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1.
Breast Dis ; 41(1): 1-3, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604128

ABSTRACT

During the first hit of SARS-COVID pandemic, an important reorganization of Healthcare Services has been done, and new protocols and pathways to protect frail patients like oncological patients were designed. The second hit of pandemic had stressed these new pathways and suggests to health-workers some improvements for safer management of patents.We reported our experience in organizing the clinical pathway of neoadjuvant therapy candidate patients based on the execution of sentinel lympho-node biopsy and the placement of implantable venous access port in the same access to operating room before neoadjuvant chemotherapy suggesting a possible organizational model. In the period October-December 2020 we have included in this new type of path twelve patients and we have not registered any cases of COVID among the patients included. We think this new path, adopted amid the second hit, will be useful for all Breast Units that are facing the challenge of guaranteeing the highest standards of care in a historical moment where the health emergency occupies the efforts of health workers and the economic resources of health systems.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/administration & dosage , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Catheterization, Central Venous/methods , Infection Control/methods , Patient Safety , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Breast Neoplasms/surgery , Catheterization, Central Venous/instrumentation , Catheterization, Central Venous/standards , Central Venous Catheters , Chemotherapy, Adjuvant , Critical Pathways , Female , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Mastectomy , Middle Aged , Neoadjuvant Therapy , Neoplasm Staging , Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy/standards
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6797-6812, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524867

ABSTRACT

Cytokines in cardiac tissue plays a key role in progression of cardiometabolic diseases and cardiotoxicity induced by several anticancer drugs. Interleukin-1ß is one on the most studied regulator of cancer progression, survival and resistance to anticancer treatments. Recent findings indicate that interleukin1-ß exacerbates myocardial damages in cancer patients treated with chemotherapies and immune check-point inhibitors. Interleukin1-ß blocking agent canakinumab reduces major adverse cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death in recent cardiovascular trials. We focalized on the main biological functions of interleukin1-ß in cancer and cardiovascular diseases, summarizing the main clinical evidence available to date in literature. Especially in the era of SARS-CoV-2 infection, associated to coagulopathies, myocarditis and heart failure, cancer patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular complications compared to general population, therefore, the pharmacological inhibition of interleukin1-ß should be discussed and considered.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Cardiotoxicity/prevention & control , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Anthracyclines/adverse effects , Anthracyclines/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Cardiotoxicity/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Interleukin-1beta/immunology , Neoplasms/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Theranostics ; 11(14): 7005-7017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524524

ABSTRACT

The tumor suppressor protein p53 remains in a wild type but inactive form in ~50% of all human cancers. Thus, activating it becomes an attractive approach for targeted cancer therapies. In this regard, our lab has previously discovered a small molecule, Inauhzin (INZ), as a potent p53 activator with no genotoxicity. Method: To improve its efficacy and bioavailability, here we employed nanoparticle encapsulation, making INZ-C, an analog of INZ, to nanoparticle-encapsulated INZ-C (n-INZ-C). Results: This approach significantly improved p53 activation and inhibition of lung and colorectal cancer cell growth by n-INZ-C in vitro and in vivo while it displayed a minimal effect on normal human Wi38 and mouse MEF cells. The improved activity was further corroborated with the enhanced cellular uptake observed in cancer cells and minimal cellular uptake observed in normal cells. In vivo pharmacokinetic evaluation of these nanoparticles showed that the nanoparticle encapsulation prolongates the half-life of INZ-C from 2.5 h to 5 h in mice. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that we have established a nanoparticle system that could enhance the bioavailability and efficacy of INZ-C as a potential anti-cancer therapeutic.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Colorectal Neoplasms/drug therapy , Indoles/pharmacology , Lung Neoplasms/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacology , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/metabolism , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacokinetics , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Biological Availability , Cell Line, Tumor , Cell Movement/drug effects , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Humans , Indoles/chemistry , Indoles/pharmacokinetics , Indoles/therapeutic use , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Phenothiazines/chemistry , Phenothiazines/pharmacokinetics , Phenothiazines/therapeutic use , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics , Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays
5.
Int J Biol Sci ; 17(14): 3954-3967, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1449161

