
11.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1305742

ABSTRACT

Malaria control relies heavily on the small number of existing antimalarial drugs. However, recurring antimalarial drug resistance necessitates the continual generation of new antimalarial drugs with novel modes of action. In order to shift the focus from only controlling this disease towards elimination and eradication, next-generation antimalarial agents need to address the gaps in the malaria drug arsenal. This includes developing drugs for chemoprotection, treating severe malaria and blocking transmission. Plasmodial kinases are promising targets for next-generation antimalarial drug development as they mediate critical cellular processes and some are active across multiple stages of the parasite's life cycle. This review gives an update on the progress made thus far with regards to plasmodial kinase small-molecule inhibitor development.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Drug Discovery/trends , Malaria/drug therapy , Plasmodium/drug effects , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Animals , Calcium/metabolism , Casein Kinase I/metabolism , Culicidae , Drug Design , Drug Resistance , Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/metabolism , Humans , Imidazoles/pharmacology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Phosphotransferases/chemistry , Plasmodium/enzymology , Pyridines/pharmacology
12.
Antiviral Res ; 193: 105127, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293551

ABSTRACT

In this study, a series of 10 quinoline analogues was evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activity against a panel of alpha- and beta-coronaviruses, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 1 and 2 (SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2), as well as the human coronaviruses (HCoV) 229E and OC43. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine were the most potent with antiviral EC50 values in the range of 0.12-12 µM. Chloroquine displayed the most favorable selectivity index (i.e. ratio cytotoxic versus antiviral concentration), being 165 for HCoV-OC43 in HEL cells. Potent anti-coronavirus activity was also observed with amodiaquine, ferroquine and mefloquine, although this was associated with substantial cytotoxicity for mefloquine. Primaquine, quinidine, quinine and tafenoquine only blocked coronavirus replication at higher concentrations, while piperaquine completely lacked antiviral and cytotoxic effects. A time-of-addition experiment in HCoV-229E-infected HEL cells revealed that chloroquine interferes with viral entry at a post-attachment stage. Using confocal microscopy, no viral RNA synthesis could be detected upon treatment of SARS-CoV-2-infected cells with chloroquine. The inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication by chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine coincided with an inhibitory effect on the autophagy pathway as visualized by a dose-dependent increase in LC3-positive puncta. The latter effect was less pronounced or even absent with the other quinolines. In summary, we showed that several quinoline analogues, including chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, amodiaquine, ferroquine and mefloquine, exhibit broad anti-coronavirus activity in vitro.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus/drug effects , Quinolines/pharmacology , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/drug effects , Coronavirus OC43, Human/drug effects , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
13.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 377(2): 265-272, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234275

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an established cardiac side effect of a wide range of medications and represents a significant concern for drug safety. The rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ currents, mediated by channels encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) and KCNQ1 + KCNE1, respectively, are two main currents responsible for ventricular repolarization. The common cause for drugs to induce LQTS is through impairing the hERG channel. For the recent emergence of COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, several drugs have been investigated as potential therapies; however, there are concerns about their QT prolongation risk. Here, we studied the effects of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir on hERG channels. Our results showed that although chloroquine acutely blocked hERG current (IhERG), with an IC50 of 3.0 µM, hydroxychloroquine acutely blocked IhERG 8-fold less potently, with an IC50 of 23.4 µM. Azithromycin and remdesivir did not acutely affect IhERG When these drugs were added at 10 µM to the cell culture medium for 24 hours, remdesivir increased IhERG by 2-fold, which was associated with an increased mature hERG channel expression. In addition, these four drugs did not acutely or chronically affect KCNQ1 + KCNE1 channels. Our data provide insight into COVID-19 drug-associated LQTS and cardiac safety concerns. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This work demonstrates that, among off-label potential COVID-19 treatment drugs chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir, the former two drugs block hERG potassium channels, whereas the latter two drugs do not. All four drugs do not affect KCNQ1 + KCNE1. As hERG and KCNQ1 + KCNE1 are two main K+ channels responsible for ventricular repolarization, and most drugs that induce long QT syndrome (LQTS) do so by impairing hERG channels, these data provide insight into COVID-19 drug-associated LQTS and cardiac safety concerns.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/pharmacology , ERG1 Potassium Channel/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , ERG1 Potassium Channel/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use
14.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917015

