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1.
Bioorg Chem ; 138: 106600, 2023 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314909

ABSTRACT

Guanidines are fascinating small nitrogen-rich organic compounds, which have been frequently associated with a wide range of biological activities. This is mainly due to their interesting chemical features. For these reasons, for the past decades, researchers have been synthesizing and evaluating guanidine derivatives. In fact, there are currently on the market several guanidine-bearing drugs. Given the broad panoply of pharmacological activities displayed by guanidine compounds, in this review, we chose to focus on antitumor, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, and antiprotozoal activities presented by several natural and synthetic guanidine derivatives, which are undergoing preclinical and clinical studies from January 2010 to January 2023. Moreover, we also present guanidine-containing drugs currently in the market for the treatment of cancer and several infectious diseases. In the preclinical and clinical setting, most of the synthesized and natural guanidine derivatives are being evaluated as antitumor and antibacterial agents. Even though DNA is the most known target of this type of compounds, their cytotoxicity also involves several other different mechanisms, such as interference with bacterial cell membranes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, mediated-Rac1 inhibition, among others. As for the compounds already used as pharmacological drugs, their main application is in the treatment of different types of cancer, such as breast, lung, prostate, and leukemia. Guanidine-containing drugs are also being used for the treatment of bacterial, antiprotozoal, antiviral infections and, recently, have been proposed for the treatment of COVID-19. To conclude, the guanidine group is a privileged scaffold in drug design. Its remarkable cytotoxic activities, especially in the field of oncology, still make it suitable for a deeper investigation to afford more efficient and target-specific drugs.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Male , Humans , Guanidine/pharmacology , Guanidine/chemistry , Guanidines/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antihypertensive Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
2.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(9): 1959-1975, 2022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305537

ABSTRACT

In vitro tissue models hold great promise for modeling diseases and drug responses. Here, we used emulsion microfluidics to form micro-organospheres (MOSs), which are droplet-encapsulated miniature three-dimensional (3D) tissue models that can be established rapidly from patient tissues or cells. MOSs retain key biological features and responses to chemo-, targeted, and radiation therapies compared with organoids. The small size and large surface-to-volume ratio of MOSs enable various applications including quantitative assessment of nutrient dependence, pathogen-host interaction for anti-viral drug screening, and a rapid potency assay for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T therapy. An automated MOS imaging pipeline combined with machine learning overcomes plating variation, distinguishes tumorspheres from stroma, differentiates cytostatic versus cytotoxic drug effects, and captures resistant clones and heterogeneity in drug response. This pipeline is capable of robust assessments of drug response at individual-tumorsphere resolution and provides a rapid and high-throughput therapeutic profiling platform for precision medicine.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Organoids , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical/methods , Humans , Microfluidics , Precision Medicine
3.
Molecules ; 28(8)2023 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295716

ABSTRACT

Contemporary pharmacology dating back to the late 19th/early 20th centuries has benefitted largely from the incorporation of metal complexes. Various biological attributes have been successfully realized using metal/metal complex-based drugs. Among anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiviral applications, anticancer applications have extracted the maximum benefit from the metal complex, Cisplatin. The following review has compiled the various antiviral benefits harnessed through inputs from metal complexes. As a result of exploiting the pharmacological aspects of metal complexes, the anti-COVID-19 deliverables have been summarized. The challenges ahead, the gaps in this research area, the need to improvise incorporating nanoaspects in metal complexes, and the need to test metal complex-based drugs in clinical trials have been discussed and deliberated. The pandemic shook the entire world and claimed quite a percentage of the global population. Metal complex-based drugs are already established for their antiviral property with respect to enveloped viruses and extrapolating them for COVID-19 can be an effective way to manipulate drug resistance and mutant issues that the current anti-COVID-19 drugs are facing.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Coordination Complexes , Humans , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Coordination Complexes/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cisplatin , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use
5.
J Biochem ; 173(5): 337-342, 2023 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262469