ABSTRACT

Furin is a proprotein convertase that activates different kinds of regulatory proteins, including SARS-CoV-2 spike protein which contains an additional furin-specific cleavage site. It is essential in predicting cancer patients' susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and the disease outcomes due to varying furin expressions in tumor tissues. In this study, we analyzed furin's expression, methylation, mutation rate, functional enrichment, survival rate and COVID-19 outcomes in normal and cancer tissues using online databases, and our IHC. As a result, furin presented with biased expression profiles in normal tissues, showing 12.25-fold higher than ACE2 in the lungs. The furin expression in tumors were significantly increased in ESCA and TGCT, and decreased in DLBC and THYM, indicating furin may play critical mechanistic functions in COVID-19 viral entry into cells in these cancer patients. Line with furin over/downexpression, furin promoter hypo-/hyper-methylation may be the regulatory cause of disease and lead to pathogenesis of ESCA and THYM. Furthermore, presence of FURIN-201 isoform with functional domains (P_proprotein, Peptidase_S8 and S8_pro-domain) is highest in all cancer types in comparison to other isoforms, demonstrating its use in tumorigenesis and SARS-Cov-2 entry into tumor tissues. Furin mutation frequency was highest in UCES, and its mutation might elevate ACE2 expression in LUAD and UCEC, reduce ACE2 expression in COAD, elevate HSPA5 expression in PAAD, and elevate TMPRSS2 expression in BRCA. These results showed that furin mutations mostly increased expression of ACE2, HSPA5, and TMPRSS2 in certain cancers, indicating furin mutations might facilitate COVID-19 cell entry in cancer patients. In addition, high expression of furin was significantly inversely correlated with long overall survival (OS) in LGG and correlated with long OS in COAD and KIRC, indicating that it could be used as a favorable prognostic marker for cancer patients' survival. GO and KEGG demonstrated that furin was mostly enriched in genes for metabolic and biosynthetic processes, retinal dehydrogenase activity, tRNA methyltransferase activity, and genes involving COVID-19, further supporting its role in COVID-19 and cancer metabolism. Moreover, Cordycepin (CD) inhibited furin expression in a dosage dependent manner. Altogether, furin's high expression might not only implies increased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 and higher severity of COVID-19 symptoms in cancer patients, but also it highlights the need for cancer treatment and therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic. CD might have a potential to develop an anti-SARS-CoV-2 drug through inhibiting furin expression.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Deoxyadenosines/therapeutic use , Furin/metabolism , Neoplasms/metabolism , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line, Tumor , Deoxyadenosines/pharmacology , Disease Susceptibility , Furin/antagonists & inhibitors , Furin/genetics , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Protein Isoforms/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
6.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438677

ABSTRACT

The large number of emerging antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) for cancer therapy has resulted in a significant market 'boom', garnering worldwide attention. Despite ADCs presenting huge challenges to researchers, particularly regarding the identification of a suitable combination of antibody, linker, and payload, as of September 2021, 11 ADCs have been granted FDA approval, with eight of these approved since 2017 alone. Optimism for this therapeutic approach is clear, despite the COVID-19 pandemic, 2020 was a landmark year for deals and partnerships in the ADC arena, suggesting that there remains significant interest from Big Pharma. Herein we review the enthusiasm for ADCs by focusing on the features of those approved by the FDA, and offer some thoughts as to where the field is headed.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Immunoconjugates/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Animals , Drug Approval , Humans , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
7.
Ann Hematol ; 100(11): 2805-2812, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432514

