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1.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 23(11): 134, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530397

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since the past year, the fast spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has represented a global health threat, especially for cancer patients, that has required an urgent reorganization of clinical activities. Here, we will critically revise the profound impact that the pandemic has generated in lung cancer patients, as well the most significant challenges that oncologists have to face to maintain the highest possible standards in the management of lung cancer patients in the pandemic era. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidences suggested a higher susceptibility and mortality of lung cancer patients due to COVID-19. The hard management of this patient population has been also due to the potential cross interference of anti-tumor drugs on SARS-Cov-2 infection and to the differential diagnosis between COVID-19 pneumonitis and drug-related pneumonitis. COVID-19 pandemic has generated a profound reshaping of oncological activities and the development of recommendations by the oncology scientific community to prioritize anti-tumor treatments for lung cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/mortality , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Comorbidity , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Medical Oncology/methods , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
2.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7005-7017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524524

ABSTRACT

The tumor suppressor protein p53 remains in a wild type but inactive form in ~50% of all human cancers. Thus, activating it becomes an attractive approach for targeted cancer therapies. In this regard, our lab has previously discovered a small molecule, Inauhzin (INZ), as a potent p53 activator with no genotoxicity. Method: To improve its efficacy and bioavailability, here we employed nanoparticle encapsulation, making INZ-C, an analog of INZ, to nanoparticle-encapsulated INZ-C (n-INZ-C). Results: This approach significantly improved p53 activation and inhibition of lung and colorectal cancer cell growth by n-INZ-C in vitro and in vivo while it displayed a minimal effect on normal human Wi38 and mouse MEF cells. The improved activity was further corroborated with the enhanced cellular uptake observed in cancer cells and minimal cellular uptake observed in normal cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of these nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticle encapsulation prolongates the half-life of INZ-C from 2.5 h to 5 h in mice. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that we have established a nanoparticle system that could enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of INZ-C as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Indoles/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Phenothiazines/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacokinetics , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Oct 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463709

ABSTRACT

Cancer persists as a global challenge due to the extent to which conventional anticancer therapies pose high risks counterbalanced with their therapeutic benefit. Naturally occurring substances stand as an important safer alternative source for anticancer drug development. In the current study, a series of modified lupane and ursane derivatives was subjected to in vitro screening on the NCI-60 cancer cell line panel. Compounds 6 and 7 have been identified as highly active with GI50 values ranging from 0.03 µM to 5.9 µM (compound 6) and 0.18-1.53 µM (compound 7). Thus, these two compounds were further assessed in detail in order to identify a possible antiproliferative mechanism of action. DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining revealed that both compounds induced nuclei condensation and overall cell morphological changes consistent with apoptotic cell death. rtPCR analysis showed that both compounds induced upregulation of proapoptotic Bak and Bad genes while downregulating Bcl-XL and Bcl-2 antiapoptotic genes. Molecular docking analysis revealed that both compounds exhibited high scores for Bcl-XL inhibition, while compound 7 showed higher in silico Bcl-XL inhibition potential as compared to the native inhibitor ATB-737, suggesting that compounds may induce apoptotic cell death through targeted antiapoptotic protein inhibition, as well.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Biological Products/pharmacology , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Biological Products/chemistry , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Models, Molecular , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Structure , Protein Binding , Structure-Activity Relationship , Triterpenes/chemistry
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19839, 2021 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454816

ABSTRACT

Computational drug repositioning aims at ranking and selecting existing drugs for novel diseases or novel use in old diseases. In silico drug screening has the potential for speeding up considerably the shortlisting of promising candidates in response to outbreaks of diseases such as COVID-19 for which no satisfactory cure has yet been found. We describe DrugMerge as a methodology for preclinical computational drug repositioning based on merging multiple drug rankings obtained with an ensemble of disease active subnetworks. DrugMerge uses differential transcriptomic data on drugs and diseases in the context of a large gene co-expression network. Experiments with four benchmark diseases demonstrate that our method detects in first position drugs in clinical use for the specified disease, in all four cases. Application of DrugMerge to COVID-19 found rankings with many drugs currently in clinical trials for COVID-19 in top positions, thus showing that DrugMerge can mimic human expert judgment.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning/methods , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Computational Biology/methods , Databases, Genetic , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Gene Regulatory Networks , Humans , Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasms/metabolism , Neoplasms/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(14): 3954-3967, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449161