ABSTRACT

N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide (4-HPR) inhibits the dihydroceramide Δ4-desaturase 1 (DEGS1) enzymatic activity. We previously reported that 4-HPR suppresses the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein-mediated membrane fusion through a decrease in membrane fluidity in a DEGS1-independent manner. However, the precise mechanism underlying the inhibition of viral entry by 4-HPR remains unclear. In this study, we examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the inhibition of membrane fusion by 4-HPR because 4-HPR is a well-known ROS-inducing agent. Intracellular ROS generation was found to be increased in the target cells in a cell-cell fusion assay after 4-HPR treatment, which was attenuated by the addition of the antioxidant, α-tocopherol (TCP). The reduction in membrane fusion susceptibility by 4-HPR treatment in the cell-cell fusion assay was alleviated by TCP addition. Furthermore, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analysis showed that the lateral diffusion of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and SARS CoV-2 receptor was reduced by 4-HPR treatment and restored by TCP addition. These results indicate that the decrease in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-mediated membrane fusion and membrane fluidity by 4-HPR was due to ROS generation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that ROS production is associated with the 4-HPR inhibitory effect on SARS-CoV-2 entry.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Fenretinide , Humans , Fenretinide/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Apoptosis , Oxidoreductases
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2280114

ABSTRACT

A promising new approach to broad spectrum antiviral drugs is the inhibition of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A (elF4A), a DEAD-box RNA helicase that effectively reduces the replication of several pathogenic virus types. Beside the antipathogenic effect, modulation of a host enzyme activity could also have an impact on the immune system. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive study on the influence of elF4A inhibition with natural and synthetic rocaglates on various immune cells. The effect of the rocaglates zotatifin, silvestrol and CR-31-B (-), as well as the nonactive enantiomer CR-31-B (+), on the expression of surface markers, release of cytokines, proliferation, inflammatory mediators and metabolic activity in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MdMs), monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MdDCs), T cells and B cells was assessed. The inhibition of elF4A reduced the inflammatory potential and energy metabolism of M1 MdMs, whereas in M2 MdMs, drug-specific and less target-specific effects were observed. Rocaglate treatment also reduced the inflammatory potential of activated MdDCs by altering cytokine release. In T cells, the inhibition of elF4A impaired their activation by reducing the proliferation rate, expression of CD25 and cytokine release. The inhibition of elF4A further reduced B-cell proliferation, plasma cell formation and the release of immune globulins. In conclusion, the inhibition of the elF4A RNA helicase with rocaglates suppressed the function of M1 MdMs, MdDCs, T cells and B cells. This suggests that rocaglates, while inhibiting viral replication, may also suppress bystander tissue injury by the host immune system. Thus, dosing of rocaglates would need to be adjusted to prevent excessive immune suppression without reducing their antiviral activity.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Macrophages , Humans , Cytokines/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , RNA Helicases , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Energy Metabolism
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(5)2023 Mar 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253898

ABSTRACT

Polyoxometalates (POMs) are oxoanions of transition metal ions, such as V, Mo, W, Nb, and Pd, forming a variety of structures with a wide range of applications. Herein, we analyzed recent studies on the effects of polyoxometalates as anticancer agents, particularly their effects on the cell cycle. To this end, a literature search was carried out between March and June 2022, using the keywords "polyoxometalates" and "cell cycle". The effects of POMs on selected cell lines can be diverse, such as their effects in the cell cycle, protein expression, mitochondrial effects, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, cell death and cell viability. The present study focused on cell viability and cell cycle arrest. Cell viability was analyzed by dividing the POMs into sections according to the constituent compound, namely polyoxovanadates (POVs), polyoxomolybdates (POMos), polyoxopaladates (POPds) and polyoxotungstates (POTs). When comparing and sorting the IC50 values in ascending order, we obtained first POVs, then POTs, POPds and, finally, POMos. When comparing clinically approved drugs and POMs, better results of POMs in relation to drugs were observed in many cases, since the dose required to have an inhibitory concentration of 50% is 2 to 200 times less, depending on the POMs, highlighting that these compounds could become in the future an alternative to existing drugs in cancer therapy.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Transition Elements , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Cell Cycle Checkpoints
8.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 138, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238641

