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1.
Cells ; 11(22)2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123529

ABSTRACT

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) belongs to a broad class of cytokines involved in the regulation of various homeostatic and pathological processes. These activities range from regulating embryonic development, wound healing and ageing, inflammation, and immunity, including COVID-19. In this review, we summarise the role of IL-6 signalling pathways in cancer biology, with particular emphasis on cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis formation. Targeting principal components of IL-6 signalling (e.g., IL-6Rs, gp130, STAT3, NF-κB) is an intensively studied approach in preclinical cancer research. It is of significant translational potential; numerous studies strongly imply the remarkable potential of IL-6 signalling inhibitors, especially in metastasis suppression.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Signal Transduction , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 42(4): 305-311, 2020 Apr 23.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033195

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the principles of differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients during the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by analyzing one case of lymphoma who presented pulmonary ground-glass opacities (GGO) after courses of chemotherapy. Methods: Baseline demographics and clinicopathological data of eligible patients were retrieved from medical records. Information of clinical manifestations, history of epidemiology, lab tests and chest CT scan images of visiting patients from February 13 to February 28 were collected. Literatures about pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients were searched from databases including PUBMED, EMBASE and CNKI. Results: Among the 139 cancer patients who underwent chest CT scans before chemotherapy, pulmonary infiltrates were identified in eight patients (5.8%), five of whom were characterized with GGOs in lungs. 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing was performed in three patients and the results were negative. One case was a 66-year-old man who was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and underwent CHOP chemotherapy regimen. His chest CT scan image displayed multiple GGOs in lungs and the complete blood count showed decreased lymphocytes. This patient denied any contact with confirmed/suspected cases of 2019-nCoV infection, fever or other respiratory symptoms. Considering the negative result of nuclear acid testing, this patient was presumptively diagnosed with viral pneumonia and an experiential anti-infection treatment had been prescribed for him. Conclusions: The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) complicates the clinical scenario of pulmonary infiltrates in cancer patients. The epidemic history, clinical manifestation, CT scan image and lab test should be taken into combined consideration. The 2019-nCoV nuclear acid testing might be applied in more selected patients. Active anti-infection treatment and surveillance of patient condition should be initiated if infectious disease is considered.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus , Lung Injury/chemically induced , Lung Injury/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
N Engl J Med ; 387(6): 495-505, 2022 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Teclistamab is a T-cell-redirecting bispecific antibody that targets both CD3 expressed on the surface of T cells and B-cell maturation antigen expressed on the surface of myeloma cells. In the phase 1 dose-defining portion of the study, teclistamab showed promising efficacy in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. METHODS: In this phase 1-2 study, we enrolled patients who had relapsed or refractory myeloma after at least three therapy lines, including triple-class exposure to an immunomodulatory drug, a proteasome inhibitor, and an anti-CD38 antibody. Patients received a weekly subcutaneous injection of teclistamab (at a dose of 1.5 mg per kilogram of body weight) after receiving step-up doses of 0.06 mg and 0.3 mg per kilogram. The primary end point was the overall response (partial response or better). RESULTS: Among 165 patients who received teclistamab, 77.6% had triple-class refractory disease (median, five previous therapy lines). With a median follow-up of 14.1 months, the overall response rate was 63.0%, with 65 patients (39.4%) having a complete response or better. A total of 44 patients (26.7%) were found to have no minimal residual disease (MRD); the MRD-negativity rate among the patients with a complete response or better was 46%. The median duration of response was 18.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.9 to not estimable). The median duration of progression-free survival was 11.3 months (95% CI, 8.8 to 17.1). Common adverse events included cytokine release syndrome (in 72.1% of the patients; grade 3, 0.6%; no grade 4), neutropenia (in 70.9%; grade 3 or 4, 64.2%), anemia (in 52.1%; grade 3 or 4, 37.0%), and thrombocytopenia (in 40.0%; grade 3 or 4, 21.2%). Infections were frequent (in 76.4%; grade 3 or 4, 44.8%). Neurotoxic events occurred in 24 patients (14.5%), including immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome in 5 patients (3.0%; all grade 1 or 2). CONCLUSIONS: Teclistamab resulted in a high rate of deep and durable response in patients with triple-class-exposed relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. Cytopenias and infections were common; toxic effects that were consistent with T-cell redirection were mostly grade 1 or 2. (Funded by Janssen Research and Development; MajesTEC-1 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT03145181 and NCT04557098.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological , B-Cell Maturation Antigen , CD3 Complex , Multiple Myeloma , Antibodies, Bispecific/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Bispecific/adverse effects , Antibodies, Bispecific/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/administration & dosage , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use , B-Cell Maturation Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , CD3 Complex/antagonists & inhibitors , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Multiple Myeloma/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/drug therapy , Recurrence , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
4.
Curr Oncol ; 29(8): 5616-5626, 2022 08 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009970