ABSTRACT

Furin is a proprotein convertase that activates different kinds of regulatory proteins, including SARS-CoV-2 spike protein which contains an additional furin-specific cleavage site. It is essential in predicting cancer patients' susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and the disease outcomes due to varying furin expressions in tumor tissues. In this study, we analyzed furin's expression, methylation, mutation rate, functional enrichment, survival rate and COVID-19 outcomes in normal and cancer tissues using online databases, and our IHC. As a result, furin presented with biased expression profiles in normal tissues, showing 12.25-fold higher than ACE2 in the lungs. The furin expression in tumors were significantly increased in ESCA and TGCT, and decreased in DLBC and THYM, indicating furin may play critical mechanistic functions in COVID-19 viral entry into cells in these cancer patients. Line with furin over/downexpression, furin promoter hypo-/hyper-methylation may be the regulatory cause of disease and lead to pathogenesis of ESCA and THYM. Furthermore, presence of FURIN-201 isoform with functional domains (P_proprotein, Peptidase_S8 and S8_pro-domain) is highest in all cancer types in comparison to other isoforms, demonstrating its use in tumorigenesis and SARS-Cov-2 entry into tumor tissues. Furin mutation frequency was highest in UCES, and its mutation might elevate ACE2 expression in LUAD and UCEC, reduce ACE2 expression in COAD, elevate HSPA5 expression in PAAD, and elevate TMPRSS2 expression in BRCA. These results showed that furin mutations mostly increased expression of ACE2, HSPA5, and TMPRSS2 in certain cancers, indicating furin mutations might facilitate COVID-19 cell entry in cancer patients. In addition, high expression of furin was significantly inversely correlated with long overall survival (OS) in LGG and correlated with long OS in COAD and KIRC, indicating that it could be used as a favorable prognostic marker for cancer patients' survival. GO and KEGG demonstrated that furin was mostly enriched in genes for metabolic and biosynthetic processes, retinal dehydrogenase activity, tRNA methyltransferase activity, and genes involving COVID-19, further supporting its role in COVID-19 and cancer metabolism. Moreover, Cordycepin (CD) inhibited furin expression in a dosage dependent manner. Altogether, furin's high expression might not only implies increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and higher severity of COVID-19 symptoms in cancer patients, but also it highlights the need for cancer treatment and therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. CD might have a potential to develop an anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug through inhibiting furin expression.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Deoxyadenosines/therapeutic use , Furin/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line, Tumor , Deoxyadenosines/pharmacology , Disease Susceptibility , Furin/antagonists & inhibitors , Furin/genetics , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
6.
Ann Hematol ; 100(11): 2805-2812, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432514

ABSTRACT

Rituximab is associated with prolonged B-cell depletion and secondary hypogammaglobulinemia and is associated with a dampened humoral response and increased infectious complications. To describe the potential impact of prior rituximab therapy on clinical outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection and development of COVID-19 antibodies, we conducted a retrospective study of adults across the Mount Sinai Health System diagnosed with COVID-19 who received rituximab for any indication from February 2019 to October 2020. Patients' baseline characteristics, markers of disease severity, clinical outcomes, and antibody development were examined. Of the 49 patients included in the analysis, 63.2% required hospitalization for COVID-19, 24.5% required an ICU admission, and 32.7% died. Proximity of last rituximab infusion and COVID-19 diagnosis did not affect rates of hospitalization, admission to intensive care units or death. Over half (51.7%) of those whose antibodies were checked developed neutralizing anti-spike protein antibodies. The median time between rituximab administration and COVID-19 diagnosis was not significantly different between those who developed antibodies and those who did not (p = .323). Of the 14 patients with documented negative COVID-19 antibody titers, 11 of them survived SARS-CoV-2 infection, indicating that development of neutralizing antibodies may not be necessary for recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Rituximab/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rituximab/adverse effects , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome
7.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics ; 18(5): 661-673, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395533