ABSTRACT

Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) is an essential component of multiple signaling pathways that regulate B cell and myeloid cell proliferation, survival, and functions, making it a promising therapeutic target for various B cell malignancies and inflammatory diseases. Five small molecule inhibitors have shown remarkable efficacy and have been approved to treat different types of hematological cancers, including ibrutinib, acalabrutinib, zanubrutinib, tirabrutinib, and orelabrutinib. The first-in-class agent, ibrutinib, has created a new era of chemotherapy-free treatment of B cell malignancies. Ibrutinib is so popular and became the fourth top-selling cancer drug worldwide in 2021. To reduce the off-target effects and overcome the acquired resistance of ibrutinib, significant efforts have been made in developing highly selective second- and third-generation BTK inhibitors and various combination approaches. Over the past few years, BTK inhibitors have also been repurposed for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Promising data have been obtained from preclinical and early-phase clinical studies. In this review, we summarized current progress in applying BTK inhibitors in the treatment of hematological malignancies and inflammatory disorders, highlighting available results from clinical studies.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Hematologic Neoplasms , Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Hematologic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Humans , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
9.
Molecules ; 28(3)2023 Jan 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200552

ABSTRACT

New N-containing xanthone analogs of α-mangostin were synthesized via one-pot Smiles rearrangement. Using cesium carbonate in the presence of 2-chloroacetamide and catalytic potassium iodide, α-mangostin (1) was subsequently transformed in three steps to provide ether 2, amide 3, and amine 4 in good yields at an optimum ratio of 1:3:3, respectively. The evaluation of the biological activities of α-mangostin and analogs 2-4 was described. Amine 4 showed promising cytotoxicity against the non-small-cell lung cancer H460 cell line fourfold more potent than that of cisplatin. Both compounds 3 and 4 possessed antitrypanosomal properties against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense at a potency threefold stronger than that of α-mangostin. Furthermore, ether 2 gave potent SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibition by suppressing 3-chymotrypsinlike protease (3CLpro) activity approximately threefold better than that of 1. Fragment molecular orbital method (FMO-RIMP2/PCM) indicated the improved binding interaction of 2 in the 3CLpro active site regarding an additional ether moiety. Thus, the series of N-containing α-mangostin analogs prospectively enhance druglike properties based on isosteric replacement and would be further studied as potential biotically active chemical entries, particularly for anti-lung-cancer, antitrypanosomal, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 main protease applications.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Ethers , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Antiviral Agents
10.
Drug Dev Res ; 83(7): 1505-1518, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007097

ABSTRACT

Carmofur, 1-hexylcarbamoyl-5-fluorouracil (HCFU) is an antineoplastic drug, which has been in clinics in Japan since 1981 for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Subsequently, it was also introduced in China, Korea, and Finland. Besides colorectal cancer, it has also shown antitumor activity in other cancers such as breast, head and neck, pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and solid brain tumors. A prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), carmofur has shown better gastrointestinal stability and superior antiproliferative activity compared to its active counterpart 5-FU. Recently, carmofur has gained attention as an acid ceramidase inhibitor and as a potential lead compound against several noncancerous diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019, Krabbe disease, acute lung injury, Parkinson's disease, dementia, childhood ependymoma etc. Carmofur has also been reported to have antifungal, and antimicrobial properties. Nevertheless, no comprehensive review is available on this drug. Herein, we summarized the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacology of carmofur based on the literature published between January 1976 and March 2022 as identified from PubMed and Google Scholar search engines.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Brain Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , Child , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy
11.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 220: 114989, 2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977554

ABSTRACT

Morinda citrifolia Linn (noni) is an important plant in the Pacific Asian region. The fruit has been used as a food source and has shown therapeutical benefits for health. Recently, it has become a source for bioactive compounds. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial and anticancer activities of alcoholic extracts of Hainan dry noni fruit with machinery assistance and identified their novel compounds by UPLC-Q-Exactive Obitrap-MS/MS. By IE extractor aided method, the extraction of both NFE (Noni Fruit Ethanol) and NFM (Noni Fruit Methanol) solvent crude sample extracts were obtained with recovery yields of 98.48% and 71.65%, respectively. The antimicrobial effect of the crude extracts was subjected to disc diffusion test screening against two microbial strains bacterium SA (Staphylococcus aureus) and, fungal CA (Candida albicans). The MIC values of SA and CA were 35.34 and 47.80 mg/mL for NFE, 117.40 and 108.01 mg/mL for NFM, respectively. Further on, cell viability assay showed that IC50 values of extract NFE and NFM on human UMUC-3 bladder carcinogenic cells were 865.1 and 789.1 µg/mL with less effect to human SVHUC-1 normal cell line for 72hr incubation. Using UPLC-Q-exactive Orbitrap-MS/MS, ten compounds were identified in the noni extracts and confirmed from the HMDB and FooDB. Five known bioactive compounds had been used for treatments in anti-cancer, anti-obesity, and Covid-19 patients. The remaining five compounds were found novel in noni fruit. They were Cyanidin 3-(2 G-xylosylrutinoside), Inulobiose, Clausarinol, Pectachol, and 4,7-Megastigmadien-9-ol. The potential bioactivities of these novel compounds will be studied in the near future. These findings form a basis on screening natural medicinal plant extracts for beneficial use as a food and health source.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Morinda , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Ethanol , Fruit , Humans , Methanol , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Solvents , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 219: 414-427, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977348