ABSTRACT

The Canadian Real-world Evidence for Value in Cancer Drugs (CanREValue) Collaboration established the Engagement Working Group (WG) to ensure that all key stakeholders had an opportunity to provide input into the development and implementation of the CanREValue Real-World Evidence (RWE) Framework. Two consultations were held in 2021 to solicit patient perspectives on key policy and data access issues identified in the interim policy and data WG reports. Over 30 individuals, representing patients, caregivers, advocacy leaders, and individuals engaged in patient research were invited to participate. The consultations provided important feedback and valuable lessons in patient engagement. Patient leaders actively shaped the process and content of the consultation. Breakout groups facilitated by patient advocacy leaders gave the opportunity for open and thoughtful contributions from all participants. Important recommendations were made: the RWE framework should not impede access to new drugs; it should be used to support conditional approvals; patient relevant endpoints should be captured in provincial datasets; access to data to conduct RWE should be improved; and privacy issues must be considered. The manuscript documents the CanREValue experience of engaging patients in a consultative process and the useful contributions that can be achieved when the processes to engage are guided by patients themselves.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Canada , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Patient Participation
5.
Drug Dev Res ; 83(7): 1505-1518, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007097

ABSTRACT

Carmofur, 1-hexylcarbamoyl-5-fluorouracil (HCFU) is an antineoplastic drug, which has been in clinics in Japan since 1981 for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Subsequently, it was also introduced in China, Korea, and Finland. Besides colorectal cancer, it has also shown antitumor activity in other cancers such as breast, head and neck, pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and solid brain tumors. A prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), carmofur has shown better gastrointestinal stability and superior antiproliferative activity compared to its active counterpart 5-FU. Recently, carmofur has gained attention as an acid ceramidase inhibitor and as a potential lead compound against several noncancerous diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019, Krabbe disease, acute lung injury, Parkinson's disease, dementia, childhood ependymoma etc. Carmofur has also been reported to have antifungal, and antimicrobial properties. Nevertheless, no comprehensive review is available on this drug. Herein, we summarized the chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacology of carmofur based on the literature published between January 1976 and March 2022 as identified from PubMed and Google Scholar search engines.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Brain Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Colorectal Neoplasms , Humans , Child , Fluorouracil/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Brain Neoplasms/drug therapy , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy
6.
Arch Iran Med ; 25(6): 399-401, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1998175

ABSTRACT

Common cardiovascular toxicities of sunitinib mainly include hypertension, QT prolongation, left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) and less frequently, congestive heart failure (CHF). Here, we report the case of a 67-year-old woman who developed heart failure after 24 months of sunitinib. Our case highlights the importance of strict and regular cardiovascular monitoring during sunitinib. It also shows that the reintroduction of sunitinib with maintaining heart failure treatment can be safe. The exact mechanisms of this cardiotoxicity have not been understood. There is no protective therapy available. Therefore, further investigations are needed in these areas. Medical specialists who prescribe and treat patients with sunitinib should be aware of the possible occurrence of these conditions and perform regular checkup of sunitinib-treated patients.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors , Heart Failure , Aged , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/drug therapy , Heart Failure/chemically induced , Humans , Indoles/adverse effects , Pyrroles/adverse effects , Sunitinib/adverse effects
9.
N Engl J Med ; 387(2): 120-131, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967704