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a great challenge for the treatment of cancer patients. It presents as a severe respiratory infection in aged individuals, including some lung cancer patients. COVID-19 may be linked to the progression of aggressive lung cancer. In addition, the side effects of chemotherapy, such as chemotherapy resistance and the acceleration of cellular senescence, can worsen COVID-19. Given this situation, we investigated the role of paclitaxel (a chemotherapy drug) in the cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cellular senescence of gefitinib-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells (PC9-MET) to clarify the underlying mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PC9-MET cells were treated with paclitaxel for 72 h and then evaluated by a cell viability assay, DAPI staining, Giemsa staining, apoptosis assay, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay, SA-ß-Gal staining, a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay and Western blotting. RESULTS: Paclitaxel significantly reduced the viability of PC9-MET cells and induced morphological signs of apoptosis. The apoptotic effects of paclitaxel were observed by increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 (Asp 175), cleaved caspase-9 (Asp 330) and cleaved PARP (Asp 214). In addition, paclitaxel increased ROS production, leading to DNA damage. Inhibition of ROS production by N-acetylcysteine attenuates paclitaxel-induced DNA damage. Importantly, paclitaxel eliminated cellular senescence, as observed by SA-ß-Gal staining. Cellular senescence elimination was associated with p53/p21 and p16/pRb signaling inactivation. CONCLUSION: Paclitaxel may be a promising anticancer drug and offer a new therapeutic strategy for managing gefitinib-resistant NSCLC during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Gefitinib/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Paclitaxel/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects
8.
Inorg Chem ; 59(23): 17109-17122, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387106

ABSTRACT

Metal complexes have numerous applications in the current era, particularly in the field of pharmaceutical chemistry and catalysis. A novel synthetic approach for the same is always a beneficial addition to the literature. Henceforth, for the first time, we report the formation of three new Pd(II) complexes through the Michael addition pathway. Three chromone-based thiosemicarbazone ligands (SVSL1-SVSL3) and Pd(II) complexes (1-3) were synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectroscopic tools. The Michael addition pathway for the formation of complexes was confirmed by spectroscopic studies. Distorted square planar structure of complex 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-3 were subjected to DNA- and BSA-binding studies. The complex with cyclohexyl substituent on the terminal N of thiosemicarbazone (3) showed the highest binding efficacy toward these biomolecules, which was further understood through molecular docking studies. The anticancer potential of these complexes was studied preliminarily by using MTT assay in cancer and normal cell lines along with the benchmark drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, and gemcitabine). It was found that complex 3 was highly toxic toward MDA-MB-231 and AsPC-1 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.5 and 0.9 µM, respectively, and was more efficient than the standard drugs. The programmed cell death mechanism of the complexes in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells was confirmed. Furthermore, the complexes induced apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway. Conveniently, all the complexes showed less toxicity (≥50 µM) against MCF-10a normal cell line. Molecular docking studies were performed with VEGFR2, EGFR, and SARS-CoV-2 main protease to illustrate the binding efficiency of the complexes with these receptors. To our surprise, binding potential of the complexes with SARS-CoV-2 main protease was higher than that with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Mitochondria/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromones/chemical synthesis , Chromones/metabolism , Chromones/pharmacology , Coordination Complexes/chemical synthesis , Coordination Complexes/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Intercalating Agents/chemical synthesis , Intercalating Agents/metabolism , Intercalating Agents/pharmacology , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Palladium/chemistry , Protein Binding , Thiosemicarbazones/chemical synthesis , Thiosemicarbazones/metabolism , Thiosemicarbazones/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism
9.
Mar Drugs ; 18(10)2020 Sep 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389432

ABSTRACT

For a long time, algal chemistry from terrestrial to marine or freshwater bodies, especially chlorophytes, has fascinated numerous investigators to develop new drugs in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries. As such, chlorophytes comprise a diverse structural class of secondary metabolites, having functional groups that are specific to a particular source. All bioactive compounds of chlorophyte are of great interest due to their supplemental/nutritional/pharmacological activities. In this review, a detailed description of the chemical diversity of compounds encompassing alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, fatty acids and glycerides, their subclasses and their structures are discussed. These promising natural products have efficiency in developing new drugs necessary in the treatment of various deadly pathologies (cancer, HIV, SARS-CoV-2, several inflammations, etc.). Marine chlorophyte, therefore, is portrayed as a pivotal treasure in the case of drugs having marine provenience. It is a domain of research expected to probe novel pharmaceutically or nutraceutically important secondary metabolites resulting from marine Chlorophyta. In this regard, our review aims to compile the isolated secondary metabolites having diverse chemical structures from chlorophytes (like Caulerpa ssp., Ulva ssp., Tydemania ssp., Penicillus ssp., Codium ssp., Capsosiphon ssp., Avrainvillea ssp.), their biological properties, applications and possible mode of action.