ABSTRACT

Guanine-rich DNA sequences may fold back into non-canonical four-stranded secondary structures termed as G-quadruplexes. The role of G-quadruplexes has already been well established in different diseases like cancer, neurological and viral disorders etc. Also, several small molecules have been reported, which can influence the involvement of G-quadruplexes either through stabilization or destabilization in the cellular environment. Growing statistics have associated G-quadruplex assemblies to a discrete biological process in vivo, including DNA replication, transcription, genomic stability, and epigenetic regulation. DNA G-quadruplex existence in human telomere is well recognized attractive target for anticancer drugs. G-quadruplex-interactive ligands have been known to prevent telomerase access as well as telomere capping. To the best of our understanding, the role of G-quadruplexes in virology, neuropharmacology, cancer progression and its treatment has not been discussed on a single platform till date. This review aims to enhance our knowledge regarding these magical sticky quadruplex structures, which have been quite significantly proved to be the part of many cellular processes along with their established in vivo existence. Understanding regarding stabilizing or destabilizing ligands of these multistranded guanine quadruplex structures might be proved as the facilitator of drug discovery process for many incurable diseases in future.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , G-Quadruplexes , Telomerase , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , DNA/chemistry , Epigenesis, Genetic , Guanine/chemistry , Humans , Ligands , Telomerase/chemistry , Telomere/genetics , Telomere/metabolism
13.
Microb Pathog ; 169: 105615, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946063

ABSTRACT

Herein we have selected seventeen anti-lung cancer drugs to screen against Mpro, PLpro and spike glycoproteins of SARS-CoV-2to ascertain the potential therapeutic agent against COVID-19. ADMET profiling were employed to evaluate their pharmacokinetic properties. Molecular docking studies revealed that Capmatinib (CAP) showed highest binding affinity against the selected proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation and the analysis of RMSD, RMSF, and binding energy confirmed the abrupt conformational changes of the proteins due to the presence of this drug. These findings provide an opportunity for doing advanced experimental research to evaluate the potential drug to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 363: 110025, 2022 Aug 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906835

ABSTRACT

In order to discover new dual-active agents, a series of novel Biginelli hybrids (tetrahydropyrimidines) and their ruthenium(II) complexes were synthesized. Newly synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, NMR, and X-ray techniques and investigated for their cytotoxic effect on human cancer cell lines HeLa, LS174, A549, A375, K562 and normal fibroblasts (MRC-5). For further examination of the cytotoxic mechanisms of novel complexes, two of them were chosen for analyzing their effects on the distribution of HeLa cells in the cell cycle phases. The results of the flow cytometry analysis suggest that the proportion of cells in G2/M phase was decreased following the increase of subG1 phase in all treatments. These results confirmed that cells treated with 5b and 5c were induced to undergo apoptotic death. The ruthenium complexes 5a-5d show significant inhibitory potency against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Therefore, molecule 5b has significance, while 5e possesses the lowest values of ΔGbind and Ki, which are comparable to cinanserin, and hydroxychloroquine. In addition, achieved results will open a new avenue in drug design for more research on the possible therapeutic applications of dual-active Biginelli-based drugs (anticancer-antiviral). Dual-active drugs based on the hybridization concept "one drug curing two diseases" could be a successful tactic in healing patients who have cancer and the virus SARS-CoV-2 at the same time.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Coordination Complexes , Ruthenium , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , HeLa Cells , Humans , Ruthenium/chemistry , Ruthenium/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Pharmacol Res Perspect ; 9(3): e00800, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898944