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adagrasib, a KRASG12C inhibitor, irreversibly and selectively binds KRASG12C, locking it in its inactive state. Adagrasib showed clinical activity and had an acceptable adverse-event profile in the phase 1-1b part of the KRYSTAL-1 phase 1-2 study. METHODS: In a registrational phase 2 cohort, we evaluated adagrasib (600 mg orally twice daily) in patients with KRASG12C -mutated non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy and anti-programmed death 1 or programmed death ligand 1 therapy. The primary end point was objective response assessed by blinded independent central review. Secondary end points included the duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety. RESULTS: As of October 15, 2021, a total of 116 patients with KRASG12C -mutated NSCLC had been treated (median follow-up, 12.9 months); 98.3% had previously received both chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Of 112 patients with measurable disease at baseline, 48 (42.9%) had a confirmed objective response. The median duration of response was 8.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.2 to 13.8), and the median progression-free survival was 6.5 months (95% CI, 4.7 to 8.4). As of January 15, 2022 (median follow-up, 15.6 months), the median overall survival was 12.6 months (95% CI, 9.2 to 19.2). Among 33 patients with previously treated, stable central nervous system metastases, the intracranial confirmed objective response rate was 33.3% (95% CI, 18.0 to 51.8). Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 97.4% of the patients - grade 1 or 2 in 52.6% and grade 3 or higher in 44.8% (including two grade 5 events) - and resulted in drug discontinuation in 6.9% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with previously treated KRASG12C -mutated NSCLC, adagrasib showed clinical efficacy without new safety signals. (Funded by Mirati Therapeutics; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03785249.).


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) , Acetonitriles/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/genetics , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/pathology , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Lung Neoplasms/genetics , Mutation , Piperazines/therapeutic use , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/antagonists & inhibitors , Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)/genetics , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use
10.
Drugs ; 82(11): 1207-1212, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930609

ABSTRACT

Desidustat (Oxemia™) is an orally bioavailable, small molecule, hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH) inhibitor developed by Zydus Cadila for the treatment of anaemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), COVID-2019 infections and chemotherapy induced anaemia. Desidustat inhibits prolyl hydroxylase domain enzymes, resulting in the stabilisation of hypoxia-inducible factor which stimulates erythropoietin production and erythropoiesis. In March 2022, desidustat received its first approval in India for the treatment of anaemia in adults with CKD who are either on dialysis or not on dialysis. Desidustat is in clinical development in China for the treatment of anaemia in patients with CKD, in Mexico for the management of COVID-2019 infections and in the USA for the treatment of chemotherapy induced anaemia. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of desidustat leading to this first approval for anaemia associated with CKD.


Subject(s)
Anemia , Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Quinolones , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Adult , Anemia/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Erythropoietin , Humans , Hypoxia/complications , Hypoxia/drug therapy , Prolyl Hydroxylases , Prolyl-Hydroxylase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Quinolones/therapeutic use , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/drug therapy
11.
J Hematol Oncol ; 15(1): 90, 2022 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928195