Subject(s)
Biological Products/pharmacology , Chlorophyta/chemistry , Chlorophyta/metabolism , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Biological Products/chemistry , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374421

ABSTRACT

Polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, are a group of specialized metabolites in plants that largely aid in plant defense by deterring biotic stressors and alleviating abiotic stress. Polyphenols offer a wide range of medical applications, acting as preventative and active treatments for diseases such as cancers and diabetes. Recently, researchers have proposed that polyphenols may contribute to certain applications aimed at tackling challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the beneficial impacts of phytochemicals, such as polyphenols, could potentially help prepare society for future pandemics. Thus far, most reviews have focused on polyphenols in cancer prevention and treatment. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion on the critical roles that polyphenols play in both plant chemical defense and human health based on the most recent studies while highlighting prospective avenues for future research, as well as the implications for phytochemical-based applications in both agricultural and medical fields.


Subject(s)
Plants/metabolism , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Polyphenols/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Availability , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxybenzoates/pharmacology , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Phytochemicals , Plants/chemistry , Polyphenols/metabolism , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
11.
Biol Aujourdhui ; 215(1-2): 25-43, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358361

ABSTRACT

Targeted protein degradation (TPD), discovered twenty years ago through the PROTAC technology, is rapidly developing thanks to the implication of many scientists from industry and academia. PROTAC chimeras are heterobifunctional molecules able to link simultaneously a protein to be degraded and an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This allows the protein ubiquitination and its degradation by 26S proteasome. PROTACs have evolved from small peptide molecules to small non-peptide and orally available molecules. It was shown that PROTACs are capable to degrade proteins considered as "undruggable" i.e. devoid of well-defined pockets and deep grooves possibly occupied by small molecules. Among these "hard to drug" proteins, several can be degraded by PROTACs: scaffold proteins, BAF complex, transcription factors, Ras family proteins. Two PROTACs are clinically tested for breast (ARV471) and prostate (ARV110) cancers. The protein degradation by proteasome is also induced by other types of molecules: molecular glues, hydrophobic tagging (HyT), HaloPROTACs and homo-PROTACs. Other cellular constituents are eligible to induced degradation: RNA-PROTACs for RNA binding proteins and RIBOTACs for degradation of RNA itself (SARS-CoV-2 RNA). TPD has recently moved beyond the proteasome with LYTACs (lysosome targeting chimeras) and MADTACs (macroautophagy degradation targeting chimeras). Several techniques such as screening platforms together with mathematical modeling and computational design are now used to improve the discovery of new efficient PROTACs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Design , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Proteolysis , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Autophagy , Catalysis , Humans , Lysosomes/metabolism , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex/metabolism , Protein Conformation , Protein Processing, Post-Translational/drug effects , Protein Stability , Proteolysis/drug effects , RNA/drug effects , RNA-Binding Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/pharmacokinetics , Structure-Activity Relationship , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/metabolism , Ubiquitination
12.
Phytochemistry ; 190: 112854, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324295

ABSTRACT

Emodin (1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methyl-anthraquinone) is a natural anthraquinone derivative that is present in numerous globally renowned herbal medicines. It is recognised as a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor and as an anticancer drug, active against various tumour cells, including lung, breast, liver, and ovarian cancer cells. Recently, its role in combination chemotherapy with various allopathic medicines, to minimize their toxicity and to enhance their efficacy, has been studied. The use of emodin in these therapies is gaining popularity, due to fewer associated side effects compared with standard anticancer drugs. Emodin has a broad therapeutic window, and in addition to its antineoplastic activity, it displays anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, antimicrobial, muscle relaxant, immunosuppressive and antifibrotic activities, in both in vitro and in vivo models. Although reviews on the anticancer activity of emodin have been published, none coherently unite all the pharmacological properties of emodin, particularly the anti-oxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, immunosuppressive and hepatoprotective activities of the compound. Hence, in this review, all of the available data regarding the pharmacological properties of emodin are explored, with particular emphasis on the modes of action of the molecule. In addition, the manuscript details the occurrence, biosynthesis and chemical synthesis of the compound, as well as its toxic effects on biotic systems.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Emodin , Plants, Medicinal , Anthraquinones/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Emodin/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors
13.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323103