ABSTRACT

Antiprotozoal drug nitazoxanide (NTZ) has shown diverse pharmacological properties and has appeared in several clinical trials. Herein we present the synthesis, characterization, in vitro biological investigation, and in silico study of four hetero aryl amide analogs of NTZ. Among the synthesized molecules, compound 2 and compound 4 exhibited promising antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), superior to that displayed by the parent drug nitazoxanide as revealed from the in vitro antibacterial assay. Compound 2 displayed zone of inhibition of 20 mm, twice as large as the parent drug NTZ (10 mm) in their least concentration (12.5 µg/ml). Compound 1 also showed antibacterial effect similar to that of nitazoxanide. The analogs were also tested for in vitro cytotoxic activity by employing cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay technique in HeLa cell line, and compound 2 was identified as a potential anticancer agent having IC50 value of 172 µg which proves it to be more potent than nitazoxanide (IC50  = 428 µg). Furthermore, the compounds were subjected to molecular docking study against various bacterial and cancer signaling proteins. The in vitro test results corroborated with the in silico docking study as compound 2 and compound 4 had comparatively stronger binding affinity against the proteins and showed a higher docking score than nitazoxanide toward human mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK9) and fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme (FabH) of E. coli. Moreover, the docking study demonstrated dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and thymidylate synthase (TS) as probable new targets for nitazoxanide and its synthetic analogs. Overall, the study suggests that nitazoxanide and its analogs can be a potential lead compound in the drug development.


Subject(s)
Amides , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Antineoplastic Agents , Antiparasitic Agents , Nitro Compounds , Thiazoles , Amides/chemistry , Amides/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiparasitic Agents/chemistry , Antiparasitic Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Biological Assay , Cell Survival/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/growth & development , HeLa Cells , Humans , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 9/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nitro Compounds/chemistry , Nitro Compounds/pharmacology , Tetrahydrofolate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Thiazoles/chemistry , Thiazoles/pharmacology , Thymidylate Synthase/metabolism
16.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732235

ABSTRACT

Rocaglates are potent broad-spectrum antiviral compounds with a promising safety profile. They inhibit viral protein synthesis for different RNA viruses by clamping the 5'-UTRs of mRNAs onto the surface of the RNA helicase eIF4A. Apart from the natural rocaglate silvestrol, synthetic rocaglates like zotatifin or CR-1-31-B have been developed. Here, we compared the effects of rocaglates on viral 5'-UTR-mediated reporter gene expression and binding to an eIF4A-polypurine complex. Furthermore, we analyzed the cytotoxicity of rocaglates on several human immune cells and compared their antiviral activities in coronavirus-infected cells. Finally, the potential for developing viral resistance was evaluated by passaging human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) in the presence of increasing concentrations of rocaglates in MRC-5 cells. Importantly, no decrease in rocaglate-sensitivity was observed, suggesting that virus escape mutants are unlikely to emerge if the host factor eIF4A is targeted. In summary, all three rocaglates are promising antivirals with differences in cytotoxicity against human immune cells, RNA-clamping efficiency, and antiviral activity. In detail, zotatifin showed reduced RNA-clamping efficiency and antiviral activity compared to silvestrol and CR-1-31-B, but was less cytotoxic for immune cells. Our results underline the potential of rocaglates as broad-spectrum antivirals with no indications for the emergence of escape mutations in HCoV-229E.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Coronavirus , 5' Untranslated Regions , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Constriction , Humans
17.
Molecules ; 27(4)2022 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715565