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are phytochemical compounds present in many plants, fruits, vegetables, and leaves, with potential applications in medicinal chemistry. Flavonoids possess a number of medicinal benefits, including anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. They also have neuroprotective and cardio-protective effects. These biological activities depend upon the type of flavonoid, its (possible) mode of action, and its bioavailability. These cost-effective medicinal components have significant biological activities, and their effectiveness has been proved for a variety of diseases. The most recent work is focused on their isolation, synthesis of their analogs, and their effects on human health using a variety of techniques and animal models. Thousands of flavonoids have been successfully isolated, and this number increases steadily. We have therefore made an effort to summarize the isolated flavonoids with useful activities in order to gain a better understanding of their effects on human health.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antimalarials/chemistry , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Flavonoids/economics , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Mice , Nervous System/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plants/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/prevention & control
15.
ACS Infect Dis ; 7(7): 1985-1995, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157889

ABSTRACT

As the toll of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic continues, efforts are ongoing to identify new agents and repurpose safe drugs for its treatment. Antimalarial peroxides have reported antiviral and anticancer activities. Here, we evaluated the in vitro activities of artesunate (AS) and two ozonides (OZ418 and OZ277) against human α-coronavirus NL63 and ß-coronaviruses OC43 and SARS-CoV-2 in several cell lines. OZ418 had the best selectivity index (SI) in NL63-infected Vero cells and MK2 cells. The overall SI of the tested compounds was cell-type dependent. In OC43-infected human foreskin fibroblasts, AS had the best cell-associated SI, ≥17 µM, while the SI of OZ418 and OZ277 was ≥12 µM and ≥7 µM, respectively. AS did not inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in either Vero or Calu-3 cells. A comparison of OZ418 and OZ277 activity in SARS-CoV2-infected Calu-3 cells revealed similar EC50 (5.3 µM and 11.6 µM, respectively), higher than the EC50 of remdesivir (1.0 ± 0.1 µM), but the SI of OZ418 was higher than OZ277. A third ozonide, OZ439, inhibited SARS-CoV-2 efficiently in Vero cells, but compared to OZ418 in Calu-3 cells, it showed higher toxicity. Improved inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 was observed when OZ418 was used together with remdesivir. Although the EC50 of ozonides might be clinically achieved in plasma after intravenous administration, sustained virus suppression in tissues will require further considerations, including drug combination. Our work supports the potential repurposing of ozonides and calls for future in vivo models.


Subject(s)
Antimalarials , COVID-19 , Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Peroxides/pharmacology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
16.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 377(2): 265-272, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120535

ABSTRACT

Drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an established cardiac side effect of a wide range of medications and represents a significant concern for drug safety. The rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ currents, mediated by channels encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) and KCNQ1 + KCNE1, respectively, are two main currents responsible for ventricular repolarization. The common cause for drugs to induce LQTS is through impairing the hERG channel. For the recent emergence of COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, several drugs have been investigated as potential therapies; however, there are concerns about their QT prolongation risk. Here, we studied the effects of chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir on hERG channels. Our results showed that although chloroquine acutely blocked hERG current (IhERG), with an IC50 of 3.0 µM, hydroxychloroquine acutely blocked IhERG 8-fold less potently, with an IC50 of 23.4 µM. Azithromycin and remdesivir did not acutely affect IhERG When these drugs were added at 10 µM to the cell culture medium for 24 hours, remdesivir increased IhERG by 2-fold, which was associated with an increased mature hERG channel expression. In addition, these four drugs did not acutely or chronically affect KCNQ1 + KCNE1 channels. Our data provide insight into COVID-19 drug-associated LQTS and cardiac safety concerns. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This work demonstrates that, among off-label potential COVID-19 treatment drugs chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and remdesivir, the former two drugs block hERG potassium channels, whereas the latter two drugs do not. All four drugs do not affect KCNQ1 + KCNE1. As hERG and KCNQ1 + KCNE1 are two main K+ channels responsible for ventricular repolarization, and most drugs that induce long QT syndrome (LQTS) do so by impairing hERG channels, these data provide insight into COVID-19 drug-associated LQTS and cardiac safety concerns.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Azithromycin/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/pharmacology , ERG1 Potassium Channel/antagonists & inhibitors , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/metabolism , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , ERG1 Potassium Channel/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Potassium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Potassium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use
17.
Med Anthropol Q ; 34(4): 525-541, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066735