ABSTRACT

Rituximab is associated with prolonged B-cell depletion and secondary hypogammaglobulinemia and is associated with a dampened humoral response and increased infectious complications. To describe the potential impact of prior rituximab therapy on clinical outcomes from SARS-CoV-2 infection and development of COVID-19 antibodies, we conducted a retrospective study of adults across the Mount Sinai Health System diagnosed with COVID-19 who received rituximab for any indication from February 2019 to October 2020. Patients' baseline characteristics, markers of disease severity, clinical outcomes, and antibody development were examined. Of the 49 patients included in the analysis, 63.2% required hospitalization for COVID-19, 24.5% required an ICU admission, and 32.7% died. Proximity of last rituximab infusion and COVID-19 diagnosis did not affect rates of hospitalization, admission to intensive care units or death. Over half (51.7%) of those whose antibodies were checked developed neutralizing anti-spike protein antibodies. The median time between rituximab administration and COVID-19 diagnosis was not significantly different between those who developed antibodies and those who did not (p = .323). Of the 14 patients with documented negative COVID-19 antibody titers, 11 of them survived SARS-CoV-2 infection, indicating that development of neutralizing antibodies may not be necessary for recovery from COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Rituximab/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Rituximab/adverse effects , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Severity of Illness Index , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome
8.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430928

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota has emerged as a major metabolically active organ with critical functions in both health and disease. The trillions of microorganisms hosted by the gastrointestinal tract are involved in numerous physiological and metabolic processes including modulation of appetite and regulation of energy in the host spanning from periphery to the brain. Indeed, bacteria and their metabolic byproducts are working in concert with the host chemosensory signaling pathways to affect both short- and long-term ingestive behavior. Sensing of nutrients and taste by specialized G protein-coupled receptor cells is important in transmitting food-related signals, optimizing nutrition as well as in prevention and treatment of several diseases, notably obesity, diabetes and associated metabolic disorders. Further, bacteria metabolites interact with specialized receptors cells expressed by gut epithelium leading to taste and appetite response changes to nutrients. This review describes recent advances on the role of gut bacteria in taste perception and functions. It further discusses how intestinal dysbiosis characteristic of several pathological conditions may alter and modulate taste preference and food consumption via changes in taste receptor expression.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Intestines/microbiology , Taste Perception , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Bariatric Surgery , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diet , Dysbiosis/physiopathology , Feeding Behavior , Hormones/metabolism , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/physiopathology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/physiopathology , Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled/metabolism , Taste , Taste Buds/physiology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
9.
Eur J Cancer ; 157: 124-131, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401447

ABSTRACT

AIM: Patients with cancer are at an increased risk for severe coronavirus disease of 2019, thus data on the safety and efficacy of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines are essential. We conducted this prospective study of patients with cancer vaccinated with BNT162b2 and monitored for antibody response and safety. The aim was to evaluate the rate of seropositivity and define predictors for non-reactive immune response. Furthermore, we evaluated the frequency and the severity of adverse events. METHODS: The study included patients with solid tumours undergoing anticancer treatment and immunocompetent health-care workers serving as controls. Serum titres of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and neutralising antibodies were measured 2-4 weeks after each vaccine dose. RESULTS: The analysis included 129 patients, of which 70.5% patients were metastatic. Patients were treated with chemotherapy (55%), immunotherapy (34.1%), biological agents (24.8%), hormonal treatment (8.5%) and radiotherapy (4.6%), that were given either alone or in combinations. The seropositivity rate among patients with cancer and controls was 32.4% versus 59.8% (p < 0.0001) after the first dose and 84.1% versus 98.9% (p < 0.0001) after the second dose, respectively. Median RBD-IgG titre was lower among patients than controls (p < 0.0001). Patients who were seronegative after the second dose had significantly more comorbidities than that with patients with seropositivity (77.8% vs 41.1%, respectively, p = 0.0042). CONCLUSION: Adequate antibody response after BNT162b2 vaccination was achieved after two doses but not after one dose, in patients with cancer vaccinated during anticancer therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/virology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/diet therapy , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256544, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374151