ABSTRACT

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have vastly improved long-term outcomes for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). After imatinib (a first-generation TKI), second- and third-generation TKIs were developed. With five TKIs (imatinib, dasatinib, bosutinib, nilotinib, and ponatinib) targeting BCR::ABL approved in most countries, and with the recent approval of asciminib in the USA, treatment decisions are complex and require assessment of patient-specific factors. Optimal treatment strategies for CML continue to evolve, with an increased focus on achieving deep molecular responses. Using clinically relevant case studies developed by the authors of this review, we discuss three major scenarios from the perspective of international experts. Firstly, this review explores patient-specific characteristics that affect decision-making between first- and second-generation TKIs upon initial diagnosis of CML, including patient comorbidities. Secondly, a thorough assessment of therapeutic options in the event of first-line treatment failure (as defined by National Comprehensive Cancer Network and European LeukemiaNet guidelines) is discussed along with real-world considerations for monitoring optimal responses to TKI therapy. Thirdly, this review illustrates the considerations and importance of achieving treatment-free remission as a treatment goal. Due to the timing of the writing, this review addresses global challenges commonly faced by hematologists treating patients with CML during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lastly, as new treatment approaches continue to be explored in CML, this review also discusses the advent of newer therapies such as asciminib. This article may be a useful reference for physicians treating patients with CML with second-generation TKIs and, as it is focused on the physicians' international and personal experiences, may give insight into alternative approaches not previously considered.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Dasatinib , Humans , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive/drug therapy , Pandemics , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use
14.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care ; 38(1): e36, 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805516

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This review intends to provide an overview of revealed preferences of decision-makers for recommendations of cancer drugs in health technology assessment (HTA) among the different agencies. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from inception to July 2020. The studies were eligible for inclusion if they conducted a quantitative analysis of HTA's previous decisions for cancer drugs. The factors with p-values below the significance level of .05 were considered as the statistically significant factors for HTA decisions. RESULTS: A total of nine studies for six agencies in Australia, Belgium, France, South Korea, the UK, and Canada were eligible to be included. From the univariable analysis, improvements in clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness were found as significant factors for the agencies in Belgium, South Korea, and Canada. From the multivariable analysis, cost-effectiveness was found as a positive factor for the agencies in the UK, South Korea, and Canada. Few factors related to characteristics of disease and technology were found to be significant among the included agencies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the different drug reimbursement systems and the socioeconomic situations, cost-effectiveness and/or improvement on clinical outcomes seemed to be the most important factors for recommendations of cancer drugs among the agencies.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Decision Making , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Republic of Korea , Technology Assessment, Biomedical
15.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(14): 1137-1145, 2022 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764494

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The pharmacology, efficacy, safety, and dosing/administration of new and emerging therapies for the treatment of multiple myeloma are summarized. SUMMARY: There have been significant advancements in the treatment of multiple myeloma in recent years, with an expansion of available drug therapies. Newer therapies for multiple myeloma include the anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies daratumumab and isatuximab, the exportin 1 inhibitor selinexor, the anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) antibody-drug conjugate belantamab mafodotin, and the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy idecabtagene vicleucel. These agents have unique toxicity profiles, specific monitoring parameters, and operational considerations that clinicians treating multiple myeloma should be aware of. There is likely to be continued rapid expansion of new agents for patients with multiple myeloma, as there are many novel investigational agents in the drug development pipeline, such as bispecific antibodies and additional CAR T-cell therapies. CONCLUSION: Several therapeutic agents have been recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of multiple myeloma. There are many novel agents in the pipeline, including bispecific antibodies and CAR T-cell therapies that have the potential to continue to change the treatment landscape of multiple myeloma.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Bispecific , Antineoplastic Agents , Multiple Myeloma , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , B-Cell Maturation Antigen/therapeutic use , Humans , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Receptors, Chimeric Antigen
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701976

ABSTRACT

Selenium has been extensively evaluated clinically as a chemopreventive agent with variable results depending on the type and dose of selenium used. Selenium species are now being therapeutically evaluated as modulators of drug responses rather than as directly cytotoxic agents. In addition, recent data suggest an association between selenium base-line levels in blood and survival of patients with COVID-19. The major focus of this mini review was to summarize: the pathways of selenium metabolism; the results of selenium-based chemopreventive clinical trials; the potential for using selenium metabolites as therapeutic modulators of drug responses in cancer (clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma (ccRCC) in particular); and selenium usage alone or in combination with vaccines in the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Critical therapeutic targets and the potential role of different selenium species, doses, and schedules are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Selenium/therapeutic use , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , DNA Repair/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Neoplasm/drug effects , Humans , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/chemistry , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Selenium/chemistry , Selenium/metabolism , Selenium/pharmacology
18.
Pharmacol Res ; 178: 106138, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1693034