ABSTRACT

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important enzyme involved in prostaglandins biosynthesis from arachidonic acid. COX-2 is frequently overexpressed in human cancers and plays a major tumor promoting function. Accordingly, many efforts have been devoted to efficiently target the catalytic site of this enzyme in cancer cells, by using COX-2 specific inhibitors such as celecoxib. However, despite their potent anti-tumor properties, the myriad of detrimental effects associated to the chronic inhibition of COX-2 in healthy tissues, has considerably limited their use in clinic. In addition, increasing evidence indicate that these anti-cancerous properties are not strictly dependent on the inhibition of the catalytic site. These findings have led to the development of non-active COX-2 inhibitors analogues aiming at preserving the antitumor effects of COX-2 inhibitors without their side effects. Among them, two celecoxib derivatives, 2,5-Dimethyl-Celecoxib and OSU-03012, have been developed and suggested for the treatment of viral (e.g., recently SARS-CoV-2), inflammatory, metabolic diseases and cancers. These molecules display stronger anti-tumor properties than celecoxib and thus may represent promising anti-cancer molecules. In this review, we discuss the impact of these two analogues on cancerous processes but also their potential for cancer treatment alone or in combination with existing approaches.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Celecoxib/adverse effects , Celecoxib/analogs & derivatives , Celecoxib/pharmacology , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
14.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320599

ABSTRACT

Deferoxamine B is an outstanding molecule which has been widely studied in the past decade for its ability to bind iron and many other metal ions. The versatility of this metal chelator makes it suitable for a number of medicinal and analytical applications, from the well-known iron chelation therapy to the most recent use in sensor devices. The three bidentate hydroxamic functional groups of deferoxamine B are the centerpiece of its metal binding ability, which allows the formation of stable complexes with many transition, lanthanoid and actinoid metal ions. In addition to the ferric ion, in fact, more than 20 different metal complexes of deferoxamine b have been characterized in terms of their chemical speciation in solution. In addition, the availability of a terminal amino group, most often not involved in complexation, opens the way to deferoxamine B modification and functionalization. This review aims to collect and summarize the available data concerning the complex-formation equilibria in solutions of deferoxamine B with different metal ions. A general overview of the progress of its applications over the past decade is also discussed, including the treatment of iron overload-associated diseases, its clinical use against cancer and neurodegenerative disorders and its role as a diagnostic tool.


Subject(s)
Chelating Agents/chemistry , Deferoxamine/chemistry , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chelating Agents/pharmacology , Chemistry, Pharmaceutical/methods , Electrochemistry/methods , Electrolytes , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Ions , Iron/metabolism , Iron Chelating Agents/chemistry , Iron Overload/drug therapy , Kinetics , Ligands , Metals/chemistry , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Potentiometry , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature , Zirconium/chemistry
15.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295887

ABSTRACT

A possible inhibitor of proteases, which contains an indole core and an aromatic polar acetylene, was designed and synthesized. This indole derivative has a molecular architecture kindred to biologically relevant species and was obtained through five synthetic steps with an overall yield of 37% from the 2,2'-(phenylazanediyl)di(ethan-1-ol). The indole derivative was evaluated through docking assays using the main protease (SARS-CoV-2-Mpro) as a molecular target, which plays a key role in the replication process of this virus. Additionally, the indole derivative was evaluated as an inhibitor of the enzyme kallikrein 5 (KLK5), which is a serine protease that can be considered as an anticancer drug target.


Subject(s)
Acetylene/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Indoles/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Drug Discovery , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Kallikreins/antagonists & inhibitors , Models, Molecular , Molecular Docking Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 141: 111888, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293595