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represent a vulnerable population potentially negatively affected by COVID-19-associated reallocation of healthcare resources. Here, we report the impact of COVID-19 on the management of HCC patients in a large tertiary care hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of HCC patients who presented at the Vienna General Hospital, between 01/DEC/2019 and 30/JUN/2020. We compared patient care before (period 1) and after (period 2) implementation of COVID-19-associated healthcare restrictions on 16/MAR/2020. RESULTS: Of 126 patients, majority was male (n = 104, 83%) with a mean age of 66±11 years. Half of patients (n = 57, 45%) had impaired liver function (Child-Pugh stage B/C) and 91 (72%) had intermediate-advanced stage HCC (BCLC B-D). New treatment, was initiated in 68 (54%) patients. Number of new HCC diagnoses did not differ between the two periods (n = 14 vs. 14). While personal visits were reduced, an increase in teleconsultation was observed (period 2). Number of patients with visit delays (n = 31 (30%) vs. n = 10 (10%); p = 0.001) and imaging delays (n = 25 (25%) vs. n = 7 (7%); p = 0.001) was higher in period 2. Accordingly, a reduced number of patients was discussed in interdisciplinary tumor boards (lowest number in April (n = 24), compared to a median number of 57 patients during period 1). Median number of elective/non-elective admissions was not different between the periods. One patient contracted COVID-19 with lethal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in patient care included reduced personal contacts but increased telephone visits, and delays in diagnostic procedures. The effects on long-term outcome need to be determined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/drug therapy , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Delayed Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/drug therapy , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Staging , Pandemics , Patients/psychology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate , Telemedicine , Tertiary Care Centers
15.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(10): 1363-1368, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1370903

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 is a global public health emergency. The increasing spread of COVID-19 presents challenges for the clinical care of patients with gynecological tumors. The Multicenter Italian Trials in Ovarian cancer and gynecologic malignancies (MITO) performed a survey to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical treatment of gynecological cancer, with a focus on chemotherapy and oral treatment with poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase inhibitors (PARP-i). METHODS: The survey consisted of a self-administered online questionnaire, sent via email between November 2020 and January 2021 to all members of MITO group. RESULTS: Forty-nine centers completed the questionnaire. The majority of respondents (83%) use screening tests to determine COVID-19 status in patients who were to undergo chemotherapy or oral medications. All respondents to our survey continued cancer therapy in patients who tested negative for COVID-19 during the pandemic. Seventy-three percent of respondents declared they stopped treatment with chemotherapy or PARP-i only after a positive swab and resumed therapy when negative tests were confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 positivity impacted patterns of treatment in patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer within the MITO group. Further investigations are needed to evaluate whether these modifications influence oncological clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Genital Neoplasms, Female/drug therapy , Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Genital Neoplasms, Female/complications , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged
16.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256047, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352711

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Five months after COVID-19 first occurred and protective regulations were introduced, patients at three outpatient hematological/oncological centers in Bavaria who had received antiproliferative tumor therapy (n = 30) were questioned about the pandemic's impact. PATIENTS, MATERIALS AND METHODS: In recorded semi-structured telephone interviews, the patients answered questions about their quality of life, treatment procedures, their relationship with medical care staff and modern communication technologies. Each interview consisted of 28 questions. The average length of an interview was 30 minutes. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed by means of a qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic adds to the burden of patients by decreasing their social contacts. They perceived the new isolation and protective measures in outpatient clinics as mostly positive and said its impact had been only slightly adverse. With the implemented safety measures, they feel adequately protected and looked after and want their antiproliferative therapy to be performed as scheduled. Talking to medical staff provides additional reassurance. CONCLUSION: Although the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the social isolation of tumor patients, it has had only a minor effect on tumor therapy in the surveyed patient population. The benefits of modern communication options to tumor patients remains uncertain and should be investigated further in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/psychology , Adult , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone
17.
J Control Release ; 334: 318-326, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343265