ABSTRACT

Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is a well-known natural herb used to treat different ailments since ancient times. Glycyrrhizin (GL), which is the primary triterpenoid compound of licorice extract, has been known to have broad-spectrum pharmacological effects. GL is cleaved into glucuronide and the aglycone, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), which exists in two stereoisomeric forms: 18α- and 18ß-GA. It is well documented that GL and GA have great potential as anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective agents. Studies undertaken during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic suggest that GL is effective at inhibiting the viral replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The anticancer effects of GL and GA involve modulating various signaling pathways, such as the phosphatase and tensin homolog/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway, the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the mammalian target of rapamycin/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, which are mainly involved in regulating cancer cell death, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The potential of GL and GA in preventing cancer development and suppressing the growth and invasion of different cancer types has been reviewed in this paper. This review also provides molecular insights on the mechanism of action for the oncopreventive and oncotherapeutic effects of GL and its derivative, GA, which could help develop more specific forms of these agents for clinical use.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Glycyrrhiza , Triterpenes , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Glycyrrhizic Acid/pharmacology , Glycyrrhizic Acid/therapeutic use , Humans , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Triterpenes/pharmacology , Triterpenes/therapeutic use
19.
Molecules ; 27(3)2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686898

ABSTRACT

Cancer is the second most fatal disease worldwide, with colon cancer being the third most prevalent and fatal form of cancer in several Western countries. The risk of acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy remains a significant hurdle in the management of various types of cancer, especially colon cancer. Therefore, it is essential to develop alternative treatment modalities. Naturally occurring alkaloids have been shown to regulate various mechanistic pathways linked to cell proliferation, cell cycle, and metastasis. This review aims to shed light on the potential of alkaloids as anti-colon-cancer chemotherapy agents that can modulate or arrest the cell cycle. Preclinical investigated alkaloids have shown anti-colon cancer activities and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation via cell cycle arrest at different stages, suggesting that alkaloids may have the potential to act as anticancer molecules.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Cell Cycle Checkpoints/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Drug Discovery , Humans
20.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(47): 9642-9657, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684136

ABSTRACT

Cancer is a growing threat to human beings. Traditional treatments for malignant tumors usually involve invasive means to healthy human tissues, such as surgical treatment and chemotherapy. In recent years the use of specific stimulus-responsive materials in combination with some non-contact, non-invasive stimuli can lead to better efficacy and has become an important area of research. It promises to develop personalized treatment systems for four types of physical stimuli: light, ultrasound, magnetic field, and temperature. Nanomaterials that are responsive to these stimuli can be used to enhance drug delivery, cancer treatment, and tissue engineering. This paper reviews the principles of the stimuli mentioned above, their effects on materials, and how they work with nanomaterials. For this aim, we focus on specific applications in controlled drug release, cancer therapy, tissue engineering, and virus detection, with particular reference to recent photothermal, photodynamic, sonodynamic, magnetothermal, radiation, and other types of therapies. It is instructive for the future development of stimulus-responsive nanomaterials for these aspects.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Delayed-Action Preparations/therapeutic use , Metal Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/radiation effects , Delayed-Action Preparations/chemistry , Delayed-Action Preparations/radiation effects , Humans , Infrared Rays , Magnetic Phenomena , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/radiation effects , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/chemistry , Radiation-Sensitizing Agents/radiation effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Temperature , Tissue Engineering/methods , Ultrasonic Waves , Viral Load/methods
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