ABSTRACT

The claim that anti-malaria drugs, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, can cure COVID-19 became a focus of fierce political battles that pitted promoters of these pharmaceuticals, Presidents Bolsonaro and Trump among them, against "medical elites." At the center of these battles are different meanings of effectiveness in medicine, the complex role of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in proving such effectiveness, the task of medical experts and the state in regulating pharmaceuticals, patients' activism, and the collective production of medical knowledge. This article follows the trajectory of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as anti-COVID-19 drugs, focusing on the reception of views of their main scientific promoter, the French infectious disease specialist, Didier Raoult. The surprising career of these drugs, our text proposes, is fundamentally a political event, not in the narrow sense of engaging specific political fractions, but in the much broader sense of the politics of public participation in science.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Anthropology, Medical , Antimalarials/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Political Activism , Social Media
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 135: 111138, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064877

ABSTRACT

In 1918, quinine was used as one of the unscientifically based treatments against the H1N1 virus during the Spanish flu pandemic. Originally, quinine was extracted from the bark of Chinchona trees by South American natives of the Amazon forest, and it has been used to treat fever since the seventeenth century. The recent COVID-19 pandemic caused by Sars-Cov-2 infection has forced researchers to search for ways to prevent and treat this disease. Based on the antiviral potential of two 4-aminoquinoline compounds derived from quinine, known as chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), clinical investigations for treating COVID-19 are being conducted worldwide. However, there are some discrepancies among the clinical trial outcomes.Thus, even after one hundred years of quinine use during the Spanish flu pandemic, the antiviral properties promoted by 4-aminoquinoline compounds remain unclear. The underlying molecular mechanisms by which CQ and HCQ inhibit viral replication open up the possibility of developing novel analogs of these drugs to combat COVID-19 and other viruses.


Subject(s)
Aminoquinolines/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919 , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Aminoquinolines/pharmacology , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Influenza Pandemic, 1918-1919/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects , Virus Replication/physiology
19.
Actas Dermosifiliogr (Engl Ed) ; 112(2): 118-126, 2021 Feb.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064694

ABSTRACT

Researchers the world over are working to find the treatments needed to reduce the negative effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and improve the current prognosis of patients. Several drugs that are often used in dermatology are among the potentially useful treatments: ivermectin, antiandrogenic agents, melatonin, and the antimalarial drugs chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. These and other agents, some of which have proven controversial, are being scrutinized by the scientific community. We briefly review the aforementioned dermatologic drugs and describe the most recent findings relevant to their use against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Androgen Antagonists/pharmacology , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/mortality , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Cinchona/chemistry , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Melatonin/pharmacology , Melatonin/therapeutic use , Virus Internalization/drug effects
20.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(1): 3-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067525

ABSTRACT

Due to the rapidly developing nature of the current COVID-19 outbreak and its almost immediate humanitarian and economic toll, coronavirus drug discovery efforts have largely focused on generating potential COVID-19 drug candidates as quickly as possible. Globally, scientists are working day and night to find the best possible solution to treat the deadly virus. During the first few months of 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak quickly developed into a pandemic, with a mortality rate that was increasing at an exponential rate day by day. As a result, scientists have turned to a drug repurposing approach to rediscover the potential use and benefits of existing approved drugs. Currently, there is no single drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV) that causes COVID-19. Based on only in-vitro studies, several active drugs are already in the clinical pipeline, made possible by following the compassionate use of medical protocols. This method of repurposing and the use of existing molecules like Remdesivir (GS-5734), Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, etc. has proven to be a landmark in the field of drug rediscovery. In this review article, we will discuss the repurposing of medicines for treating the deadly novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Discovery/methods , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
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