ABSTRACT

This « Magnum Opus ¼ emphasizes that serendipity is a corner stone in research. The paths of discovery and innovation often result from the interdisciplinarity of scientific areas that are a priori disconnected from each other. In the 1970s, fundamental discoveries in cell biology led to unexpected advances in galenic pharmacy with the emergence of nanotechnologies for the intracellular delivery of non diffusing molecules. As well, fluorescein-loaded polyacrylamide nanocapsules were shown to deliver this fluorescent agent precisely into cellular lysosomes which represented a seminal observation. However, due to the lack of biodegradability of this carrier polymer, this approach was still far from therapeutic application. The use of cyanoacrylates as surgical glue inspired us to use this material in the design of the first biodegradable nanoparticles for human use. Capable of transporting compounds with anti-tumor activity, these polyalkylcyanoacrylate nanoparticles demonstrated the unexpected property of overcoming multi-drug resistance. This discovery led to the development of a nanomedicine that has completed phase III clinical trials for the treatment of resistant hepatocarcinoma. Going beyond the state-of-the art, a step ahead in the nanomedicine field was the drug « squalenoylation ¼ technology, which represents a shift from the « physical ¼ to the « chemical ¼ encapsulation paradigm. The bioconjugation of anticancer and other drugs to squalene, a natural and biocompatible lipid, enabled a dramatic increase in drug payload, and eliminated the so-called « burst release ¼ of drug: Two major drawbacks commonly associated with drug nanoencapsulation. The drug « squalenoylation ¼ approach resulted in a generic nanomedicine platform with broad pharmacological applications.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , Nanoparticles , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Cyanoacrylates , Drug Delivery Systems , Humans , Nanomedicine , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Polymers/therapeutic use
18.
Ann Hematol ; 100(10): 2541-2546, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323925

ABSTRACT

Infections are the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in multiple myeloma (MM) patients (pts). The aim of our retrospective analysis was to evaluate incidence and course of COVID-19 infection in a cohort of 351 MM outpatients treated with novel drugs. COVID-19 disease was detected in 50/351 pts (14%); median age was 68 years. Gender, ISS stage, and last treatment lines were as follows: male 32, female 18; ISS-I 19, ISS-II 20, ISS-III 11; daratumumab-based 15, lenalidomide-based 12, bortezomib-based 17, other 6. Positive PCR test at COVID-19 diagnosis was present in all pts; anti-myeloma treatment was interrupted. Hospitalizations for COVID-19 pneumonia were necessary for 28/50 pts (56%), 18/50 pts (36%) in standard unit (SU) 10/50 pts (20%) in intensive care unit (ICU), and 9/50 pts (18%) died. The statistically significant parameters for COVID-19 hospitalization were as follows: responsive versus non-responsive disease (p = 0.027), ECOG performance status 0-2 versus ≥ 3 (p = 0.014), presence of comorbidities (0-1 versus ≥ 2, p = 0.043). The statistically significant factors for COVID-19 death were as follows: ECOG 0-2 versus ≥ 3 (p = 0.001), presence of comorbidities (0-1 versus ≥ 2, p = 0.007), serious course of COVID-19 disease with ICU hospitalization (SU versus ICU, p = 0.001). None of the other studied risk factors was associated with poor outcome (age, gender, ISS stage, immunoparesis, type of anti-myeloma treatment). Full recovery from COVID-19 infection was observed in 41/50 pts (82%) in median of 32 days. The course of COVID-19 disease in MM pts was mostly moderate or serious with 56% of hospitalizations and 18% of deaths.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Bortezomib/therapeutic use , COVID-19/etiology , Lenalidomide/therapeutic use , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Multiple Myeloma/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome
19.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 54: 151800, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321982