ABSTRACT

For most researchers, discovering new anticancer drugs to avoid the adverse effects of current ones, to improve therapeutic benefits and to reduce resistance is essential. Because the COX-2 enzyme plays an important role in various types of cancer leading to malignancy enhancement, inhibition of apoptosis, and tumor-cell metastasis, an indispensable objective is to design new scaffolds or drugs that possess combined action or dual effect, such as kinase and COX-2 inhibition. The start compounds A1 to A6 were prepared through the diazo coupling of 3-aminoacetophenone with a corresponding phenol and then condensed with two new chalcone series, C7-18. The newly synthesized compounds were assessed against both COX-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) for their inhibitory effect. All novel compounds were screened for cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines. Compounds C9 and G10 exhibited potent EGFR inhibition with IC50 values of 0.8 and 1.1 µM, respectively. Additionally, they also displayed great COX-2 inhibition with IC50 values of 1.27 and 1.88 µM, respectively. Furthermore, the target compounds were assessed for their cytotoxicity against pancreatic ductal cancer (Panc-1), lung cancer (H-460), human colon cancer (HT-29), human malignant melanoma (A375) and pancreatic cancer (PaCa-2) cell lines. Interestingly, compounds C10 and G12 exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect against PaCa-2 with average IC50 values of 0.9 and 0.8 µM, respectively. To understand the possible binding modes of the compounds under investigation with the receptor cites of EGFR and COX-2, a virtual docking study was conducted.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Chalcones , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Neoplasm Proteins , Neoplasms , Protein Kinase Inhibitors , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Chalcones/chemical synthesis , Chalcones/chemistry , Chalcones/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , ErbB Receptors/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Molecular Structure , Neoplasm Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/enzymology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology
18.
Pharmacol Res ; 178: 106138, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693034

ABSTRACT

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is a well-known natural herb used to treat different ailments since ancient times. Glycyrrhizin (GL), which is the primary triterpenoid compound of licorice extract, has been known to have broad-spectrum pharmacological effects. GL is cleaved into glucuronide and the aglycone, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), which exists in two stereoisomeric forms: 18α- and 18ß-GA. It is well documented that GL and GA have great potential as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective agents. Studies undertaken during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic suggest that GL is effective at inhibiting the viral replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The anticancer effects of GL and GA involve modulating various signaling pathways, such as the phosphatase and tensin homolog/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the mammalian target of rapamycin/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which are mainly involved in regulating cancer cell death, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The potential of GL and GA in preventing cancer development and suppressing the growth and invasion of different cancer types has been reviewed in this paper. This review also provides molecular insights on the mechanism of action for the oncopreventive and oncotherapeutic effects of GL and its derivative, GA, which could help develop more specific forms of these agents for clinical use.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Glycyrrhiza , Triterpenes , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Triterpenes/therapeutic use
19.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686898

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the second most fatal disease worldwide, with colon cancer being the third most prevalent and fatal form of cancer in several Western countries. The risk of acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy remains a significant hurdle in the management of various types of cancer, especially colon cancer. Therefore, it is essential to develop alternative treatment modalities. Naturally occurring alkaloids have been shown to regulate various mechanistic pathways linked to cell proliferation, cell cycle, and metastasis. This review aims to shed light on the potential of alkaloids as anti-colon-cancer chemotherapy agents that can modulate or arrest the cell cycle. Preclinical investigated alkaloids have shown anti-colon cancer activities and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest at different stages, suggesting that alkaloids may have the potential to act as anticancer molecules.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Discovery , Humans
20.
Chem Soc Rev ; 51(4): 1212-1233, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661982

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the deadliest disease in the world behind heart disease. Sadly, this remains true even as we suffer the ravages of the Covid-19 pandemic. Whilst current chemo- and radiotherapeutic treatment strategies have significantly improved the patient survival rate, disease reoccurrence continues to pose a deadly risk for all too many patients. Incomplete removal of tumour cells from the body increases the chances of metastasis and developing resistance against current treatments. Immunotherapy represents a therapeutic modality that has helped to overcome these limitations in recent decades. However, further progress is needed. So-called immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a recently discovered and unique mode of cell death that could trigger this necessary further progress. ICD involves stimulation of a tumour-specific immune response as a downstream effect. Facilitated by certain treatment modalities, cells undergoing ICD can trigger the IFN-γ mediated immune response involving cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) and γδ T cells that eradicate residual tumour cells. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of small-molecules being tested as potential ICD inducers. A large number of these ICD inducers are metal-based complexes. In fact, anticancer metal drugs based on Pt, Ru, Ir, Cu, and Au are now known to give rise to an immune response against tumour cells as the result of ICD. Advances have also been made in terms of exploiting combinatorial and delivery strategies. In favourable cases, these approaches have been shown to increase the efficacy of otherwise ICD "silent" metal complexes. Taken in concert, rationally designed novel anticancer metal complexes that can act as ICD inducers show promise as potential new immunotherapies for neoplastic disease. This Tutorial Review will allow the readers to assess the progress in this fast-evolving field thus setting the stage for future advances.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunogenic Cell Death , Immunotherapy , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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