ABSTRACT

Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa L., is a fat-soluble natural compound that can be obtained from ginger plant tuber roots, which accumulative evidences have demonstrated that it can resist viral and microbial infection and has anti-tumor, reduction of blood lipid and blood glucose, antioxidant and removal of free radicals, and is active against numerous disorders various chronic diseases including cardiovascular, pulmonary, neurological and autoimmune diseases. In this article is highlighted the recent evidence of curcuminoids applied in sevral aspects of medical problem particular in COVID-19 pandemics. We have searched several literature databases including MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, the Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and the ClinicalTrials.gov website via using curcumin and medicinal properties as a keyword. All studies published from the time when the database was established to May 2021 was retrieved. This review article summarizes the growing confirmation for the mechanisms related to curcumin's physiological and pharmacological effects with related target proteins interaction via molecular docking. The purpose is to provide deeper insight and understandings of curcumin's medicinal value in the discovery and development of new drugs. Curcumin could be used in the prevention or therapy of cardiovascular disease, respiratory diseases, cancer, neurodegeneration, infection, and inflammation based on cellular biochemical, physiological regulation, infection suppression and immunomodulation.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antioxidants/therapeutic use , Curcumin/therapeutic use , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/metabolism , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/metabolism , Curcumin/metabolism , Curcumin/pharmacology , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/metabolism , Protein Structure, Secondary
17.
Bioorg Chem ; 114: 105131, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293593

ABSTRACT

Sets of 3-alkenyl-2-oxindoles (6,10,13) were synthesized in a facile synthetic pathway through acid dehydration (EtOH/HCl) of the corresponding 3-hydroxy-2-oxoindolines (5,9,12). Single crystal (10a,c) and powder (12a,26f) X-ray studies supported the structures. Compounds 6c and 10b are the most effective agents synthesized (about 3.4, 3.3 folds, respectively) against PaCa2 (pancreatic) cancer cell line relative to the standard reference used (Sunitinib). Additionally, compound 10b reveals antiproliferative properties against MCF7 (breast) cancer cell with IC50 close to that of Sunitinib. CAM testing reveals that compounds 6 and 10 demonstrated qualitative and quantitative decreases in blood vessel count and diameter with efficacy comparable to that of Sunitinib, supporting their anti-angiogenic properties. Kinase inhibitory properties support their multi-targeted inhibitory activities against VEGFR-2 and c-kit in similar behavior to that of Sunitinib. Cell cycle analysis studies utilizing MCF7 exhibit that compound 6b arrests the cell cycle at G1/S phase while, 10b reveals accumulation of the tested cell at S phase. Compounds 6a and 10b reveal potent antiviral properties against SARS-CoV-2 with high selectivity index relative to the standards (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine). Safe profile of the potent synthesized agents, against normal cells (VERO-E6, RPE1), support the possible development of better hits based on the attained observations.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Oxindoles/chemical synthesis , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Cycle , Cell Line, Tumor , Chick Embryo , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Oxindoles/pharmacology , Vero Cells
18.
Blood ; 138(9): 811-814, 2021 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288619
19.
Cancer Discov ; 11(6): 1336-1344, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1285108

ABSTRACT

In 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic led to an unprecedented destabilization of the world's health and economic systems. The rapid spread and life-threatening consequences of COVID-19 have imposed testing of repurposed drugs, by investigating interventions already used in other indications, including anticancer drugs. The contours of anticancer drug repurposing have been shaped by similarities between the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and malignancies, including abnormal inflammatory and immunologic responses. In this review, we discuss the salient positive and negative points of repurposing anticancer drugs to advance treatments for COVID-19. SIGNIFICANCE: Targeting anti-inflammatory pathways with JAK/STAT inhibitors or anticytokine therapies aiming to curb COVID-19-related cytokine storm, using antiangiogenic drugs to reduce vascular abnormalities or immune-checkpoint inhibitors to improve antiviral defenses, could be of value in COVID-19. However, conflicting data on drug efficacy point to the need for better patient selection and biomarker studies.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Drug Repositioning , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans , Patient Selection , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
20.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282541

ABSTRACT

Alkaloids are a group of secondary metabolites that have been widely studied for the discovery of new drugs due to their properties on the central nervous system and their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer activities. Molecular docking was performed for 10 indole alkaloids identified in the ethanol extract of Tabernaemontana cymosa Jacq. with 951 human targets involved in different diseases. The results were analyzed through the KEGG and STRING databases, finding the most relevant physiological associations for alkaloids. The molecule 5-oxocoronaridine proved to be the most active molecule against human proteins (binding energy affinity average = -9.2 kcal/mol) and the analysis of the interactions between the affected proteins pointed to the PI3K/ Akt/mTOR signaling pathway as the main target. The above indicates that indole alkaloids from T. cymosa constitute a promising source for the search and development of new treatments against different types of cancer.


Subject(s)
Indole Alkaloids/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Tabernaemontana/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Signal Transduction/drug effects
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