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Challenging emerging entities with distinctive molecular signatures may benefit from algorithms for diagnostic work-up. METHODS: Fusion sarcomas (2020-2021, during pandemic) were diagnosed by clinicoradiology, morphology, phenotype, and next-generation sequencing (NGS). RESULTS: Six fusion sarcomas in two males and four females involved the chest-wall, neck, or extremities; ages ranged 2-73, median 18 years. Sizes ranged 5.3-25.0, median 9.1 cm. These include high grade 1) TPR-NTRK1 of proximal femur with a larger rounded soft tissue mass, previously considered osteosarcoma yet without convincing tumor matrix. A pathologic fracture necessitated emergency hemipelvectomy (NED) and 2) novel KANK1-NTRK2 sarcoma of bone and soft tissue with spindled pleomorphic to epithelioid features (AWD metastases). 3) Novel ERC1-ALK unaligned fusion, a low grade infiltrative deep soft tissue hand sarcoma with prominent-vascularity, myopericytoid/lipofibromatosis-like ovoid cells, and collagenized stroma, was successfully treated with ALK-inhibitor (Crizotinib), avoiding amputation. These NTRK and ALK tumors variably express S100 and CD34 and were negative for SOX10. 4) and 5) CIC-DUX4 round cell tumors (rapid metastases/demise), one with COVID superinfection, were previously treated as Ewing sarcoma. These demonstrated mild pleomorphism and necrosis, variable myxoid change and CD99 reactivity, and a distinctive dot-like-Golgi WT1 immunostaining pattern. 6) A chest wall/thoracic round cell sarcoma, focal CD34/ keratins/CK7, revealed nuclear-STAT6, STAT6-NAB2 by NGS, confirming malignant solitary fibrous tumor, intermediate-risk-stratification (AWD metastases). CONCLUSIONS: Recent fusion sarcomas include new KANK1-NTRK2 and ERC1-ALK, the latter successfully treated by targeted-therapy. ALK/NTRK fusion partners TPR and KANK1 suggest unusual high-grade morphology/behavior. Clinicoradiologic, morphologic, and phenotypic algorithms can prompt molecular-targeted immunostains or NGS for final classification and promising inhibitor therapy.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers, Tumor/genetics , Femoral Neoplasms/genetics , Gene Fusion , Head and Neck Neoplasms/genetics , Sarcoma/genetics , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/genetics , Thoracic Neoplasms/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Preschool , Extremities/pathology , Female , Femoral Neoplasms/diagnosis , Femoral Neoplasms/drug therapy , Femoral Neoplasms/pathology , Head and Neck Neoplasms/diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/drug therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms/pathology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Phenotype , Prognosis , Sarcoma/diagnosis , Sarcoma/drug therapy , Sarcoma/pathology , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/diagnosis , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/drug therapy , Soft Tissue Neoplasms/pathology , Thoracic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Thoracic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Thoracic Neoplasms/pathology , Thoracic Wall/pathology , Young Adult
20.
Biomolecules ; 11(7)2021 07 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323103

ABSTRACT

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an important enzyme involved in prostaglandins biosynthesis from arachidonic acid. COX-2 is frequently overexpressed in human cancers and plays a major tumor promoting function. Accordingly, many efforts have been devoted to efficiently target the catalytic site of this enzyme in cancer cells, by using COX-2 specific inhibitors such as celecoxib. However, despite their potent anti-tumor properties, the myriad of detrimental effects associated to the chronic inhibition of COX-2 in healthy tissues, has considerably limited their use in clinic. In addition, increasing evidence indicate that these anti-cancerous properties are not strictly dependent on the inhibition of the catalytic site. These findings have led to the development of non-active COX-2 inhibitors analogues aiming at preserving the antitumor effects of COX-2 inhibitors without their side effects. Among them, two celecoxib derivatives, 2,5-Dimethyl-Celecoxib and OSU-03012, have been developed and suggested for the treatment of viral (e.g., recently SARS-CoV-2), inflammatory, metabolic diseases and cancers. These molecules display stronger anti-tumor properties than celecoxib and thus may represent promising anti-cancer molecules. In this review, we discuss the impact of these two analogues on cancerous processes but also their potential for cancer treatment alone or in combination with existing approaches.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Celecoxib/adverse effects , Celecoxib/analogs & derivatives , Celecoxib/pharmacology , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/adverse effects , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/chemistry , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Humans , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , Pyrazoles/chemistry , Pyrazoles/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/adverse effects , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
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